Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Leviticus 27


1He that makes a singular vow must be the Lord's.
3The estimation of the person;
9of a beast given by vow;
14of a house;
16of a field, and the redemption thereof.
28No devoted thing may be redeemed.
30The tithe may not be changed.

Verse 2

Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When a man shall make a singular vow, the persons shall be for the LORD by thy estimation.
Genesis 28:20-22; Numbers 6:2; 21:2; Deuteronomy 23:21-23; Judges 11:30,31,39; 1 Samuel 1:11,28
a singular vow
A vow is a religious promise made to God, for the most part with prayer, and paid with thanksgiving. Vows were either of abstinence (Nu 6:30), or the devoting of something to the Lord, as sacrifices (Le 7:16,) or the value of persons, beasts, houses, or lands, concerning which the law is here given. A man might vow or devote himself, his children, his domestics, his cattle, his goods, etc.; and respecting the redemption of all these, rules are laid down in this chapter. But if, after consecrating these things, he refused to redeem them, they then became the Lord's property forever. The persons continued all their lives devoted to the sanctuary, the goods were sold for the profit of the temple, or the priests; and the animals, if clean, were offered in sacrifice; and if not proper for sacrifice, were sold, and the proceeds devoted to sacred uses. This is a general view of the different laws relative to vows, mentioned in this chapter.
Ecclesiastes 5:4,5
Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:4 - to do evil;  Numbers 15:3 - performing;  Numbers 18:16 - according;  Numbers 30:2 - vow a vow;  2 Kings 12:4 - that every man is set at;  Nehemiah 7:46 - Nethinims;  Psalm 50:14 - pay;  Malachi 3:8 - In;  Matthew 27:9 - thirty

Verse 3

And thy estimation shall be of the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy estimation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary.
And thy estimation
14; 5:15; 6:6; Numbers 18:16; 2 Kings 12:4; *marg:
fifty shekels
i.e, At three shillings each, 7£. 10s. sterling.
after the
25; Exodus 30:13
Reciprocal: Exodus 38:24 - the shekel;  Numbers 7:13 - the shekel;  Judges 11:31 - shall surely

Verse 4

And if it be a female, then thy estimation shall be thirty shekels.
thirty shekels
i.e., 4£. 10s. sterling, A little more than one-half the value of a man; for this obvious reason, that a woman, if employed, would not be of so much use in the sanctuary as the man.
Zechariah 11:12,13; Matthew 26:15; 27:9,10
Reciprocal: Judges 11:39 - did with

Verse 5

And if it be from five years old even unto twenty years old, then thy estimation shall be of the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels.
twenty shekels
i.e., 3£. sterling. ten shekels. i.e., 1£. 10s. sterling

Verse 6

And if it be from a month old even unto five years old, then thy estimation shall be of the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy estimation shall be three shekels of silver.
Numbers 3:40-43; 18:14-16
the male
The male five shekels, 15s., the female three shekels, 9s. Being both in infancy they were nearly of an equal value.
Reciprocal: Numbers 3:47 - five shekels

Verse 7

And if it be from sixty years old and above; if it be a male, then thy estimation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels.
Psalms 90:10
The old man and the old woman, being almost past labour, were nearly of an equal value; the former being estimated at 15 shekels, and the latter at 10.

Verse 8

But if he be poorer than thy estimation, then he shall present himself before the priest, and the priest shall value him; according to his ability that vowed shall the priest value him.
5:7; 12:8; 14:21,22; Mark 14:7; Luke 21:1-4; 2 Corinthians 8:12
Jeremiah 5:7
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 16:17 - as he is able;  2 Kings 7:5 - behold

Verse 9

all: is holy, i.e. separated and devoted; it cannot be redeemed like a human being, a house, or a field (Young), Leviticus href="/desk/?q=le+27:9&sr=1">Leviticus 27:9

Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:15 - in the;  Proverbs 20:25 - after;  Ecclesiastes 5:6 - it was;  Ezekiel 48:14 - for;  Matthew 15:5 - It is

Verse 10

He shall not alter it, nor change it, a good for a bad, or a bad for a good: and if he shall at all change beast for beast, then it and the exchange thereof shall be holy.
15-33; James 1:8
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:13 - GeneralLeviticus 27:33 - GeneralProverbs 20:25 - after;  Ecclesiastes 5:6 - it was;  Ezekiel 48:14 - they shall

Verse 11

And if it be any unclean beast, of which they do not offer a sacrifice unto the LORD, then he shall present the beast before the priest:
Deuteronomy 23:18; Malachi 1:14
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:27 - and shall add;  Judges 11:31 - and I will

Verse 12

And the priest shall value it, whether it be good or bad: as thou valuest it, who art the priest, so shall it be.
as thou valuest it, who art the priest
Heb. according to thy estimation, O priest, etc.
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:23 - GeneralJudges 11:31 - and I will;  2 Kings 12:4 - dedicated things

Verse 13

But if he will at all redeem it, then he shall add a fifth part thereof unto thy estimation.
10,15,19; 5:16; 6:4,5; 22:14
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:31 - General

Verse 14

And when a man shall sanctify his house to be holy unto the LORD, then the priest shall estimate it, whether it be good or bad: as the priest shall estimate it, so shall it stand.
21; 25:29-31; Numbers 18:14; Psalms 101:2-7
as the priest
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:3 - And thy estimation;  Numbers 8:17 - I sanctified

Verse 15

And if he that sanctified it will redeem his house, then he shall add the fifth part of the money of thy estimation unto it, and it shall be his.
then he shall add
Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:16 - the fifth;  Leviticus 22:14 - GeneralLeviticus 27:10 - GeneralNumbers 8:17 - I sanctified

Verse 16

And if a man shall sanctify unto the LORD some part of a field of his possession, then thy estimation shall be according to the seed thereof: an homer of barley seed shall be valued at fifty shekels of silver.
some part
Though the words "some part" are not expressed, yet it is generally allowed that they should be supplied here; as it was not lawful for a man to alienate in this manner his whole patrimony: he might express his good will for the house of God but he must not impoverish his own family.
of a field
Acts 4:34-37; 5:4
an homer
or, the land of an homer, etc., i.e, as much land as required a homer of barley to sow it. The homer was very different from the omer; the latter held about three quarts, the former seventy-five gallons three pints.
Isaiah 5:10; Ezekiel 45:11-14; Hosea 3:2

Verse 18

But if he sanctify his field after the jubile, then the priest shall reckon unto him the money according to the years that remain, even unto the year of the jubile, and it shall be abated from thy estimation.
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:23 - General

Verse 19

Leviticus href="/desk/?q=le+27:13&sr=1">Leviticus 27:13

Verse 21

But the field, when it goeth out in the jubile, shall be holy unto the LORD, as a field devoted; the possession thereof shall be the priest's.
It is cherem, a thing so devoted to God, as never more to be capable of being redeemed.
28,29; Deuteronomy 13:17; Joshua 6:17; Ezra 10:8; Ezekiel 44:29; *marg:
Numbers 18:14; Ezekiel 44:29
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:14 - sanctify;  Ezekiel 48:12 - a thing

Verse 22

And if a man sanctify unto the LORD a field which he hath bought, which is not of the fields of his possession;
his possession

Verse 23

Then the priest shall reckon unto him the worth of thy estimation, even unto the year of the jubile: and he shall give thine estimation in that day, as a holy thing unto the LORD.

Verse 24

In the year of the jubile the field shall return unto him of whom it was bought, even to him to whom the possession of the land did belong.
20; 25:28
Reciprocal: Leviticus 25:9 - jubilee

Verse 25

And all thy estimations shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary: twenty gerahs shall be the shekel.
And all
to the shekel
A standard shekel; the standard being kept in the sanctuary, to try and regulate all the weights in the land by.
Exodus 30:13; Numbers 3:47; 18:16; Ezekiel 45:12
Reciprocal: Exodus 38:24 - the shekel;  Leviticus 5:15 - the shekel;  Numbers 7:13 - the shekel

Verse 26

Only the firstling of the beasts, which should be the LORD'S firstling, no man shall sanctify it; whether it be ox, or sheep: it is the LORD'S.
the firstling
Heb. first born, etc. As these firstlings were the Lord's before, it would have been a solemn mockery to pretend to make them a matter of a singular vow; for they were already appointed, if clean, to be sacrificed.
Exodus 13:2,12,13; 22:30; Numbers 18:17; Deuteronomy 15:19
Reciprocal: Numbers 3:13 - Because;  Numbers 8:17 - I sanctified;  Numbers 18:15 - openeth;  2 Kings 7:5 - behold;  1 Chronicles 6:28 - firstborn;  Nehemiah 10:36 - the firstborn

Verse 27

And if it be of an unclean beast, then he shall redeem it according to thine estimation, and shall add a fifth part of it thereto: or if it be not redeemed, then it shall be sold according to thy estimation.
and shall add
This was probably intended to prevent rash vows and covetous redemptions. The priest alone was to value the thing; and to whatever his valuation was, a fifth part must be added by him who wished to redeem it.
Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:16 - the fifth;  Numbers 18:15 - the firstborn;  Nehemiah 10:36 - the firstborn

Verse 28

Notwithstanding no devoted thing, that a man shall devote unto the LORD of all that he hath, both of man and beast, and of the field of his possession, shall be sold or redeemed: every devoted thing is most holy unto the LORD.
no devoted
This is the cherem, the absolute, irredeemable grant to God.
21; Exodus 22:20; Numbers 21:2,3; Deuteronomy 7:1,2; 13:15,16; 20:16,17; 25:19; Joshua 6:17-19,26; 7:1,11-13,25; Judges 11:30,31; 21:5,11,18; 1 Samuel 14:24-28,38-45; 15:3,18,32,33; Matthew 25:41; Acts 23:12-14; Romans 9:3; 1 Corinthians 16:22; Galatians 3:10,13
Reciprocal: Numbers 16:26 - I pray you;  Numbers 16:37 - hallowed;  Numbers 18:14 - GeneralDeuteronomy 2:34 - utterly destroyed;  Deuteronomy 3:6 - we utterly;  Deuteronomy 7:26 - shalt;  Deuteronomy 13:17 - cursed;  Joshua 9:23 - GeneralJudges 11:35 - have opened;  Judges 11:39 - did with;  2 Chronicles 31:14 - the most;  Ezra 10:8 - forfeited;  Ezekiel 44:29 - dedicated;  Ezekiel 48:14 - they shall

Verse 29

None devoted, which shall be devoted of men, shall be redeemed; but shall surely be put to death.
Numbers 21:2,3; 1 Samuel 15:18-23
which shall be devoted
That is, either that every person devoted to the service of God shall not be redeemed, but die in that devoted state, or, that such as were devoted to death by appointment and law of God, as the Canaanites were, shall be put to death.
Reciprocal: Leviticus 27:21 - devoted;  Numbers 16:26 - I pray you;  Deuteronomy 2:34 - utterly destroyed;  Deuteronomy 3:6 - we utterly;  Deuteronomy 7:2 - utterly;  Deuteronomy 7:26 - shalt;  Deuteronomy 13:17 - cursed;  Joshua 6:17 - accursed;  Joshua 9:23 - GeneralJudges 11:31 - shall surely;  Judges 11:35 - have opened;  Judges 11:39 - did with;  Judges 21:5 - a great oath;  1 Samuel 14:24 - Cursed;  1 Samuel 15:3 - utterly destroy;  Acts 23:12 - under a curse

Verse 30

And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD'S: it is holy unto the LORD.
Genesis 14:20; 28:22; Numbers 18:21-24; Deuteronomy 12:5,6; 14:22,23; 2 Chronicles 31:5,6,12; Nehemiah 10:37,38; 12:44; 13:5,12; Malachi 3:8-10; Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42; 18:12; Hebrews 7:5-9
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 12:17 - the tithe;  Deuteronomy 26:12 - the tithes;  2 Chronicles 11:14 - their possession;  2 Chronicles 31:4 - the portion;  Proverbs 20:25 - a snare

Verse 31

Leviticus href="/desk/?q=le+27:13&sr=1">Leviticus 27:13

Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:16 - the fifth;  2 Kings 12:4 - dedicated things;  Proverbs 20:25 - after

Verse 32

And concerning the tithe of the herd, or of the flock, even of whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD.
passeth under the rod
The Rabbins say, that when a man gave the tithe of his sheep or calves, he shut them in one fold, in which was a narrow door, to let out but one at a time. He then stood by the door, with a rod dipped in vermilion in his hand, and as they passed he counted them with the rod; and when the tenth came he touched it, by which it was distinguished as the tithe calf, sheep, etc.
Jeremiah 33:13; Ezekiel 20:37; Micah 7:14
Reciprocal: Genesis 47:24 - the fifth part;  Exodus 4:2 - a rod;  Deuteronomy 12:6 - tithes;  Ezekiel 48:14 - for;  Zechariah 11:7 - staves;  Hebrews 7:2 - a tenth

Verse 33

Leviticus href="/desk/?q=le+27:10&sr=1">Leviticus 27:10

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 12:6 - tithes;  Ezekiel 48:14 - they shall

Verse 34

These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai.
26:46; Deuteronomy 4:45; John 1:17
in mount
Numbers 1:1; Galatians 4:24,25; Hebrews 12:18-25 Reciprocal: Exodus 3:12 - ye shall;  Numbers 3:1 - spake;  Numbers 36:13 - the commandments;  Deuteronomy 4:44 - GeneralDeuteronomy 6:1 - the commandments;  Nehemiah 1:7 - the commandments;  Nehemiah 9:14 - commandedst

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Leviticus 27". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".