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1 But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:
Ver. 1. But speak thou, &c. ] Quasi dicat, the worse others are, the better thou must be; keeping a constant counter motion to the corrupt courses that are in the world through lust. A pearl in a puddle retains its preciousness; and fish in the salt waters retain their freshness.
2 That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.
Ver. 2. That the old men be sober, &c. ] Not as it is said of the Flemings, that quo magis senescunt eo magis stultescunt, the elder the more foolish. (Erasm. in Moriae Encom.) Solomon and Asa were so. And the heathen sages wisely warn us, that old age is to be feared, as that which comes not alone, but brings with it many diseases both of body and mind. Saepe fit ut Satan, quem iuvenero capere non potuit, annosum fallat et capiat, said Bucholcerus. Many that have held out well in youth, have failed and been shamefully foiled in old age.
3 The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;
Ver. 3. In behaviour ] εν καταστηματι , or, in habit, apparel, gait, gesture.
Teachers of good things ] As was Bathsheba,Proverbs 31:1-2; Proverbs 31:1-2 ; Lois,2 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 1:5 ; Monica, &c.
4 That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children,
Ver. 4. To be sober ] Or wise, teaching them as schoolmasters do their disciples; so the word σωφρονιζωσι signifies. He was a foolish man that said, Μισω σοφην γυναικα , I love not to have a woman wise. (Eurip.) "A prudent wife is of the Lord." Such a one was Abigail, and Aspasia, Milesia, the wife of Cyrus, who was said to be Καλη και σοφη , fair and wise also. (Aelian. xii. 1.) To love their husbands, though old and less lovely, as that famous Valadaura in Ludovicus Vives.
To love their children ] And to seal up their love, not by hugging them to death, as apes do their young; but by educating them in the fear and admonition of the Lord, as Bathsheba, Proverbs 31:1 . Plutarch speaks of a Spartan woman, that when her neighbours were showing their apparel and jewels, she brought out her children, virtuous and well taught, and said, These are my ornaments and jewels. Mothers must learn to love their children’s souls,1 Peter 3:4; 1 Peter 3:4 .
5 To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.
Ver. 5. To be discreet, chaste, &c. ] Coniugium humanae divina Academia vitae. Much good may be learned by wedlock.
Keepers at home ] Carrying her house on her back, as the snail doth. Sarah was found in the tent, so was Jael the wife of Heber. The Egyptian women ware no shoes, that they might the better keep home.
6 Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.
Ver. 6. Young men likewise exhort ] See Trapp on " 2Ti 2:22 "
7 In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,
Ver. 7. A pattern of good ] Gr. τυπος , a stamp. Digging thy sermons out of thine own breast, and living them, when thou hast done.
8 Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.
Ver. 8. May be ashamed, having, &c. ] Oh, it is a brave thing to stop an open mouth, to throttle envy, to cut off all occasion of evil speaking.
9 Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things ; not answering again;
Ver. 9. Not answering again ] Not chatting or thwarting. Servus sit monosyllabus Domino, saith one. Apelles painted a servant with his hands full of tools, to signify his diligence; with broad shoulders to bear wrongs; with hind’s feet to run swiftly about his business; with the ears of an ass, and his mouth shut with two locks, to signify that he should be swift to hear and slow to speak.
10 Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
Ver. 10. Not purloining ] Interverting, embezzling their master’s estates, ordinary among the Romans, which made them call servants and thieves by one name, a ordinary among the Hebrews; whence that saying of Rabbi Gamaliel, Marbe gnabadim, marbe gezel, He that multiplieth servants, multiplieth thieves. Pirke-aboth, Tit 1:1-16 Ordinary also among us, whence that proverb, "He that will be rich must ask his servant’s leave."
a Audent cum talia fures. Virgil.
11 For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
Ver. 11. For the grace of God, &c. ] This is rendered as a reason why servants should be faithful, because to them also belongeth the promise of salvation, yea, the reward of inheritance, as if they were sons, and to them the gospel is preached as well as to others.
Hath appeared ] επεφανη . As the sun in heaven, or as a beacon on a hill.
12 Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
Ver. 12. Denying ungodliness ] Every gospel truth strikes at some sin, and thereby may be discerned.
Soberly, righteously, and godly ] This is the Christian man’s motto, his symbol, and the sum of his whole duty.
" Haec tria perpetuo meditare adverbia Pauli:
Haec tria sint vitae regula sancta tuae. "
The Egyptians when they praised their deceased friends, were wont to commend them for these three things, their godliness, righteousness, and temperance. (Diod. Sicul.)
13 Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Ver. 13. Looking for ] As with necks stretched out, or head put forth, αποκαραδοκια , Romans 8:19 ; as Sisera’s mother looked out of her lattice for her son’s happy return, Judges 5:28 .
14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
Ver. 14. That he might redeem us ] God will have the price of Christ’s blood out; he will thoroughly purge us.
A peculiar people ] Gr. A people that comprehend all that God sets any store by, that contain all his gettings; called elsewhere the people of acquisition, περιουσιος , 1 Peter 2:9 . The word here used Jerome saith he sought for among human authors, and could not find it. Therefore some think the Septuagint feigned this, and επιουσιον , used also in the Lord’s prayer. Theophylact saith it signifieth such a people as are conversant about their master’s business, procuring of wealth and riches for him.
Zealous of good works ] Give God thine affections, else thine actions are stillborn, and have no life in them. Now zeal is the extreme heat of all the affections, when they are seething or hissing hot, as the apostle’s word is, Romans 12:12 , when we love God and his people out of a pure heart fervently, ζεοντες . Non amat qui non zelat, saith Austin, he loveth not at all in God’s account, whose love is not ardent, desires eager, delights ravishing, hopes longing, hatred deadly, anger fierce, grief deep, fear terrible, voice, eyes, hands, gestures, actions, all lively, as in holy Bucholcer, Luther, Laurentius, Athanasius, Ignatius, Paul, Baruch: Nehemiah 3:20 , he earnestly fortified, seipsum accendit; he burst out into a holy heat, he wrought with a kind of anger against himself and others, because the work went on no faster. He was not of his temper that said, Deum colo, uti par est, I go as far for God as in discretion it is fit. Religiosum oportet esse, sed non religantem; such and such are more precise than wise. The reserved professor never shows himself but at halt-light; he follows Christ but afar off, as Peter, or as the people followed Saul (they tremble after him, 1Sa 13:7 ); he is afraid of every new step, saying as Caesar at Rubicon, Yet we may go back. Carnal discretion controls his fervency, cools his courage, keeps him that he cannot be zealous of good works, which he doth at the best in a loose, lazy, perfunctory strain, like the pace the Spaniard rides, like Adonikam, that was the last that set foot forward toward the return of the captives, and therefore had his lot below his brethren, Ezra 8:13 . Where is now our ancient zeal, heating and whetting (saith a reverend zealot)? Oh, how cold and careless, how dissolute, and dilute are we! May it not be said of most of our hearts and houses, as Isaiah 47:14 , there is not a coal to warm at? May not the old complaint be well renewed, "There is none that calleth upon thy name, that stirreth up himself to take hold of thee?" Isaiah 64:7 . Let God’s love in the work of our redemption be duly pondered (as here), and it will fire us up to a holy contention in godliness.
These things speak and exhort ] Lest men should think we should only preach of Christ and grace, preach thou obedience and zeal, saith the apostle.
15 These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.
Ver. 15. Let no man despise thee ] περιφρονειτα Nemo te plus sapere ausit. Or have occasion to think himself wiser than thee. He saith not, a1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 4:12 ; "Let no man despise thy youth," for Titus was (likely) elder than Timothy. Mr Calvin thinketh that these words are spoken to the people; they are, for the most part, of delicate ears, and cannot abide plain words of mortification.
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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Titus 2". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 11 / Ordinary 16