Lectionary Calendar
Friday, April 19th, 2024
the Third Week after Easter
StudyLight.org has pledged to help build churches in Uganda. Help us with that pledge and support pastors in the heart of Africa.
Click here to join the effort!

Bible Commentaries
Job 28

Kingcomments on the Whole BibleKingcomments

Verses 1-6


This chapter is a new section in the monologue of Job. The theme of this chapter is that wisdom is not accessible to anyone but those who fear God. The theme of wisdom connects well with the previous chapter, which describes the rich person and his earthly riches and their end. Here now comes the true richness that does not perish, namely the wisdom that is with God. It is a song of praise to wisdom (Job 28:12; Job 28:20).

This chapter can be summarized as follows: man can sift through the earth (Job 28:1-1 Kings :), but the most precious thing, wisdom, he cannot find (Job 28:12-Psalms :). God alone knows it (Job 28:20-Hosea :).

The Treasures of the Earth

Job is familiar with mining (Job 28:1). Timna’s copper mines are not far from Job’s place of residence. He describes the difficult and dangerous process of mining minerals. It would be wisdom for man to use the same energy with which he is committed to earthly wealth to find the true wealth, the wisdom (Proverbs 2:1-Deuteronomy :; 1 Corinthians 2:6-1 Chronicles :).

God has placed the precious metals in the earth. They are not on the surface, so to speak, but must be dug up with hard work. When silver and gold have been found, they must be purified, so that pure silver and pure gold remain. The same goes for “the iron” and “the copper”, which are extracted in different ways (Job 28:2).

In order to obtain these coveted metals, man must enter the subterranean darkness (Job 28:3). He puts an end to the darkness by the light of his lamp. By the light of the lamp he seeks the limits of the rock that is “in gloom and deep shadow”.

The work is laborious and heavy, but no effort is too great for him. A shaft must be dug (Job 28:4). As its depth progresses, he is let down with ropes. There he dangles, with no hold for his foot, and floats down, further and further away from “habitation”, that is, from the inhabited world.

In Job 28:5 it says what is normal for the earth and that is to produce bread (Psalms 104:14). But man is not satisfied with that. In his longing for treasures, he also turns the inside of the earth upside down so that it looks as if a fire has raged. He is concerned with the precious sapphires (Exodus 28:18; Exodus 39:11) and gold dust (Job 28:6).

Verses 7-11

The Hidden Treasures

“The bird of prey” has a sharp eye, but he can’t see the path that man has taken to the earth’s treasures (Job 28:7). The “falcon” or “harrier” is also a bird of prey and also has a sharp eye. It distinguishes itself from other birds of prey because it does not build its nest in the trees, but on the ground. It also flies low over the ground to catch its prey. “Proud beasts” and “[fierce] lion” walk the earth with great strength and courage, but can’t make a hole in the ground to dig treasures (Job 28:8).

Man, the miner, comes to places the bird of prey can’t see and the lion can’t reach. He works the hardest rocks to see if there is something valuable in them (Job 28:9). He doesn’t shy away from high mountains either, but digs them down to the depths where the roots [the literal translation of base], the deeper parts of the mountains, are. He makes his way through the rocks by carving out corridors in them to see if there is something valuable in them (Job 28:10). This he sees at once, for that is what he searches for and that is what he works for. He also dams the groundwater to reveal what is hidden in the darkness of the water (Job 28:11).

Verses 12-14

Not Disclosed by Nature

Job has described all the efforts man is willing to make, and all he dares to deepen precious metals from the earth. In the following verses he compares this intensive work with man’s attempts to gain wisdom. Man knows where precious metals can be found, but “wisdom”, where is it to be found (Job 28:12)? Wisdom is an incomparably greater treasure than the most valuable precious metal hidden in the earth, the value of which is also transient. And where is “wisdom” to be sought, in what place?

The observation is that people do not search for it with the same zeal and dedication as they search for mineral treasures. They do not know its value, nor the way to it (Job 28:13-2 Chronicles :). The sources or finding places of wisdom therefore do not lie in nature nor “in the land of the living”, i.e. in man. It is necessary to look higher than the earth and man in order to find true wisdom. Wisdom cannot be found in or on earth, but is hidden in God.

Wisdom is nowhere to be found in nature by natural man or any creature. In a beautiful personification, the deep and the sea say that they do not harbor wisdom. The deepest divers in the depths of the oceans and those who go to the farthest places across the sea discover nothing of God’s wisdom. To discover wisdom, they must first accept that God is there. Only then can they see that He has made all His works with wisdom (Psalms 104:24).

Human effort and reason are completely inadequate to come to the knowledge of the wisdom of God (1 Corinthians 1:21). The wisdom of God is found for us in Christ, for He is the “wisdom of God” (1 Corinthians 1:30; Colossians 2:3). And in Christ we can ask God for the wisdom we lack (James 1:5).

Verses 15-19

Its Priceless and Incomparable Value

In this part many different mineral treasures are listed for which a man ventures his life to possess. But the wisdom is not available against payment of any earthly riches. Nor can it be compared to it.

Wisdom cannot be obtained in exchange for “pure gold” (Job 28:15). One can offer as much pure gold as a means of exchange for wisdom, but the means of exchange falls short. It is also impossible to put a quantity of silver in a scale that is equal to the weight of wisdom. Wisdom cannot be weighed.

Nor is there a means of payment that exceeds the value of wisdom, even if that means of payment were “the gold of Ophir”, which is the most precious gold, or the “precious onyx, or sapphire” (Job 28:16). Wisdom is infinitely more valuable. The value of wisdom is simply not to be measured by what is of the greatest value by earthly standards, such as gold or glass (Job 28:17). Glass was just as precious as precious stones in antiquity. Also “articles of fine gold” cannot possibly serve as a means of exchange for wisdom. The value of wisdom is far above that.

“Coral and crystal” do not come to mind when it comes to obtaining wisdom (Job 28:18). They are worthless when it comes to obtaining wisdom. Also the value of pearls is completely insufficient to acquire wisdom (Proverbs 3:13-Ezra :). The value of “the topaz of Ethiopia” falls far short of the value of wisdom (Job 28:19). Whoever wants to buy wisdom does not have to come with “pure gold”.

Wisdom is simply not to be paid with or exchanged for all the mineral treasures of the whole world together. It does not belong to the visible and tangible existence of man on earth, but to the invisible world of God. Wisdom is not for sale with earthly means of payment. It is only for sale to those who have no money, i.e. those who ask God to give it to them (cf. Isaiah 55:1-Exodus :; James 1:5).

Verses 20-22

Wisdom Is Neither Visible nor Audible

Job again asks the question of the origin and finding place of wisdom and understanding (Job 28:20; Job 28:12). It takes a revelation from God to know where wisdom comes from, namely from God Himself. To know where the place of insight is, the same applies. “The eyes of all living”, that is, men, do not discover wisdom. It is covered, hidden from them (Job 28:21). By “the birds in the sky” can be meant in connection with the first part of this verse and the first part of the following verse: (evil) spiritual powers. Divine wisdom is also hidden from the most cunning spirits, whose intelligence is many times greater than that of man.

“Abaddon and Death” are the places where the spirits of unbelievers find themselves after their death (Job 28:22). Anyone who comes into contact with them through a death in his family or surroundings realizes that he lacks the wisdom to comprehend what these places mean, what lies behind death. In this sense a rumor penetrates man’s ears. God with His wisdom sees through what is dark to man (Proverbs 15:11). He can lift its veil and give insight into the situation after death (Luke 16:19-Isaiah :).

In summary, we see three areas where wisdom is not (cf. Philippians 2:10). Wisdom is
1. not on earth with all the living, with men;
2. not above the earth with the birds in the sky or the world of the spirits;
3. not beneath the earth in the realm of death with Abaddon and Death.

Verses 23-27

Wisdom Belongs to God

From nature Job now turns to the Origin of wisdom (Job 28:23). Here is the answer and that is that the Creator of the world knows the wisdom. He only understands the way of wisdom because it is His wisdom. He also knows the place of wisdom because wisdom dwells with Him. In one glance He overlooks everything on earth, He sees to the farthest corners of it (Job 28:24). He sees everything “under the heavens”, that is the whole universe.

He sees what He has created, and He governs it all. Everything is in His hand. Thus He determines “the power of the wind” (Job 28:25). The waters that go over the earth under the impulsion of the wind are measured by Him (cf. Isaiah 40:12). The waters of the rain that He pours out over the earth are accompanied by thunder and lightning, with thunderbolt (Job 28:26). God governs the extent and duration of a storm that is accompanied by rain and thunder. Man is powerless in the face of this. The fact that man is incapable of managing and directing God’s works of creation does not mean that God has lost control of them. He is still in control.

God has dealt with wisdom like a skilled craftsman (Job 28:27). He “saw it”, “declared it”, “established it”, and “searched it out”. Seeing wisdom means that He knows where wisdom is. It is noticing its presence. He gauges or fathoms wisdom, which means that He knows all its facets and aspects. Then He establishes the wisdom for the work He is going to do or the action He is going to perform. Finally, He searches out wisdom in order to know how He is going to apply it. In short, God knows wisdom through and through.

Creation is the work of His wisdom (Proverbs 3:19). Because of that wisdom, creation is a faultless work, without flaws, a work of which it could be said that it was very good (Genesis 1:31). God knows His creation inside and out in all its complexity. It is also a perfect whole. It is thousands of years old, and everything still functions as He ordained it. Look at the wind and the rain. They are still there. They never had to be adjusted. They never need to be replaced by something better, as is the case with everything man thinks up and makes.

Verse 28

The Revelation

Here we see how man, once he knows where the wisdom is, can get this wisdom. This is by fearing the Lord (Adonai). This is what Job has done, just as he has turned away from evil (Job 1:1). These two always go together. Those who fear God can only hate evil and turn away from it. Wisdom is not simply truth, but truth applied to conscience. That is to say, truth that puts man in his true place and enables him to receive what God has to say. The consequence is to turn our backs on evil.

The “fear of the Lord” makes man bow before Him, before Whom the seraphs cover their faces. This fear is not anguish, but awe and reverence, worship. If this fear is there, God can be seen everywhere: in the depths, on earth and in the air, everywhere in the universe (Psalms 111:10; Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 9:10; Ecclesiastes 12:13). Materialistic man does not see the fear of God as valuable. He only seeks materialistic advantage for this life.

God is the “only wise God” (Romans 16:27). Job knows that he does not possess wisdom and that his friends do not possess it and that it can only be found with God. He will only experience the scope of these words himself at the end of the book.

Bibliographical Information
de Koning, Ger. Commentaar op Job 28". "Kingcomments on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/kng/job-28.html. 'Stichting Titus' / 'Stichting Uitgeverij Daniël', Zwolle, Nederland. 2021.
adsFree icon
Ads FreeProfile