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The Trial before Pilate.
Jesus delivered to the Gentiles:
v. 1. And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried Him away, and delivered Him to Pilate.
The account of the events of that memorable Friday morning, as given by Mark, is very brief, since he omits many incidents that do not bear directly upon the Passion story. His account is characterized by the usual vividness and action. Though it must have been some time after midnight before the members of the Sanhedrin left the house of the high priest, there was little rest for them. For without delay, very early in the morning, as soon as the light of the new morning permitted it, they had another meeting. Some commentators state that it was necessary to have a second meeting to ratify a sentence of death, and that this meeting had to be held in the Hall of Polished Stones in the Temple. The importance of the session is indicated by the fact that not only the various groups of the Sanhedrin are mentioned, the high priests, the elders, the scribes, but that their total number is expressly stated to have comprised the chief council. There certainly was need of their coming together for earnest, anxious consultation; for though they had passed the sentence of death, they no longer had the right to carry this into execution. Only the Roman procurator had the power over life and death, and before him they could not urge the fact that Jesus claimed to be the Son of God. That was no political offense, no transgression of the laws of the empire. But they finally agreed upon a course of action, and then, having bound Jesus, they led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate, the Roman governor, or procurator, who usually came up to the feast to prevent any disturbances that might arise at such a great concourse of people.
The hearing before Pilate:
v. 2. And Pilate asked Him, Art Thou the King of the Jews? And He, answering, said unto him, Thou sayest it.
v. 3. And the chief priests accused Him of many things; but He answered nothing.
v. 4. And Pilate asked Him again, saying, Answerest Thou nothing? Behold how many things they witness against Thee.
v. 5. But Jesus yet answered nothing, so that Pilate marveled.
The question of Pilate indicated in what form the accusation of the Jewish authorities against Christ had come before him. Since the enemies had no tangible evidence against the Lord, they construed His confession concerning His Messiahship in such a way as to give it political significance: The Christ, regarding whom every Jew believed that He would establish a temporal kingdom. They insinuated that this Man was a rebel against the Roman government. That was the meaning of Pilate's question. He may have thought that he here had a case of a periodic Messianic disturbance, although he had the conviction from the start that there was a great deal of jealousy on the part of the Jews involved in the affair. The answer of Jesus to this direct question was just as brief. But the explanation which He afterwards added, as given by John 18:36-37, showed Pilate that the accusation had nothing to do with political affairs and dangers to the government. And the chief priests felt the weakness of their position, since they did not insist upon this one point, but kept bringing other accusations, of a more or less vague character, many of them, their idea being to swamp Pilate with the mass of material and thus to cause his assent to their wishes without making a careful examination of the evidence. Pilate felt the vagueness and uncertainty of the accusers, and in the same strain asked Jesus whether He had no answer to all these charges, since they were made with such vehemence and bitterness. But Jesus observed a majestic silence. Why waste breath when it was perfectly obvious to every sane person that these were nothing but trumped-up charges, without the shadow of a foundation which would stand before any real court of justice in the world. Not so much as a single word did He answer, for He knew also very well that Pilate felt the weakness of the accusers and believed Him to be innocent.
Pilate's attempt to release Jesus:
v. 6. Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
v. 7. And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
v. 8. And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them.
v. 9. But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
v. 10. For he knew that the chief priests had delivered Him for envy.
v. 11. But the chief priests moved the people that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
v. 12. And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye, then, that I shall do unto Him whom ye call the King of the Jews?
v. 13. And they cried out again, Crucify Him!
v. 14. Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath He done? And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify Him!
What a picture the evangelist paints here! The surging mob before the Praetorium, rabble, for the most part, but reinforced by the friends of the Jewish councilors; the weak, vacillating procurator, helpless before the bloodthirstiness of the multitude, now appearing on the platform before them, then disappearing for a while, racking his brains for some way out of the difficulty; the high priests and the members of the Sanhedrin, circulating around through the mob, holding the excitement at its highest pitch, since their understanding and consequent use of mob psychology enabled them to dominate the situation. Pilate had introduced the custom of giving some prisoner his liberty on this feast, the one whose release the people desired being usually set free. This custom had now practically become an obligation. The people expected this boon at Easter; and both he and they thought of this fact. Pilate believed that he could still save the situation by giving the people the choice between Jesus and Barabbas. For the latter was an exceptionally fierce criminal. As the leader or one of the foremost in a band of rebels, in one of the many insurrections that were troubling the government, he had committed a murder. He had been caught with his accomplices and was now awaiting his punishment, bound in jail. The governor felt that no people could be so depraved as to ask for such an outcast of society. But hardly had he made up his mind just how to manage the affair, when the people, surging forward, began to demand that he do according to custom, that he grant them that which he had always given them. Their request was accompanied by loud bellowing of the rabble, who instinctively felt that they had the situation in their hands.
The weak proposal of Pilate confirmed them in their belief: Is it your wish and desire, shall I release to you the King of the Jews? His choice of names for Christ at that moment was probably most unfortunate, for its very use was a challenge and an insult to the members of the Sanhedrin. Ordinarily this scheme of playing off the people with their champion, whom they had hailed with such shouts of joy a few days before, against the priests, whose rule was not always relished by the common members of the Jewish Church, might have been successful. For Pilate rightly surmised, and was being confirmed in his belief with every new move of the accusers, that jealousy, envy, was the real reason for delivering Jesus to the jurisdiction of his court. But the priests had been too successful in stirring up, in exciting, in instigating the people. There was no longer even the faintest resemblance to an orderly trial with cool and sensible leads on both sides. The people, under the careful prompting of the high priests, were fully convinced in their own minds that they actually, for their own persons, preferred to have Barabbas released to them. Another appeal of Pilate: What, then, is your wish that I should do with Him you call King of the Jews? The repetition of the hated title was again a foolish move on Pilate's part. Lashed to a perfect spasm of fury, the people, led by the high priests, yelled: Crucify Him! Pilate's weak remonstrance as to any guilt on His part was like the chirping of a cricket in the midst of a tornado. For with mounting rage the bellowing cry rolled out through the narrow streets over the city: Crucify Him! The time for reason and sense had gone by. The unleashed rage of the rabble wanted blood, and Pilate, although convinced of Christ's innocence, knew that the situation was beyond him, for this cry that arose from the people, beyond all measure, showed him that it was too late to insist upon justice. Many a so-called man of the world, that thinks he is neutral with regard to Christianity and believes in letting well enough alone, since undoubtedly the Christian Church is doing much for the community, has followed the example of Pilate in a crisis. Feeling that his original conviction was the right, the correct one, he yet, in times of popular agitation and demonstration, has joined the rank of the rabble that cheer today and curse tomorrow, that cry "Hosanna" on Sunday and bellow a hoarse "Crucify Him!" on the following Friday.
Condemnation, Crucifixion, and Death of Jesus.
The sentence and the mockery by the soldiers:
v. 15. And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged Him, to be crucified.
v. 16. And the soldiers led Him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.
v. 17. And they clothed Him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about His head,
v. 18. and began to salute Him, Hail, King of the Jews!
v. 19. And they smote Him on the head with a reed, and did spit upon Him, and, bowing their knees, worshiped Him.
A most significant phrase: Willing, not to do justice, to insist upon the justice for which the Roman courts were known, but: willing to content the people, to give the mob the satisfaction it demanded, to yield to them all that they wanted. It was a sad travesty upon justice, a trial which would have been carried out with greater show of right and fair play in the most ignorant barbarian country. He released to them Barabbas, a fitting sarcasm. One more murderer more or less in a whole nation of murderers would make little difference; let the innocent people be confined in prison and be adjudged guilty of death, while the murderers are not only at large, but in the enjoyment of the highest positions! Jesus, His flagellation, or scourging, having taken place, was officially delivered to be crucified according to the Roman method of dealing with criminals found guilty of death. Note: The scourging, though really pertaining to the acts which Pilate did before the condemnation of Jesus, in order to awaken the pity of the people and thus to gain his object, may also be thought to be, and is here so represented, as the first part of the agony of the crucifixion. It was a fitting introduction to the tortures of the mockery which the cruelty of the soldiers invented and which the anguish of the cross crowned. For it was now the soldier's opportunity; the prisoner was in their hands. They led Him, first of all, into the court of the palace, which served for their barracks and was called Praetorium. Here they called together the entire cohort, or band. Here was a rare chance for sport in which they delighted. In rough playfulness, like children that delight in playing at dressing up, they put a mantle of a purple color upon Him, to represent the kingly garment. A wreath, or crown, of thorns was quickly platted and placed about His head, fittingly to represent the golden circle of the earthly rulers. And then the jeering mockery began, which reflected also upon the Jews. They began to greet, to salute Him, to hail Him as the King of the Jews; for this title they found exceptionally funny: a fitting king for this people that was hated and despised by the Romans. With the reed which they had previously given Him in place of a scepter they now, as the fun began to pall on them, hit Him on the head, to drive the sharp spikes into the tender flesh of the head, They, spat upon Him as upon a vile and loathsome creature; they fell upon their knees in scoffing worship. Such was the Savior's experience, for His Passion stands out most prominently in the whole account. He gave His back to the smiters, and His cheeks to them that plucked off the hair; He did not hide His face from shame and spitting, Isaiah 50:6. It was the mercy and the long-suffering of the Redeemer of the world.
Christ led to His crucifixion:
v. 20. And when they had mocked Him, they took off the purple from Him, and put His own clothes on Him, and led Him out to crucify Him.
v. 21. And they compel one Simon, a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear His cross.
v. 22. And they bring Him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The Place of a Skull.
v. 23. And they gave Him to drink wine mingled with myrrh; but He received it not.
v. 24. And when they had crucified Him, they parted His garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
v. 25. And it was the third hour, and they crucified Him.
The soldiers soon grew tired of their sport; their victim did not react properly. He bore everything with sublime, majestic fortitude and patience, instead of crying out in pain and anger, as they had anticipated. They therefore took the mantle of mockery off Him and put His own clothes back on Him. The last act of the greatest drama in the world was about to begin; they led Him out from the palace of the governor and the city to crucify Him, to carry out the unjust decree of an unjust judge. Now Jesus had been under terrific physical, mental, and spiritual strain during the last days, and especially during the past twelve hours. The agony of Gethsemane, the capture, the trial in the palace of the high priest with the mockery heaped upon Him, the lack of rest during the night, the bloody scourging which He had just been compelled to endure, all this now combined to sap His strength. And so the soldiers, as the procession had reached the open space before the gates, made use of a right which they possessed, namely, to impress into service any man who happened to meet them. It so chanced that Simon, a Cyrenian, was coming in from the country. He may have been a belated pilgrim, or he may have gone out early on this morning, since the day was in some respects not held quite so strictly as the Sabbath. The evangelist remarks that this Simon was the father of two men that seem to have been well known to his readers, Alexander and Rufus, Romans 16:13; Acts 19:33. So Simon, drafted into service, here had what he probably later considered the great honor of bearing the cross of Jesus for Him: But the physical weakness of Jesus was becoming greater continually. It was now necessary for the soldiers to support Him and probably to carry Him the last part of the way, to the place known as Golgotha, explained by the evangelist as meaning the place of a skull, on account of the peculiar shape of the hill, which resembled the upper part of a human skull. It was the custom to give to the condemned some potion which would tend to deaden the sensibilities, a mixture of wine, or vinegar, with myrrh or gall. But Jesus refused this drink; He wanted to endure His sufferings with full consciousness. And so they fastened him to the cross; they carried out the governor's sentence. The crucified criminal was divested of his clothing, with the probable exception of a loin-cloth, and therefore the soldiers took the garments of Jesus, putting up the various pieces into four heaps or parts, and then gambled for the several heaps, the highest number taking the best clothes. The coat was, according to the account of John 19:24, made a separate stake, since it could not be divided. Mark notes the hour of the crucifixion, the third hour of the day, nine o'clock in the morning. Thus did the crucifixion of the Lord of heaven and earth take place. The princes of this world crucified the Lord of glory, 1 Corinthians 2:8. Christ suffered the punishment of a criminal, 1 Peter 2:24. The chastisement of our peace lay upon Him, Isaiah 53:5. He endured the shame and disgrace of this form of punishment, Hebrews 12:2. With His free will and consent He was hanged to the tree of cursing, Galatians 3:13. His entire Passion was for our benefit, for the blessing of the whole world.
The sufferings of the cross:
v. 26. And the superscription of His accusation was written over, The King of the Jews.
v. 27. And with Him they crucify two thieves, the one on His right hand and the other on His left.
v. 28. And the scripture was fulfilled which saith, And He was numbered with the transgressors.
v. 29. And they that passed by railed on Him, wagging their heads and saying, Ah, Thou that destroyest the Temple, and buildest it in three days,
v. 30. save Thyself, and come down from the cross!
v. 31. Likewise also the chief priests, mocking, said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; Himself He cannot save.
v. 32. Let Christ, the King of Israel, descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with Him Revelation led Him.
In a spirit which savored of vengeful spite, Pilate had prepared a superscription for the cross of Jesus, stating the cause of His punishment, in much the same form as it had been given to Him by the Jewish authorities: The King of the Jews. Neither he nor the Jews themselves knew how true the words were, that this man was indeed, as the Redeemer of the world, the King of all mankind. But they had rejected Him and His message and thereby willfully excluded themselves from the blessings of the Kingdom. The evangelist notes the exactness with which the Old Testament prophecies were being fulfilled in all the incidents of the Passion, even in those of a secondary nature, by remarking that two robbers, common criminals, were crucified at the same time, one on either side of Jesus, placing Him on an absolute level with the scum of the earth, Isaiah 53:12. And now came the procession from Jerusalem, unconsciously, but none the less surely, to fulfill another prophecy which was spoken concerning the suffering of the Savior, Psalms 22:7-17. First came the common people, with whom the bloodthirstiness had now abated, leaving in its stead the satisfaction of having gained their object and having forced the procurator to do their bidding. They moved their heads from one side to the other, as though questioning the sanity of the Lord in making such statements as they quoted, of His being able to destroy the Temple and to erect it again in three days. Jeeringly they challenge Him to save Himself by stepping down from the cross. Then came the high priests, not minding, for once, the contamination which might result to them from mingling with the common people. They called out to each other and to some of the scribes that also came to enjoy the spectacle in gleeful mockery. They now felt free to admit what they formerly would have denied with the greatest vehemence, the fact that Christ had actually helped others. They are merely surprised and act astonished over the fact that He cannot help Himself. They want a proof of His Messiahship. If He should come down from the cross in plain sight before them, then they would be willing to believe Him. All this was hypocritical mockery. They had rejected Him as the Messiah of Israel, they had hardened their hearts against His message of salvation, they had refused to believe and to draw the correct conclusions in the case of far greater miracles; and they would not have believed Him now. And finally, the robbers that were hanging on either side of the Lord, impelled, perhaps, by the excruciating agony of the crucifixion, began to vituperate Him, to heap blasphemous epithets upon Him. It was a veritable orgy of blasphemy of every kind that was held there under the cross. And all the time the Lord was hanging there, meekly, patiently suffering and dying for them, for the very men that were casting the most insulting epithets into His face. That is one of the most inexplicable marvels of history.
The last hours and the death of Jesus:
v. 33. And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
v. 34. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?
v. 35. And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, He calleth Elias.
v. 36. And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave Him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take Him down.
v. 37. And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
Meanwhile it had become high noon. Suddenly, without warning, darkness came upon the whole earth, not the darkness of a solar eclipse, for it was now the time of the full moon, nor of dense clouds, nor of a desert wind-storm. The sun was blotted out, it lost its light; it was a miracle of God. The entire universe was suffering with the Son of God; the sun was hiding his face in shame, on account of the spectacle of men murdering their Creator. The significance of these three hours, during which the face of the Savior was mercifully hidden from the curious gaze of a blasphemous multitude, is shown in the Savior's cry at the end of these three terrible hours. Out of a heart breaking with grief and shame over the fathomless abyss of sin the cry of anguish is wrung forth: "My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" This depth of humiliation on the part of the Redeemer is beyond human comprehension. Those three hours of darkness cover the mystery of unfathomable depravity on the part of the entire human race, and of inexpressible love on the part of the Savior. He had been forsaken by God; He had been given into the power of death and hell. God had withdrawn from Him the mercy of His presence; He had suffered the pain of being condemned to all eternity for the sin of the world. Jesus here felt the full force, the full terror of the divine wrath which has been kindled on account of the million-fold trespasses of mankind. He drained the cup of the curse of God to the last dregs; He had suffered the eternal damnation of hell. The eternal Son of God in the eternal depths of hell! But all this was done for our salvation. The punishment of hell lay upon Him, in order that we might go free. For note that He clung to His Lord, His heavenly Father, in the midst of all this terror. He was still His God, His highest good, to whom He offered full obedience and thus conquered' wrath, hell, and damnation.
Jesus had called out the last words in the Aramaic tongue, just as the evangelist has recorded the words. Some of those that were standing nearby, whether of the soldiers or of the Jews, deliberately misunderstood His words and gleefully explained them to the rest as though the Lord had called upon the Prophet Elijah to help Him in this last extremity. And when Jesus thereupon cried out in His thirst and one of the bystanders, more soft-hearted than the rest, hurried over with a sponge-full of vinegar on a reed to give Him some alleviation of His burning suffering, he could not refrain from joining in the jeering, whether Elijah would come and help Him down from the cross. But now the end was at hand. Jesus gave a loud cry, a shout of triumph and joy, in which He also commended His soul into the keeping of His Father, and then He quietly breathed forth His spirit, He gave up His soul, His life. It was a true death; it was a complete severance of soul and body. But He was not overcome by His sufferings, He did not die of exhaustion. His dying was an act of His own free will. Voluntarily, in His own power, He placed His soul into the hands of His Father. He had power to lay it down, John 10:18. And, as the Stronger One, in dying, He conquered death. He gave Himself for us as a sacrifice, He accomplished a perfect reconciliation for the sins of all people. Through death He destroyed the devil that had the power of death, and delivered them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage, Hebrews 2:14-15.
The Burial of Jesus.
Immediate effects of Christ's death:
v. 38. And the veil of the Temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
v. 39. And when the centurion, which stood over against Him, saw that He so cried out and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly, this Man was the Son of God.
v. 40. There were also women looking on afar off; among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary, the mother of James the Less and of Joses, and Salome;
v. 41. (who also, when He was in Galilee, followed Him, and ministered unto Him;) and many other women which came up with Him unto Jerusalem.
As a great sign had accompanied Christ's deepest suffering, so nature now signified its horror, at God's command, over the blasphemous deed which had been done on Calvary. While the earth was rocking in quivering terror over the outrage done to the Son of God, the great veil in the Temple, which separated the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place, the room where the altar of incense stood from the room which the high priest entered but once in the year, on the great Day of Atonement, was torn into two parts, from the top to the bottom. That was a sign that sin, which till now had separated man from God, had now been taken away, done away with. No need of earthly mediators and priests to assure the believers of the mercy of God through the blood of calves and of goats, since our great Mediator and High Priest has entered into the most holy place of heaven and has perfected forever them that are sanctified. Every sinner may now, on the strength of Christ's sacrifice, freely come to God and depend upon the full redemption through His blood. The Roman centurion that had charge of the soldiers guarding the cross was a witness of all the things that happened on and near Calvary. But the greatest impression was made upon him by the death of Jesus itself. Here was not a defeat, but a victory, as everyone could see. He and those that were with him may often have heard the accounts of the Messiah of the Jews, of the fact that He was to be the Son of God and that He should bring salvation to His people. This occurrence opened his eyes; he now realized and frankly confessed: Truly, this Man was the Son of God. His heart had accepted Jesus as his Savior. At some distance were also standing some of the women that had made it their business to serve the Lord with the ministry of their hands. There was Mary Magdalene, out of whom the Lord had driven seven devils, Mary, the mother of James the Smaller, or Younger, and of Josses, and Salome, the wife of Zebedee, and the mother of James and John. These women had quietly, but effectively served Jesus even when He was in Galilee, they had made the journey up to Jerusalem with Him, and were now the witnesses of His martyrdom. Note: When the called apostles flee from the Lord's side and hide, for fear of the Jews, the women show the greater courage. Also: It pleases the Lord very well when such ministry is rendered to Him; He has recorded the names of these women to their everlasting honor. Christian women that follow in their footsteps, in all humility, will not lack recognition from Him at the proper time.
The burial of Jesus:
v. 42. And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, he day before the Sabbath,
v. 43. Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable councilor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.
v. 44. And Pilate marveled if He were already dead; and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether He had been any while dead.
v. 45. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph.
v. 46. And he bought fine linen, and took Him down, and wrapped Him in the linen, and laid Him in a sepulcher which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulcher.
v. 47. And Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of Joses, beheld where He was laid.
Although this day on which Jesus died, was a great festival day, on which the Jews also offered a second chagigah , or offering, combined with a meal, yet the following day, the Sabbath, was considered still more sacred. With reference to that, this Friday was merely the day of preparation. This day, however, was drawing to a close, evening was coming on. If something was to be done toward the burial of the Lord, it must be done at once. And here a new disciple of the Lord is mentioned, who till now had remained under cover. His name was Joseph, and his home town was Arimathea, or Ramah, 1 Samuel 1:1-19. He belonged to the great council, or Sanhedrin, of the Jews, but had taken no part in the blasphemous proceedings against Christ. Since help was not forthcoming from any other quarter, this man now threw off all fear and came forth boldly for his Lord. He was even then a believer, and he hoped for the speedy consummation of the kingdom of God, for its revelation before the whole world. Since time was an important factor, he acted accordingly. He dared to go in to Pilate and earnestly beg for the body of Jesus. Pilate was rather surprised that Jesus had died so soon, but after he had received the assurance from the centurion that He had died some time ago, quite a while before this interview, he gladly gave the body to Joseph for burial. Upon this permission Joseph could act. He purchased a fine linen grave cloth, took down the Lord's body with the aid of another disciple, Nicodemus, wrapped the body in the linen, and laid it in a grave which was hewn out of the stone, in a garden not far from Calvary. They then rolled a heavy stone before the door of the sepulcher, hurrying all the while lest the coming of the Sabbath interrupt their work of love. And during all this time Mary Magdalene and Mary, the mother of Joses, were present, watching carefully where and how their Master was being laid to rest. Thus Jesus, after His shameful death on the cross, still received an honorable burial. It was given Him by disciples that had formerly been too weak to confess their faith. It has often proved the case, in times of persecution and danger, that the weak became strong and the strong weak. Experienced Christians have deeply disappointed expectations, while others that were still weak in knowledge stood their ground firmly. And for us there is consolation also in the fact that Christ was laid into a grave. That fact has hallowed our graves. We need fear neither death nor the grave. Those that fall asleep in Christ rest peacefully in their beds in the earth until the great day of the eternal Easter dawns.
Summary. Jesus is brought to Pilate for trial, who unjustly condemns Him to death on the cross, after having vainly tried to release Him; H e
is mocked by the soldiers, led out to Golgotha, crucified between two criminals, Revelation led by the people, suffers the agony of hell, yields up His spirit to His Father, an d
is buried under the direction of Joseph of Arimathea.
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Kretzmann, Paul E. Ph. D., D. D. "Commentary on Mark 15". "Kretzmann's Popular Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
Second Sunday after Epiphany