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Bible Commentaries
Joshua 21

Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal and HomileticalLange's Commentary

Verses 1-45

5. Appointment of the Cities for the Priests and Levites

Joshua 21:0

a. Demand of the Levites that Cities should be given them

Joshua 21:1-3

1Then [And] came near the heads of the fathers of the Levites unto Eleazar the priest, and unto Joshua the son of Nun, and unto the heads of the fathers of the 2tribes of the children [sons] of Israel; And they [omit: they] spake unto them at Shiloh in the land of Canaan, saying, The Lord [Jehovah] commanded by the hand of Moses to give us cities to dwell in, with the suburbs [and their pasture-grounds; De Wette: their circuits; Bunsen: common-pastures; Knobel: driving-grounds] for our cattle. 3And the children [sons] of Israel gave unto the Levites out of their inheritance [possession], at the commandment of the Lord [Jehovah], these cities and their suburbs [pasture-grounds].

b. General Account of the Levitical Cities.

Joshua 21:4-8

4And the lot came out for the families of the Kohathites: and the children [sons] of Aaron1 the priest, which were of the Levites, had by lot out of the tribe of Judah, and out of the tribe of Simeon [the Simeonites], and out of the tribe of Benjamin, thirteen cities. 5And the rest of the children [sons] of Kohath had by lot out of the families of the tribe of Ephraim, and out of the tribe of Dan, and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, ten cities. 6And the children [sons] of Gershon had by lot out of the families of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Asher, and out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen 7cities. The children [sons] of Merari by their families had out of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities. 8And the children [sons] of Israel gave by lot unto the Levites these cities with [and] their suburbs [pasture-grounds], as the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses.

c. Cities of the Children of Aaron (Cities of the Priests)

Joshua 21:9-19

9And they gave out of the tribe of the children [sons] of Judah, and out of the tribe of the children [sons] of Simeon, these cities which are here mentioned by name [which were called by name], 10Which the children [sons] of Aaron,2 being of the families of the Kohathites, who were of the children of Levi, had: for theirs was the first lot. 11And they gave them the city of Arba the father of Anak (which city is Hebron) in the hill-country [on the mountain] of Judah, with the suburbs 12thereof [and its pasture-grounds] round about it. But [And] the fields of the city, and the villages thereof, gave they to Caleb the son of Jephunneh for [in] his possession. 13Thus [And] they gave to the children of Aaron the priest, Hebron with her suburbs, to be a city [the city] of refuge3 for the slayer; and Libnah with her suburbs, 14And Jattir with her suburbs, and Eshtemoa with her suburbs, 15And Holon with her suburbs, and Debir with her suburbs, 16And Ain with her suburbs, and Juttah with her suburbs, and Beth-shemesh with her suburbs; nine cities out of those two tribes. 17And out of the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon with her suburbs, Geba with her suburbs, 18Anathoth with her suburbs, and Almon with her suburbs; four cities. 19All the cities of the children of Aaron, the priests, were thirteen cities with their suburbs.

d. Cities of the remaining Kohathites

Joshua 21:20-26

20And the families of the children of Kohath, the Levites which [who] remained of the children of Kohath, even [omit: even] they had the cities of their lot out 21of the tribe of Ephraim. For [And] they gave them Shechem with her suburbs in mount Ephraim, to be a city [the city] of refuge4 for the slayer; and Gezer with her suburbs, 22And Kibzaim with her suburbs, and Beth-horon with her-suburbs; four cities. 23And out of the tribe of Dan, Eltekeh with her suburbs, Gibbethon with her suburbs, 24Aijalon with her suburbs, Gath-rimmon with her suburbs; four cities. 25And out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Tanach with her suburbs, and Gath-rimmon, with her suburbs; two cities. 26All the cities were ten with their suburbs, for the families of the children of Kohath that remained.

e. The Cities of the Gershonites (comp. Joshua 21:6)

Joshua 21:27-33

27And unto the children [sons] of Gershon, of the families of the Levites, out of the other [omit: other] half-tribe of Manasseh they gave Golan in Bashan with her suburbs, to be a city of refuge for the slayer,5 and Beesh-terah with her suburbs; two cities. 28And out of the tribe of Issachar, Kishon with her suburbs, Dabareh with her suburbs, 29Jarmuth with her suburbs, En-gannim with her suburbs; four cities. 30And out of the tribe of Asher, Mishal with her suburbs, Abdon with her suburbs, 31Helkath with her suburbs, and Rehob with her suburbs; four cities. 32And out of the tribe of Naphtali, Kedesh in Galilee with her suburbs, to be a city of refuge for the slayer;6 and Hammoth-dor with her suburbs, and Kartan with her suburbs; three cities. 33All the cities of the Gershonites, according to their families, were thirteen cities with their suburbs.

f. The Cities of the Merarites (comp. Joshua 21:7)

Joshua 21:34-42

34And unto the families of the children [sons] of Merari, the rest of the Levites, out of the tribe of Zebulun, Jokneam with her suburbs, and Kartah with her suburbs, 35Dimnah with her suburbs, Nahalal with her suburbs; four cities. 36And out of the tribe of Reuben, Bezer with her suburbs, and Jahazah with her suburbs, 37Kedemoth with her suburbs, and Mephaath with her suburbs; four cities. 38And out of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Gilead with her suburbs, to be a city of refuge for the slayer;7 and Mahanaim with her suburbs, 39Heshbon with her suburbs, Jazer with her suburbs; four cities in all. 40So all the cities [All the cities] for the children [sons] of Merari by their families, which were remaining of the families of the Levites, were by their lot twelve cities.8 41All the cities of the Levites within the possession of the children of Israel were forty and eight cities with their suburbs. 42These cities were every one with their suburbs round about them. Thus were [So to] all these cities.

g. Conclusion

Joshua 21:43-45

43And the Lord [Jehovah] gave unto Israel all the land which he sware [had sworn] to give unto their fathers: and they possessed it, and dwelt therein. 44And the Lord [Jehovah] gave them rest round about, according to all that he sware [had sworn] unto their fathers: and there stood not a man of all their enemies before them; the Lord [Jehovah] delivered all their enemies into their hand. 45There failed not aught of any good thing which the Lord [Jehovah] had spoken unto the house of Israel; all came to pass.


The chapter contains the catalogue of the Levitical cities, which were appointed according to the regulations already given by Moses, Numbers 35:1 ff. There were forty-eight of them in all, of which six were at the same time (Joshua 20:0) cities of refuge. On Kiepert’s Wall Map they are distinguished by a colored line drawn under each [on Clark’s Bible Atlas of Maps and Plans, by being printed in small capitals, and on Menke’s by a distinguishing mark].

The list of the Levitical cities is given also in 1 Chronicles 6:39-66, with several in part easily removable deviations, due probably, as Keil supposes (ii. 1, p. 156, note), to another documentary source. The chronicler names only forty-two cities, although he also relates Joshua 21:45 ff. that the children of Aaron had received thirteen, the other Kohathites ten, the Gershonites thirteen, the Merarites twelve cities, in all therefore forty-eight. Omitted are (1) Jutta in Judah, (2) Gibeon in Benjamin, (3) Eltekeh in Dan, (4) Gibbethon in Dan, (5) Jokneam in Zebulun, (6) Nahalal in Zebulun. Knobel seeks the reason in mere negligence on the part either of the chronicler himself or of a transcriber. Judging somewhat more leniently, we may find the explanation in an oversight, well deserving excuse amid so many names. If, further, the author of Chronicles gives to some extent different names, many of them exhibit faulty readings; as עָנֵר for תַּעֲנַךְ (Joshua 21:25), קֶדֶשׁ for קִשְׁיֹן (Joshua 21:29), etc., but others, on the contrary, the true reading, as עַשָׁן for עַיִן (Joshua 21:16), בִּלְעָם for גּת־רִמּוֹו (Joshua 21:25), and רִמּוֹנוֹ for דִּמְנָה (Joshua 21:35). In other places he shows only different forms of the same name, as the examples cited by Keil, עַלֶּמֶת for מָשָׁל ,עלמוֹן, for חַמּוֹן ,מִשְׁאָל, for חמֹּת דּאֹר, and many others (Keil, ub. sup.). Some, finally, are probably different designations of the same city, as יָקְמְעָם for רָאמוֹת,קִבְצַים, for יָרְמוּת, and עָנֵס for עֵין־גַּנִּים (1 Chronicles 6:53; 1 Chronicles 6:58 [Eng. 68, 73] compared with Joshua 21:22; Joshua 21:29.

a. Joshua 21:1-3. Demand of the Levites that Cities should be given to them. The account which we have here of the application of the heads of the tribe (Exodus 6:14; Exodus 6:25) reminds us of Joshua 13:6, where it is similarly told concerning Caleb, that he, accompanied by members of his tribe, brings to mind the promise that had been given him by Moses. Calvin regards it as probable that the Levites had been forgotten, adducing in support of this: “Sic enim accidere solet, dum quisque ad sua curanda attentus est, ut fratrum obliviscatur.” Considering the great respect in which their fellow tribesman of that day, Eleazar, was held, and that he himself shared in the distribution of the land, we may much rather assume with Masius (in Keil, p. 155), “illos, cum res ad eam opportunitatem perducœ fuissent, accessisse ad divisores communi suorum tribulium nomine ut designatas ab illis urbes sortirentur.” They had not deemed it opportune to urge their claim before.

b. Joshua 21:4-8. Account of the Levitical cities in general. According to Exodus 6:16-20, and Numbers 3:17-19, compared with 1 Chron. 5:27–6:34 [Eng. 1 Chronicles 6:1-49], we have the following family-tree for the Levites, to keep which before the eyes may help to understand the following allotment:—


1. Gershon.
2. Kohath.

3. Merari (Exodus 6:16; Numbers 3:17).

1. Amram.
2. Izhar.
3. Hebron.

4. Uzziel (Exodus 6:18; Numbers 3:19).

1. Aaron.

2. Moses (Exodus 6:20).

Aaron’s posterity received the priesthood, Numbers 18:1-2; Numbers 18:7 (1 Chronicles 6:49). All the other Levites, hence the descendants of Moses also, were appointed, Numbers 18:3-6 (1 Chronicles 6:33 [48]), to the inferior service of the sanctuary. The children of Israel, according to Numbers 35:6 ff., determined what cities the families of the Levites should receive, but the lot decided which of these cities each particular family should have.

Joshua 21:4. The first lot came out for the families of the Kohathites, and, among these, for the sons of Aaron the priest, of the Levites. They, namely, the proper priests, received thirteen cities in the territory of the tribe of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin. Upon which Calvin remarks: “Quod non contigit fortuito eventu: quia Deus pro admirabili suo cohsilio in ea sede eos locavit, ubi statuerat templum sibi eligere.

Joshua 21:5. The other Kohathites, that is, the posterity of Izhar, Hebron, Uzziel, and, in the line of Amram, those of Moses, shared ten cities in the land of Ephraim, Dan, and Manasseh west of the Jordan.

Joshua 21:6. The Gershonites received eighteen cities of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and Manasseh east of the Jordan.

Joshua 21:7. To the Merarites were allotted twelve cities out of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun.

c. Joshua 21:9-19. The Cities of the Sons of Aaron (cities of the priests). In Joshua 21:9-16 are mentioned the cities which the Aaronides received in the country of Simeon and Judah, then in Joshua 21:17-19 the four cities of Benjamin. That they had so many was reasonable in view of the future increase of the posterity of Aaron.

[Keil, Bibl. Comm. Joshua 2:1, pp. 155, 156, says on this topic: “This number for the cities allotted to the Levites will not appear too large if we consider, that (1) most of the cities of Canaan, to judge from the great number in so small a country, could not have been very large; (2) the Levites were not the sole occupants of these cities, but had only the necessary abodes in them for themselves, and pasture for their cattle in the vicinity, while the remaining space was for the other tribes; (3) that the twenty-three thousand male persons which the Levites numbered in the second census in the steppes of Moab, when distributed among thirty-five cities, would give to each six hundred and fifty-seven males, or about thirteen hundred male and female Levites. On the other hand, the allowance of thirteen cities to the priests has raised objections tending to the supposition that, since Aaron, in Joshua’s time, could scarcely have had so numerous a posterity from his two remaining sons as to fill two, not to speak of thirteen cities, therefore the catalogue betrays a document of a much later date (Maurer and others). But in this, not only is there ascribed to those who effected the division, the monstrous short-sightedness of assigning to the priests their abodes with reference merely to their necessity at that time, and without regard to their future increase, but also of having taken the size of the cities as much too important, and the number of the Levites as much too small. But it was not at all designed that the cities should be filled with the families of the priests. And although the poll-list of the priests then living is nowhere given, still, if we remember that Aaron died in the fortieth year of the exodus, at the age of one hundred and twenty-three years (Numbers 33:38), and so was already eighty-three years old when they left Egypt, it will appear that there might be now, seven years after his death, descendants of the fourth generation. But his two sons had twenty-four male offspring who founded the twenty-four classes of priests instituted by David (1 Chronicles 24:0.). If, then, we allow only six males respectively to each of the following generations, the third generation would already have numbered one hundred and forty-four persons, who, ranging from twenty-five to thirty-five years of age at the distribution of the land, might now have had eight hundred and sixty-four male children. Thus the total number of male persons of the priestly class might at that time have amounted to over one thousand, or to at least two hundred families.”— Tr.]

Joshua 21:9. The cities were called by name, that is, they indicated them by their names, “specified them by name” (Knobel).

Joshua 21:10. The subject of the principal sentence is גּוֹרָל, which must be supplied from the parenthetical explanatory sentence (“for theirs was the first lot”). The awkwardness of the construction reminds us of Joshua 17:1.

Joshua 21:11-12. The first city named is Hebron, here also as in Joshua 15:13, and often, called the city of Arba. When this Arba is here called the father of Anok, עֲנוֹק, but elsewhere always the father of Anak (עַנָק, ’Ενάκ), the עֲנוֹק is undoubtedly a mere variety of pronunciation of the same name. The A sound easily passes over, in the German dialects also into the O sound. At Hebron the Levites received, besides the city, only מִגְרָשִׁים (from גָּרַשׁ, to drive), the “drives,” the pasture-grounds, but not the tillable land which, with the villages thereon, belonged to Caleb (Joshua 14:12). Compare also in reference to the מִגְרָשִׁים, Joshua 21:3, as well as Numbers 35:2.

Joshua 21:13 repeats the sense of Joshua 21:11 on account of the parenthetical remark in Joshua 21:12. Libnah (Joshua 15:42; Joshua 10:29); Jattir (Joshua 15:48); Eshtemoa (Joshua 15:50); Holon (Joshua 15:51); Debir (Joshua 15:15; Joshua 15:49; Joshua 10:38); Ain (Joshua 15:32); Jutta (Joshua 15:55); Bethshemesh (Joshua 15:10). Of the cities so far enumerated six, Hebron, Jattir, Eshtemoa, Holon, Debir, Jutta, lay on the mountain of Judah; two, Libnah and Beth-shemesh, in the lowland, to which is added one city of Simeon, Ashan in the lowland (עָשָׁן, Joshua 15:42; Joshua 19:7, as should be read, 1 Chronicles 6:44 (59), instead of עַיִן.

Joshua 21:17 ff. The four Levitical cities in Benjamin, Gibeon (Joshua 9:3 ff; Joshua 10:1 ff; Joshua 18:25), Geba (Joshua 18:24), Anathoth, and Almon. The two latter are wanting in the list of the cities of Benjamin, and are therefore still to be spoken of here. Anathoth (עְנָתוֹת), Jeremiah’s birth-place (Jeremiah 1:1; Jeremiah 29:27), whose inhabitants, however, hated him (Jeremiah 11:21), and were therefore threatened by the indignant prophet (Jeremiah 11:22-23), lies one hour and a quarter (Furrer one hour and seventeen minutes) northeast of Jerusalem, and is now called Anata, built “on a height rising a little above the table-land.” As traces of its antiquity, Furrer, who made a trip thither from Jerusalem (pp. 75–80), found in a house stones with jointed edges, three feet long and one and a half feet wide (p. 77). Robinson (who first recognized in Anata the ancient Anathoth, while ecclesiastical tradition had chosen for it another site, near the village of Kuryet el-Enab, about three hours from Jerusalem on the road to Ramleh, and had called it Jeremiæ) also notices ancient remains of walls, and, like Furrer, praises the prospect from this place (Rob. 2:109, 110; Furrer, p. 77). The statements of Joseph. (Ant. Joshua 10:7; Joshua 10:3), of the Onom., and of Jerome in the Comm. in Jeremiah 1:0, on the distance of Anathoth from Jerusalem have been proved correct (see von Raumer, p. 171). Almon (עַלְמוֹן, 1 Chronicles 6:45(60) עַלֶּמֶה), now Almit (Rob. Later Bibl. Res. 287) or el-Mid, as Tobler writes it (Denkbl. p. 631, note 1), situated a little to the northeast of Anathoth. A place of ruins.

Joshua 21:19. Thirteen cities in all.

d. Joshua 21:20-26. The Cities of the remaining Kohathites. Of these there were ten, namely, four in Ephraim (Joshua 21:22), four in Dan (Joshua 21:24), two in west Manasseh Joshua 21:25).

Joshua 21:20-22. a. Four Cities in Ephraim,Shechem (Joshua 17:7), Gezer (Joshua 10:33; Joshua 16:3), Kibzaim (instead of which 1 Chronicles 6:53 (68) has יָקְמִעָם, not discovered. That Kibzaim and Jokmeam may be, as Knobel and Keil suppose, different names of the same place, is confirmed perhaps by the fact referred to by Gesenius in his Lex., that יָקמְעָם, “gathered by the people,” from r. קָמָה, and קִבְצַיִם from קָבַץ to collect, cognate with קְבוּצָה, Ezekiel 22:20, “have a quite similar etymology.” The fourth city is Beth-horon. “Whether the upper or lower city, is not said” (Keil).

Joshua 21:23-24. β. Four Cities in Dan,Eltekeh, Gibbethon (Joshua 19:44), Aijalon (Joshua 10:12; Joshua 19:42), Gath-rimmon (Joshua 19:45).

Ver 25 . γ, Two Cities in West Manasseh; Tanach (Joshua 12:21; Joshua 17:11). Gath-rimmon, an old mistake in copying for בּלְעָם (1 Chronicles 6:55 [70]), that is Ibleam (Joshua 17:11).

Joshua 21:26. In all, ten cities.

e. Joshua 21:27-33. The Cities of the Gershonites. Thirteen, again, as with the sons of Aaron (Joshua 21:4; Joshua 21:19), namely, two in East Manasseh (Joshua 21:2), four in Issachar (Joshua 21:28), four in Asher (Joshua 21:30), three in Naphtali (Joshua 21:32).

Joshua 21:27. a. Two Cities in East Manasseh.Golan (Joshua 20:8; Deuteronomy 4:43). Beesh-tera (בְּעֶשְׁתְּרָה, cont. from בֵּית־עֶשְׁתְּרָה, that is, House of Astarte; called 1 Chronicles 6:56 (71) עַשְׁתָּרוֹת. It was plainly a city with a temple of Astarte, perhaps the Ashteroth-Karnaim mentioned in Genesis 14:5 as the residence of Og, king of Bashan, the site of which cannot now be determined. In any case, we must not, as Keil and Knobel observe, think of the present Busra in the east of Hauran (as Reland does, pp. 621, 662), for this was called even from ancient times Βόσσορα, Βοσορά (1Ma 5:26; Joseph. Ant. Joshua 12:8; Joshua 12:3), hence as now בָּצְרָה, which the Greeks and Romans corrupted into Βόστρα (Knobel). But we must not either refer, as Knobel would, to a Bostra or Bustra on Mount Hermon, north of Banias, since the territory of the tribes did not extend so far north. Knobel, indeed, assumes this when he discovers Baal-gad in Heliopolis; which view we have attempted to disprove in Joshua 11:17. The site of this Beeshterah, therefore, must be regarded as not yet ascertained. That the name Beeshtera should occur more than once, and therefore on Mount Hermon, is owing to the wide spread of the worship of Astarte through that region. So much the more difficult will it be to make out the situation of our city.

Joshua 21:28-29. β. Four Cities in Issachar:Kishon (Joshua 19:20), Dabareh (Joshua 19:12), Jarmuth, En-gannim (Joshua 19:21).

Joshua 21:30-31. γ. Four Cities in Asher:Mishal (Joshua 19:26), Abdon (Joshua 19:28), Helkath (Joshua 19:25), Rehob (Joshua 19:28).

Joshua 21:32. δ. Three Cities in Naphtali:Kedesh (Joshua 19:37), Hammoth-dor, called Hammath in Joshua 19:35, and Hammon in 1 Chronicles 6:61 (76), Kartan (קַרתָּן, according to Keil contracted from קִרְיָתַיִם = קַרְתַּיִן, 1 Chronicles 6:61 (76), like Dothan, 2 Kings 6:13, from Dothain, Genesis 37:17), not named among the cities of Naphtali. Knobel says: “Perhaps Katanah, with ruins, northeast from Safed,” in Van de Velde, Mem. p. 147.

Joshua 21:33. Thirteen cities in all.

f. Joshua 21:34-42. The Cities of the Merarites. They acquired twelve cities (Joshua 21:40), namely, four in the tribe of Zebulun (Joshua 21:34), four in the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 21:36), and four in the tribe of Gad; mostly therefore in eastern Palestine.

Joshua 21:34-35. a. Four Cities in Zebulun:Jokneam (Joshua 12:32; Joshua 19:11), Kartah (Joshua 19:15), Dimnah, perhaps = רְמוֹנָה or רִמּוֹנוֹ (Joshua 19:13; 1 Chronicles 6:62). So Knobel and others. Keil questions the identity, because in the passage quoted from the Chronicles the text is undoubtedly corrupt, since it presents not four but only two cities, Rimmono and Tabor. Nahalal (Joshua 19:15). Instead of this Tabor, 1 Chronicles 6:62.

Joshua 21:36-37. β. Four Cities in Reuben:Bezer (Joshua 20:8; Deuteronomy 4:43), Jahazah, Kedemoth, and Mephaath (Joshua 13:18). Both verses are supported by the majority of Codd., are not wanting in the early translations, and correspond to the statements of Joshua 21:7; Joshua 21:40-41. When Rabbi Jacob ben Chasim omitted them in his great Rabbinic Bible of the year 1525, on the authority of the Masora, he proceeded altogether without right, cf. Knobel, p. 474; Keil, Bibl. Com., p. 155, Anm. 2; and Com. on Josh., p. 457, note; also De Rossi, Variœ Lectiones, ad h. l., and J. H. Michaelis, note to his Heb. Bibl., ed. Halle (ap. Keil, l. c.).

Joshua 21:38-39. γ. Four Cities in the Tribe of Gad:Ramoth in Gilead (Joshua 20:8; Joshua 13:26), Mahanaim (Joshua 13:26), Heshbon (Joshua 13:17), Jazer (Joshua 13:25).

Joshua 21:40. Twelve cities in all.

Joshua 21:41-42. End of the list of Levitical cities. There were forty-eight of them, as had been commanded, Numbers 35:6, and as is here again mentioned. Each one had its pasture-ground; עיר עִיר, city city, i.e., each city according to the manner of distributive numerals, Gesenius, Gram. § 118, 5.

g. Joshua 21:42-45. Conclusion. He refers to what God had said to Joshua, Joshua 1:2-6, when he directed him to take possession of the land.

Joshua 21:43. Jehovah gave Israel the land which he had sworn to their fathers (Genesis 12:7; Genesis 15:18; Numbers 11:12; Numbers 32:11; Deuteronomy 31:21). And they possessed it, and dwelt therein. The same expression is used Joshua 19:47.

Joshua 21:44. And he gave them rest round about, as he likewise had sworn to their fathers (Exodus 33:14; Deuteronomy 3:20; Deuteronomy 25:19). Their enemies could not stand against them, and although these were not yet entirely subjugated, as appears from Judg. i. they dared no enterprise against the Israelites while Joshua lived (Judges 2:6 ff.). As Rahab said to the spies (Joshua 2:9), a terror had fallen on the Canaanites.

Joshua 21:45. The good words not one of which failed (וָפַל, fell), i.e., remained unfulfilled (Joshua 23:14), are God’s promises. Comp. on this in the New Testament, 2 Corinthians 1:20, “God is in his promises truthful, and keeps them, only that we through unbelief and indifference ourselves stand in the way,” Osiander.


[1][Joshua 21:4. וַיִהִי לִבנֵי אַ׳, strictly: and there were for the sons of Aaron . … by the lot thirteen cities. And so through the following verses to the 7th inclusive.—Tr.]

[2][Joshua 21:10. וַיהִי לִבְנֵי אַ׳, as in verse 4, properly: And there was for the sons of Aaron [sc. the lot, see exeg. note], or, there were [the cities]. The subject in any case has to be supplied, on account of the parenthesis at the end of the verse.—Tr.]

[3][Joshua 21:13. Hebron the city of refuge for the slayer, and its pasture-grounds. It may be remarked, once for all, that “suburbs” in the version, should uniformly throughout the chapter be understood in the sense which we have hitherto indicated by substituting “pasture-grounds.” The “with” which precedes it should as uniformly be “and.”—Tr.]

[4][Joshua 21:21. Heb. nearly as in Joshua 21:13. And they gave them the city of refuge for the slayer, Shechem and its pasture-grounds, on Mount Ephraim.—Tr.]

[5][Joshua 21:27. As in Joshua 21:21 : The city of refuge for the slayer, Golan, in Bashan, etc.—Tr.]

[6][Joshua 21:32. As in Joshua 21:27.—Tr.]

[7][Joshua 21:38. As in Joshua 21:27; Joshua 21:32.—Tr.]

[8][Joshua 21:40. Heb. with broken construction: and their lot was twelve cities.—Tr.]

Bibliographical Information
Lange, Johann Peter. "Commentary on Joshua 21". "Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/lcc/joshua-21.html. 1857-84.
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