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The scope and design of this Psalm is to stir up and encourage God’s people to praise him; either,
1. For their deliverance out of Babylon, and the promises which God had given them of the perfection of that work, and of the enlargement of their power and dominion in the world; or rather,
2. For the establishment of the kingdom of Israel in David’s hands, and for that safety, and glory, and victory over their enemies which they expected by that means. But withal, the psalmist, or the Spirit of God, which dictated this Psalm to him, had a further prospect, even to the Messiah, of whom David was a type, and who was to succeed David in the throne, and to bring that kingdom to its highest perfection. And so divers of the Jewish doctors understand this Psalm.
An exhortation to praise God for his love to his people, Psalms 149:1-4 and for enabling them by his power to overcome their enemies, Psalms 149:5-9.
A new song, for these new mercies conferred upon us, denied to former times.
That made him; that made them not only his creatures, but, which is unspeakably greater, his people; or, that advanced and adorned them with singular privileges, as this word is used, 1 Samuel 12:6, and elsewhere.
Be joyful in their King; David and his posterity, and especially the chief of all of them, the Messiah. Let them rejoice and bless God that they have so potent, so wise, and so just a king.
According to the usage of that time and dispensation.
Taketh pleasure in his people; he loveth them above all people, and rejoiceth over them to do them good.
He will beautify, Heb. adorn or glorify; make them amiable and honourable in the eyes of the world, who now hate and despise them.
The meek, or humble, to wit, his people, as he now said, who are oft in Scripture described by that character, because all true Israelites are such, and all Israelites profess and ought to be such. Or, the afflicted, as that word is oft used in Scripture, which hath been observed before; his poor afflicted and oppressed people, to whom the following salvation is most needful and acceptable.
With salvation; both temporal, in delivering them from, and setting them above, all their enemies; and afterwards, with everlasting salvation and glory.
Be joyful in glory, for the honour which God putteth upon them.
Sing aloud upon their beds; either,
1. For their safe and sweet repose and peace, which is signified by resting in beds, Isaiah 57:2; or,
2. By night as well as by day, even in the time devoted to rest and sleep, which they shall borrow to praise God for his eminent and extraordinary blessings, as David frequently did upon such occasions.
In their mouth, Heb. in their throat; which signifies vocal praise, and that with a loud voice.
A two-edged sword in their hand; not only to defend themselves from their enemies, but, as it follows, to revenge themselves upon them.
For all their cruelties and injuries towards God’s people. This was literally accomplished by David upon the Philistines, Ammonites, Syrians, and other neighbouring nations and princes, which were bitter enemies to God’s people. And the same thing was done afterward in the Christian world, when God raised up Christian princes, who did by the help of the Christians, fighting with and under them, severely revenge the blood of the martyred Christians upon their cruel persecutors and tyrants in divers ages. It may also be understood of the spiritual plagues which Christ by the hand or ministry of his apostles and ministers did inflict upon the hearts and consciences of his incorrigible enemies, who by God’s word and ordinances were either tormented or hardened to their destruction. Yea, it may have a respect unto the last day of judgment, in which the saints shall judge the world, 1 Corinthians 6:2, which will be a most dreadful execution of this vengeance, &c.
See Poole "Psalms 149:7".
The judgment written; appointed and declared in the Holy Scripture, as Deuteronomy 12:32; Deuteronomy 29:19; Deuteronomy 32:41-43, and elsewhere. This is added to show that they do not this work to satisfy their own malicious or revengeful inclinations, but in obedience to God’s command, and only in such manner as God hath allowed in his word.
This honour have all his saints; the honour of these actions belongs to all the saints, for whose sakes God appointed this in his word, and afterwards executed it by his providence.
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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Psalms 149". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26