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Bible Commentaries
1 Chronicles 3

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary


First Chronicles Chapter 3

1 Chronicles 3:1 "Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess:"

King David was the one all of the other genealogies were leading to. Amnon was David’s firstborn by Ahinoam . He was born while David was in Hebron. Amnon raped his half-sister Tamar. Absalom killed him for attacking Tamar. Daniel was the same as Chileab. Abigail was the wife of Nabal, whom David killed. He had refused assistance to David’s men. Abigail befriended David, and he later married her.

1 Chronicles 3:2 "The third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur: the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith:"

Absalom was full brother to Tamar. Later Absaolm wanted to be king, and was anointed as such. He came to an unusual death, when his long locks of hair got caught in a tree limb. Joab killed him, while he was hanging there. Maachah’s father was a king in the land of Geshur. "Adonijah" means my Lord is Jehovah. He was the fourth son of David. When Amnon and Absalom were dead, he thought he was the next in line to be king. He was pardoned by his brother Solomon, for his attempt to be king. He was later killed, because he asked for his father’s virgin widow, Abishag, to wife. Very little is known of Haggith.

1 Chronicles 3:3 "The fifth, Shephatiah of Abital: the sixth, Ithream by Eglah his wife."

1 Chronicles 3:4 "[These] six were born unto him in Hebron; and there he reigned seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years."

"Shephatiah" means Jehovah judges. Very little is known of this son. Abital was the fifth wife of David. "Abital" means father of the dew. "Ithream" means residue of the people. All that is known of Eglah was that she was David’s wife. She was not his main wife, which many think makes her the same as Michal. Michal had no children. This separation of the sons of David in this manner, are giving a list of those born while he reigned in Hebron. His reign would extend for 40 years. 7 1/2 of those years, he reigned in Hebron. The last 33 years that David reigned were from Jerusalem, where he was king of all 12 tribes of Israel.

1 Chronicles 3:5 "And these were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shimea, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon, four, of Bath-shua the daughter of Ammiel:"

Bath-shua is the same as Bathsheba. She had been the wife of Uriah. David married her at the death of Uriah. Shimea is also called Shammua. The main thing we know of Shobab, is that his name means backsliding, or rebellious. Nathan’s claim to fame is that he was in the genealogy that led to Mary, the mother of Jesus. Of course, Solomon is the son of David, who will follow him as king. He is in the lineage of David which leads to Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Solomon builds the temple in Jerusalem.

1 Chronicles 3:6 "Ibhar also, and Elishama, and Eliphelet,"

1 Chronicles 3:7 "And Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia,"

1 Chronicles 3:8 "And Elishama, and Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine."

1 Chronicles 3:9 "[These were] all the sons of David, beside the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their sister."

These nine sons, mentioned above, were sons, in addition to Bathsheba’s sons, born in Jerusalem. They, also, had the distinction of being sons of David by his wives. There were other sons born of concubines that are not listed here. It is unusual for two of the sons to have the name Eliphelet, but perhaps they had different mothers. Tamar is the only girl mentioned, it does not mean there were no other girls. The reason for her being mentioned was that she directly affected the happenings in the family. Usually girls are not mentioned, because the family name is carried on through her husband. In some cases when they have an impact on history, they are Specifically mentioned.

1 Chronicles 3:10 "And Solomon’s son [was] Rehoboam, Abia his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son,"

Rehoboam is known as Reboam, and as Roboam, as well. Rehoboam will be the first to reign over Judah in the divided kingdom. Abia is the son of Rehoboam. Abia is known as Abijah and Abijam, as well. Abia will reign after Rehoboam. He will be a wicked king. He will be succeeded by his son Asa. Asa will do right in the sight of the LORD. His heart was right with God. Jehoshaphat was known, also, as Josaphat. He, too, did what was right, when he reigned in Asa’s stead.

1 Chronicles 3:11 "Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son,"

Joram is the same as Jehoram. He married the wicked Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. Needless to say, he was wicked while he reigned as king. His son Ahaziah reigned in his stead. Ahaziah is the same as Ozias, and Jehoahaz. He, also, was an evil king. Joash reigned in the stead of Ahaziah. Joash was, also, known as Jehoash. He was a good king, until the death of the high priest, and then, he became as cruel and idolatrous as his father.

1 Chronicles 3:12 "Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son,"

Amaziah became king of Judah, after his father Joash died. He began as a good king, and died an arrogant self-centered king. Azariah, his son, began to reign at his death. Azariah is the same as Uzziah. He did what was right in the sight of the LORD. Jotham followed in the footsteps of his father. Another name he is called is Joatham. He rebuilt the temple gates during his reign.

1 Chronicles 3:13 "Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son,"

Ahaz reigned at the death of his father. Achaz, and Jehoahaz are two other names he was called. He was very wicked, like the kings of Israel. Since Ahaz was so terribly wicked, it is unusual for his son Hezekiah, or Ezekias, to be right in the sight of the LORD. The land prospered under his reign. Again, with a father like Hezekiah, it is hard to understand how Manasseh could be so evil. He was, also, called Manasses. He was believed to have murdered Isaiah, by having him sawn in two. He began to reign when he was 12, and he was very evil.

1 Chronicles 3:14 "Amon his son, Josiah his son."

Amon was very evil like his father, and was killed by his own servants. Josiah was a very good king. It was said there had been no king like him. He loved the LORD and proved it during his reign. He began to reign, when he was 8 years old. His mother’s name was Jedidah. He was, also, known as Josias.

1 Chronicles 3:15 "And the sons of Josiah [were], the firstborn Johanan, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum."

Johanan, was the same as Jehoahaz. He was very evil. He reigned for a short time, and Jehoiakim took his place as king. Jehoiakim and Eliakim are the same person. He was evil, as well. Zedekiah was, also, called Mattaniah. He was uncle to Nebuchadnezzar. Shallum is believed by some to be another name for one of his brothers. He adds very little to the genealogy, either way.

1 Chronicles 3:16 "And the sons of Jehoiakim: Jeconiah his son, Zedekiah his son."

Jehoiakim was known as Jechonias, Jechoniah, Jeconiah, and Coniah. He was captured and led to Babylon where he spent the next 36 years and then released. Zedekiah who was blinded and taken captive to Babylon could be the one mentioned above.

1 Chronicles 3:17 "And the sons of Jeconiah; Assir, Salathiel his son,"

The name "Assir" means prisoner. He does not take over as king in his father’s place. The rendering of the verse above, could be Jeconiah, the prisoner. Salathiel, the same as Shealtel, does become a puppet king.

1 Chronicles 3:18 "Malchiram also, and Pedaiah, and Shenazar, Jecamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah."

1 Chronicles 3:19 "And the sons of Pedaiah [were], Zerubbabel, and Shimei: and the sons of Zerubbabel; Meshullam, and Hananiah, and Shelomith their sister:"

Zerubbabel is the one the lineage continues through. Zorobabel is another name he is known by. He lived in the time of Cyrus, and was thought of as prince of Judah. He led the first captives back to Jerusalem. He would attempt to rebuild the altar to Jehovah.

1 Chronicles 3:20 "And Hashubah, and Ohel, and Berechiah, and Hasadiah, Jushab-hesed, five."

1 Chronicles 3:21 "And the sons of Hananiah; Pelatiah, and Jesaiah: the sons of Rephaiah, the sons of Arnan, the sons of Obadiah, the sons of Shechaniah."

The only reason, it seems, for giving these numerous names is to show the family ties. There is really nothing significant in the genealogy to Jesus through this.

1 Chronicles 3:22 "And the sons of Shechaniah; Shemaiah: and the sons of Shemaiah; Hattush, and Igeal, and Bariah, and Neariah, and Shaphat, six."

1 Chronicles 3:23 "And the sons of Neariah; Elioenai, and Hezekiah, and Azrikam, three."

1 Chronicles 3:24 "And the sons of Elioenai [were], Hodaiah, and Eliashib, and Pelaiah, and Akkub, and Johanan, and Dalaiah, and Anani, seven."

Abiud would be the next in line mentioned after Zerubbabel. These names seem to have no particular advantage for our study here.

1 Chronicles 3 Questions

1. Who was David’s firstborn son?

2. Who was his mother?

3. Who was the second son?

4. What terrible thing did Amnon do, when he was grown?

5. What happened to him for this sin?

6. Whose wife had Abigail been, before she married David?

7. Who was Absalom’s mother?

8. What relation was Absalom to Tamar?

9. How did Absalom die?

10. What does "Adonijah" mean?

11. Why was Adonijah killed?

12. Who was Abital?

13. How long did David reign in Hebron?

14. How long did he reign in Jerusalem?

15. Who was David king of?

16. Bath-shua is the same as ____________.

17. What was her first husband’s name?

18. How many sons did she bare David?

19. What special claim to fame does Nathan have?

20. Which son followed David as king?

21. Who built the temple in Jerusalem?

22. Were the nine sons of David in 1 Chronicles 3:6-8, and 1 Chronicles 3:9 all of his sons?

23. Which of Solomon’s sons is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 3:10?

24. What are some other names for him?

25. Who would he rule over?

26. What kind of a king will Abia be?

27. What kind of king is Asa?

28. Who reigned in Asa’s stead?

29. What wicked woman did Joram marry?

30. Tell of the reign of Joash?

31. What special thing did Jotham do during his reign?

32. Describe Hezekiah’s reign?

33. What terribly evil thing was Manasseh believed to have done? 34. Which king was blinded and led captive to Babylon?

35. What does "Assir" mean?

Verses 1-9

1Ch 3:1-9

1 Chronicles 3:1-9

"Now these are the sons of David, that were born unto him in Hebron: the first-born, Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess; the third, Absalom, of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; the fifth, Shephatiah of Abital; the sixth, Ithream of Eglah his wife: six were born unto him in Hebron; and there he reigned seven years and six months. And in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years; and these were born unto him in Jerusalem: Shimea, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon, four, of Bathshua the daughter of Ammiel; and Ibhar, and Elishama, and Eliphelet, and Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia, and Elishama, and Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine. All these were the sons of David, besides the sons of concubines; and Tamar was their sister."

E.M. Zerr:

1 Chronicles 3:1-3. Because of friction in the nation, David did not reign over all the tribes at the beginning. Also for that reason he did not at first reign in Jerusalem, but in Hebron. While there he had 6 sons from as many wives. Three of these sons became more or less prominent afterward; Amnon, Absalom and Adonijah. Verse 4. In detailing the years of David’s separate divisions of his reign, the extra 6 months is mentioned. When the reign as a whole is referred to it is stated to be 40 years.

1 Chronicles 3:5-9 - The chief item of interest in this paragraph is the fact that Nathan and Solomon were full brothers, sons of Bath-sheba, here called Bath-shua- The significant thing about that is that the blood line of Christ divides with these brothers. Solomon retains the genealogy that ends on the foster father’s side, and Nathan becomes an ancestor of Mary, the mother of Christ. See the genealogies in Matt- 1 and Luke 3. A reference only is made to the sons of the concubines. That is because a concubine was inferior to a wife in the matter of property rights- There was no moral difference recognized, hence these persons are called sons of David with the same kind of expression as used for the others.

Verses 10-24

1Ch 3:10-24

1 Chronicles 3:10-24

"And Solomon’s son was Rehoboam, Abijah his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son, Amon his son, Josiah his son. And the sons of Josiah: the first-born Johanan, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum. And the sons of Jehoiakim: Jeconiah his son, Zedekiah his son. And the sons of Jeconiah, the captive: Shealtiel his son, and Malchiram, and Pedaiah, and Shenazzar, Jekamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. And the sons of Pedaiah: Zerubbabel, and Shimei. And the sons of Zerubbabel: Meshullam and Hananiah; and Shelomith was their sister; and Ashubah, and Ohel, and Berechiah, and Hasachiah, and Jushab-hesed. And the sons of Hananiah: Pelatiah, and Jeshaiah; the sons of Rephaiah, the sons of Arnan, the sons of Obadiah, the sons of Shecaniah. And the sons of Shecaniah: Shemaiah. And the sons of Shemaiah: Hattash, and Igal, amd Bariah, and Neariah, and Shaphat, six. And the sons of Neariah: Elioenai, and Hizkiah, and Azrikam, three. And the sons of Elioenai: Hodaviah, and Eliashib, and Pelaiah, and Akkub, and Johanan, and Delaiah, and Anani, seven."

"Bathshua" (1 Chronicles 3:5). This is obviously just another name for Bathsheba. The Septuagint (LXX) and the Vulgate render the word Bathsheba. Elmslie noted that, "This name is only a variant of the name Bathsheba." Judging from the order of Bathsheba’s sons as listed here, Solomon was the youngest; and one may wonder if David selected him because he himself was the youngest of Jesse’s sons.

The appearance in this chapter of two sons of David named Elishama and two named Eliphelet was explained by Cook as, "Due to a corruption of the text in the first Elishama and to a confusion of the first Eliphelet with Elpelet (1 Chronicles 14:5)." The real marvel is that there are so few such problems in lists which are as old as these. Perhaps an even better explanation is that of DeHoff: "It is generally supposed that the first two of those named Elishama and Eliphelet died in infancy and that the names were repeated for children born later."

"And the sons of Shemaiah" (1 Chronicles 3:22). These five words are the second phrase in 1 Chronicles 3:22; and they apparently interrupt the enumeration of Shecaniah’s six sons. Elmslie stated that they should be omitted. Shemaiah would then be properly numbered among Shecaniah’s six sons.

"Most of these genealogies are incomplete with many breaks in the lists; but the main line is there." The line of the Davidic dynasty as well as other significant genealogies pertaining to the religious history of Israel, is here. "These genealogies are thundering proof that the Bible is history and not myth or legend."

E.M. Zerr:

1 Chronicles 3:10-16 - I have made one group of these verses because of the interesting facts that they contain the complete blood line from Solomon to the end of the kingly descendants of Judah- It is a coincidence of interest that the same men who were in the pedigree through that period were also the kings of Judah, Zedekiah being the last man of the line ever to occupy a temporal throne- 1 Chronicles 3:15 shows a break in the line as regards proper succession. Instead of the line running successively from father to son, etc-, three of the sons of Josiah occupied the throne. The transactions of this irregular arrangement are shown in the last chapter of 2 Kings.

1 Chronicles 3:17-24. The account of activities of the people had to be made by the inspired men during the period covered by this paragraph, because they were in captivity in Babylon. Only a part of the line is shown here; for fuller information see Matthew 1:11-16 and Luke 3:24-27 - Jeconiah is called also Coniah and Jehoiachin..

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on 1 Chronicles 3". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/1-chronicles-3.html.
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