Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, July 18th, 2024
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
Take your personal ministry to the Next Level by helping StudyLight build churches and supporting pastors in Uganda.
Click here to join the effort!

Bible Commentaries
Hosea 5

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-7

Hos 5:1-7


TEXT: Hosea 5:1-7

The leaders have enmeshed the people in a net of moral excesses and rebellion. The people are pleased to have it so and refuse to have God in their knowledge. Pride and hypocritical worship testifies that their destruction by God is inevitable.

Hosea 5:1 HearH8085 ye this,H2063 O priests;H3548 and hearken,H7181 ye houseH1004 of Israel;H3478 and give ye ear,H238 O houseH1004 of the king;H4428 forH3588 judgmentH4941 is toward you, becauseH3588 ye have beenH1961 a snareH6341 on Mizpah,H4709 and a netH7568 spreadH6566 uponH5921 Tabor.H8396

Hosea 5:1 HEAR THIS, O YE PRIESTS . . . AND . . . HOUSE OF THE KING . . . UNTO YOU PERTAINETH . . . JUDGMENT . . . When the light of truth begins to flicker and fade, invariably the social and religious leadership is at fault. Men who propose to lead others face an awesome responsibility toward truth and morality. They are charged not only with proclaiming the dogmas of truth but with practicing them! (cf. James 3:1 ff; Romans 2:1 ff). But not only this, both priest and king were charged with enforcing certain moral standards according to law, This, to certain degrees, is still the responsibility of civil government today. Since their responsibility is so great and their sin of trapping the populace in excess so heinous, the wrath of God is directed at these leaders first and foremost.

Zerr: Hosea 5:1. Mizpah and Tabor were prominent places in Palestine, and the complaint of the Lord was that the priests had taken advantage of them to mislead the people of the congregation, It was expected that the priests would be teachers of the people (Leviticus 10:11; Deuteronomy 17:9; Malachi 2:7). But instead of leading them aright, they laid snares for them and got them caught in the meshes of idolatry.

The king of Hosea’s day was either Zechariah or Menahem; possibly both, since Hosea prophesied in both reigns. However, Hosea’s reference to making a military alliance with Assyria (Hosea 5:13) refers to Menahem (2 Kings 15:19-20). Both of these were wicked kings. Mizpah (Ramah-Mizpah of Gilead) and Tabor are both wooded mountains representing east and west of the Jordan, respectively, thus typifying the whole populace of the nation of Israel. The fact that they were wooded hills makes them noted as places peculiarly adapted for bird-trapping.

Hosea 5:2 And the revoltersH7846 are profoundH6009 to make slaughter,H7819 though IH589 have been a rebukerH4148 of them all.H3605

Hosea 5:2 AND THE REVOLTERS ARE GONE DEEP IN MAKING SLAUGHTER . . . Ephraim (Israel) is deeply sunken in excesses. Delitzsch translates the phrase literally, “they understand from the very foundation how to spread out transgressions.” In other words, they have “studied” or “gone to great lengths” to learn how to become more indulgent, more lascivious, (cf. Isaiah 31:6). God rebuked them time and time again, through His law, through the prophets, through natural catastrophes, but their revolt was deeply embedded in their hearts, and they were deeply sunken in the mire of their immoralities. There is nothing left now for God to do but to give them up to total destruction and ruin.

Zerr: Hosea 5:2. A revolter is one who resists authority, and the leaders of Israel had done that very thing. In pursuing their abominable practices they did not shrink from murder when their plots called for that crime.

Hosea 5:3 IH589 knowH3045 Ephraim,H669 and IsraelH3478 is notH3808 hidH3582 fromH4480 me: forH3588 now,H6258 O Ephraim,H669 thou committest whoredom,H2181 and IsraelH3478 is defiled.H2930

Hosea 5:3 I KNOW EPHRAIM . . . THOU HAST PLAYED THE HARLOT . . . God was all too well aware of the unfaithfulness of Israel. His heart was broken; their rottenness sickened Him. Be sure your sin will find you out (Numbers 32:23)!

Zerr: Hosea 5:3. Ephraim, and Israel are named separately as if they were not the same people. The former has specific reference to one of the tribes, but the capital of the 10-tribe kingdom was located in his possessions, hence Ephraim is often used as a name for the kingdom. In the matter of guilt, since the capital was in that possession, it is understandable that much of the evil influence would issue from it.

Hosea 5:4 They will notH3808 frameH5414 their doingsH4611 to turnH7725 untoH413 their God:H430 forH3588 the spiritH7307 of whoredomsH2183 is in the midstH7130 of them, and they have notH3808 knownH3045 the LORD.H3068

Hosea 5:4 THEIR DOINGS WILL NOT SUFFER THEM TO TURN UNTO THEIR GOD . . . What they were doing took possession of them. When a man yields the mind and the members of his body to sin, he becomes a slave to that to which he has yielded (cf. Romans 6:12-23). When one allows himself to be enslaved to falsehood and immoral deeds he at the same time, permits himself to be blinded to truth and goodness. Men love darkness because their deeds are evil (John 3:18-21) and they refuse to come to the light of truth lest their evil deeds be exposed for what they really are—vain, useless, degrading, etc. It was the same spirit of harlotry that possessed them as is referred to in Hosea 4:12 (see our comments there).

Zerr: Hosea 5:4. Frame their doings indicates the planning for the activities, including the teaching that would affect others. These leaders would not plan to turn unto the Lord themselves, nor to lead the people back to Him from their life of unfaithfulness. Spirit of whoredom. This Indicates that they not only had given way to a sinful life, but their controlling principle of life was one of harlotry, to such an extent that they had forgotten the Lord,

Hosea 5:5 And the prideH1347 of IsraelH3478 doth testifyH6030 to his face:H6440 therefore shall IsraelH3478 and EphraimH669 fallH3782 in their iniquity;H5771 JudahH3063 alsoH1571 shall fallH3782 withH5973 them.

Hosea 5:5 AND THE PRIDE OF ISRAEL DOTH TESTIFY TO HIS FACE . . . K & D interpret “the pride of Israel” as “the glory of Israel—Jehovah God.” Thus they make God testify to the face of Israel. Lange and Pussey both interpret the phrase simply—Israel’s arrogant pride. We prefer the last for it seems to suit the context better. Israel is like those of whom Paul wrote, “claiming to be wise, they became fools . . .” “they became futile in their thinking and their senseless minds were darkened . . .” “haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil . . .” (cf. Romans 1:18 ff). “Pride goeth before a fall.” Pride was the very snare of the devil (1 Timothy 3:6-7). Amos 6:8 shows how “the excellency (pride) of Jacob” was the cause of her sin and how abhorrent such pride was to God. Remember that God told Edom “the pride of thine heart hath deceived thee,” (Obadiah Hosea 5:3). So, Israel, will soon know how foolish her pride and haughtiness was. Soon Israel’s insolence will be changed to shame and regret when God’s wrath is poured out. Then will her pride testify to her face that all her arrogance was futile, vain and shameful.

Zerr: Hosea 5:5. Pride . . . testify . . . face. The folly of Israel in being influenced by the dominating pride is in evidence as the prophet writes Ills message. Israel and Ephraim are referring to the same people virtually; see comments at verse 3 (Hosea 5:3). With prophetic eyes the prophet beholds the future of Judah, although at, present the main complaint of the Lord is against Israel. Many of the complaints and predictions being made were true of both divisions of the Jewish people, Israel and Judah.

Judah, too, will be brought to the same shame. Hosea warned Judah (Hosea 4:15) not to take part in Ephraim’s idolatry. Evidently Judah did not heed the warning and became a partaker in Israel’s guilt (cf. Jeremiah 3:6-11).

The Russian communist Zinonieff boasted: “We shall grapple with the Lord God. In due time we shall vanquish him from the highest Heaven, and where he seeks refuge, we shall subdue him forever.” What arrogance, what insolence! American theologians, however, have gone him one better! They have declared God is dead; they have held requiem chorales in honor of his death! This, if anything, is worse than insolence! How longsuffering the mercy of the Omnipotent God! It is a marvel of love and grace that He has not consumed such proud and boastful men with fire as He did of old.

Hosea 5:6 They shall goH1980 with their flocksH6629 and with their herdsH1241 to seekH1245 (H853) the LORD;H3068 but they shall notH3808 findH4672 him; he hath withdrawnH2502 himself fromH4480 them.

Hosea 5:6 THEY SHALL GO WITH THEIR FLOCKS . . . TO SEEK JEHOVAH; BUT THEY SHALL NOT FIND HIM . . . These hypocrites, when disaster seems ready to strike, will bring thousands of lambs to the places of sacrifices, and gallons of oil (cf. Micah 6:6-8), but they will have left off the weighter matters of the law, mercy, righteousness and justice. Their sacrifices will not be offered with penitent hearts, or in faith. Their worship will be ritualistic, from hearts sunken deep in sin, wishing only to be saved in their sins, not saved from their sins. God will not honor such worship for the simple reason such worship does not honor Him, He will not hear their prayers for the simple reason such prayers are not directed to Him. Isaiah had a great deal to say about such sham worship (cf. Isaiah 1:10-20). It is not the “trampling of the courts” of God that counts with Him so much as “willingness and obedience” (Isaiah 1:19). These were a people who honored God with their lips but their hearts were far from Him (cf. Isaiah 29:13-16; Matthew 15:1-20).

Zerr: Hosea 5:6. The thought intended by this verse may be realized some better by making it read, "Although they go with their flocks” etc,, they shall not find him. The Lord had called for these articles of service by the law, therefore it might seem strange to have Him withdraw so that the people could not find him. This apparent contradiction is explained in a comprehensive note at Isaiah 1:10.

Hosea 5:7 They have dealt treacherouslyH898 against the LORD:H3068 forH3588 they have begottenH3205 strangeH2114 children:H1121 nowH6258 shall a monthH2320 devourH398 them withH854 their portions.H2506

Hosea 5:7 THEY HAVE DEALT TREACHEROUSLY AGAINST JEHOVAH . . . The word translated “treacherously” is bagad which means to act faithlessly and is frequently applied to the infidelity of a wife towards her husband. We are not surprised that Hosea would use such a word. Gomer acted treacherously toward Hosea when she deserted him for her paramours. Israel acted like that toward her husband, God, when she went off after her idols. Such idolatry, from the very beginning of the nation under Jeroboam, has produced generation after generation of “strange” children (idolaters).

Zerr: Hosea 5:7. The treachery of which they were guilty consisted in mingling their blood with the people of other nations. The Lord wished to maintain a pure blood down through the ages, and to do so It was necessary for His people to marry within the Jewish families. The children born of these un-lawful unions were considered strange because that word means "outside.” Month is used indefinitely, meaning their ruin would be accomplished in a short time after it began.

Israel should have produced generation after generation of children worshipping the Lord God in spirit and truth. Quite to the contrary, however, each generation became more idolatrous and immoral than the next, They retained just enough of the Mosaic forms of worship to ease their hypocritical hearts and salve their conscience. But, says God, your hypocritical worship is not going to save you—no, it is going to bring about your destruction. This is the meaning of the phrase, “now shall the new moon devour them . . .”


1. Why do those who propose to be leaders of God’s people face an awesome task?

2. How deeply were the people involved in their sin?

3. Why were these Israelites not able to turn to God?

4. Why is pride dangerous? How does it bring men to shame?

5. Why would Israel’s sacrifices not be noticed by God?

Verses 8-15

Hos 5:8-15


TEXT: Hosea 5:8-15

First Israel, then Judah, because they have broken spiritual boundaries of God’s law, must be afflicted in captivity in order that they will repent and seek God’s face.

Hosea 5:8 BlowH8628 ye the cornetH7782 in Gibeah,H1390 and the trumpetH2689 in Ramah:H7414 cry aloudH7321 at Bethaven,H1007 afterH310 thee, O Benjamin.H1144

Hosea 5:8 BLOW YE THE CORNET IN GIBEAH . . . AT BETH-AVEN; BEHIND THEE . . . BENJAMIN, The “cornet” here is the shophar, “far-sounding horn” used to warn of war (cf. Joel 2:1; Amos 3:6). It signaled invasion by enemies or attack by foes. Gibeah and Ramah were cities, about 3 and 8 miles north of Jerusalem, situated on higher terrain than Jerusalem and thus well adapted for sounding such signals to the countryside. Furthermore, since they are near the southern broders of the northern kingdom, Israel, we may infer that the enemy (Assyria) has already conquered the northern kingdom or is at least pressing upon its border. The phrase, “behind thee, O Benjamin,” means that Assyria is knocking on the rear doors of Benjamin (northern most territory of Judah). The judgment of God (to be administered through Assyria—cf. Isaiah 10) has already broken out in the rear of Benjamin.

Zerr: Hosea 5:8. Trumpets were used to sound any alarm of danger that might come or threaten to come on the nation (Numbers 10:1-5; Numbers 31:6). The language is used here by way of prediction that the country would be attacked by an enemy force.

Hosea 5:9 EphraimH669 shall beH1961 desolateH8047 in the dayH3117 of rebuke:H8433 among the tribesH7626 of IsraelH3478 have I made knownH3045 that which shall surely be.H539

Hosea 5:10 The princesH8269 of JudahH3063 wereH1961 like them that removeH5253 the bound:H1366 therefore I will pour outH8210 my wrathH5678 uponH5921 them like water.H4325

Hosea 5:9-10 EPHRAIM SHALL BECOME A DESOLATION . . . THE PRINCES OF JUDAH ARE LIKE THEM THAT REMOVE THE LANDMARK . . . The Hebrew word which is here translated “desolation” is the same word found in Deuteronomy 28:59 where it is translated “afflictions severe and lasting . . .” Some commentators say the word means literally, “lasting, enduring.” Others (Lange, esp.) say it means . . . true, what will surely be fulfilled, certain. God’s judgment upon Israel is certain and complete. The kingdom of Israel will disappear forever. And this sentence of God has been abundantly advertised and preached by one prophet of God after another.

Zerr: Hosea 5:9. Ephraim is used to mean the 10-tribc kingdom, otherwise called Israel. Day of rebuke refers to the time when the country was to be invaded and the people carried off into exile. Hosea 5:10. Judah is brought into the prediction because she also was destined to be punished for her departures from the Lord. "When the pouring of water" is used figuratively, it denotes an overflowing of some kind of misfortune. The people of God were destined to be invaded by the heathen nations.

The cause for this severe and lasting judgment upon both Israel and Judah, is that Judah, like Israel before her, is ruled by princes and kings who are like “those who remove the landmark . . .” For the Mosaic legislation against removing landmarks see Deuteronomy 27:17. God set the boundaries of the tribes in the land of promise—they were not to be moved. But the princes of Judah are like those who remove boundaries. Evidently the princes of Judah were violating the spiritual, moral boundaries of God’s law. By going after idols (like Israel had) they transgressed, broke and set-aside the boundaries or marks of spiritual relationship to Jehovah-God. There is no saving relationship or covenant relationship when God’s revealed boundaries are set aside. Those today who would set aside the boundaries of New Testament covenant relationship are as guilty as the princes of Judah. “There is salvation in none other . . .” (Acts 4:12); “. . . no one comes unto the Father except through Jesus Christ" (John 14:6); “. . . whoever abides not in the doctrine of Christ but goes beyond it . . .” (2 John 1:9-10) is a boundry-breaker. Any attempt to syncretize Christianity with all the other “isms” of the world religions, or any attempt to built an ecumenical church by taking away the revealed and absolute boundaries of God is judged by God! God will empty the “bowls of His wrath” upon such boundary-breakers—He will pour out his wrath like a cloudburst and they will be drowned in the flood of His vengeance.

Hosea 5:11 EphraimH669 is oppressedH6231 and brokenH7533 in judgment,H4941 becauseH3588 he willinglyH2974 walkedH1980 afterH310 the commandment.H6673

Hosea 5:12 Therefore will IH589 be unto EphraimH669 as a moth,H6211 and to the houseH1004 of JudahH3063 as rottenness.H7538

Hosea 5:11-12 EPHRAIM IS OPPRESSED . . . BECAUSE HE WAS CONTENT TO WALK AFTER MAN’S COMMAND . . . I AM TO EPHRAIM AS A MOTH . . . TO JUDAH . . . AS ROTTENNESS. Moth and rottenness are symbols of destroying influences. Those influences are, of course, the absolute Promises of God which pronounce either blessing or curse depending upon the free-willed response of His creatures. If man responds to the Word of God by obedience and faith, God becomes to man a blessing, a glory, a hope; but if man responds to the warnings of God by rebellion, God becomes to man a destroyer, avenger and judge. So, God directs the oppression and destruction of Israel and Judah because they were content to fulfill their desires and worship the idols Jeroboam and his successors commanded should be worshipped. The people “exchanged the truth of God for the commandment of lying kings and priests,” and worshipped the creature rather than the Creator. They taught for the commandments of God the traditions of men (cf. Isaiah 29:13; Matthew 15:8-9). How shall peoples and nations today escape the judgment of God when their leaders lead them to be content to walk after man’s commandment and set aside the boundaries of God!?

Zerr: Hosea 5:11. The commandment could not mean that, of the Lord, for that would not have been condemned. We know, therefore, that, it refers to some idolatrous ordinance. It is the one in 1 Kings 12:28-30, where Jereboam made the idols and told the people to worship them, which they did. Hosea 5:12. Again the two divisions of the Jewish people, Ephraim (Israel) and Judah, are named in the predictions of God’s wrath. A moth consumes the material which it attacks, and the Lord decreed to attack his unfaithful people in time to come.

Hosea 5:13 When EphraimH669 sawH7200 (H853) his sickness,H2483 and JudahH3063 saw(H853) his wound,H4205 then wentH1980 EphraimH669 toH413 the Assyrian,H804 and sentH7971 toH413 kingH4428 Jareb:H3377 yet couldH3201 heH1931 notH3808 healH7495 you, norH3808 cureH1455 H4480 you of your wound.H4205

Hosea 5:13 WHEN EPHRAIM SAW HIS SICKNESS . . . THEN WENT EPHRAIM TO ASSYRIA . . . Both Israel and Judah are denounced for making alliances with Assyria. It is not so much that alliances or agreements among nations, per se, are displeasing to God, but the motive which prompts them. In the case of Israel and Judah the alliances were an affront to God because they were motivated by an almost complete rejection of Him. Israel and Judah, having enjoyed special revelation, privilege, protection and sustenance from God, now spurned and haughtily disregarded any notion of dependence upon Jehovah. They persuaded themselves that protection, economic prosperity and cultural development could not be found by international cooperation in commerce, politics and, most ruinous of all, religion. See Special Study Five of this commentary for a history of the politics of the divided kingdoms.

Zerr: Hosea 5:13. Ephraim saw his sickness means he was confronted with a dangerous situation, which was the pres-ence of a foreign king (2 Kings 15:19). Judah sent to Jareb which Strong defines. “A symbolical name for Assyria." The name seems to be used figuratively and means that Judah sought help from an outside source instead of God,

When any nation exchanges trust in God for trust in man-made treaties, it only exhibits its ignorance and foolhardiness. In the first place, God’s word condemns such misplaced trust (cf. Psalms 118:8-9; Hosea 7:11; Psalms 146:3; Proverbs 14:34, etc.). In the second place, history proves that international treaties are hardly worth the paper they are written upon—and they will always be that way because of the unregenerate hearts of world leaders! General of the Army, Douglas MacArthur, a spiritually-minded man, perhaps the greatest American (both soldier and statesman) who ever lived, said, in his address before joint session of Congress, April 19, 1951:

“Men since the beginning of time have sought peace. Various methods through the ages have been attempted to devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between nations. From the very start, workable methods were found insofar as individual citizens were concerned; but the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope have never been successful. Military alliances, balances of power, leagues of nations, all in turn failed, leaving the only path to be by way of the crucible of war. The utter destructiveness of war now blots out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we will not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at the door. The problem basically is theological and involves a spiritual recrudescence and improvement of human character that will synchronize with our almost matchless advances in science, art, literature, and all material and cultural developments of the past 2,000 years. It must be of the spirit if we are to save the flesh.

“But once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end. War’s very object is victory—not prolonged indecision. In war, indeed, there can be no substitute for victory.”

This same God-fearing man, who served for over half a century, through three major world conflicts and scores of minor ones, who displayed a statesmanship as great as any the world has ever known in rebuilding the nation of Japan, allowed himself to be guided by this philosophy: “. . . men may be destroyed by what they have, and what they know, but they may be saved by what they are . . .”

America, so fond of boasting of her “economic and military strength—the greatest, most powerful nation on earth,” needs to heed the word of God and learn from MacArthur, a great student of history, that greatness comes, “not by might nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord” (Zechariah 4:6).

The word “Jareb” means literally, contender and was probably an epithet devised by Hosea to denote the warrior-like nature of the king of Assyria (see our Paraphrase).

Hosea 5:14 ForH3588 IH595 will be unto EphraimH669 as a lion,H7826 and as a young lionH3715 to the houseH1004 of Judah:H3063 I,H589 even I,H589 will tearH2963 and go away;H1980 I will take away,H5375 and noneH369 shall rescueH5337 him.

Hosea 5:15 I will goH1980 and returnH7725 toH413 my place,H4725 tillH5704 H834 they acknowledge their offence,H816 and seekH1245 my face:H6440 in their afflictionH6862 they will seek me early.H7836

Hosea 5:14-15 . . . I WILL BE UNTO EPHRAIM AS A LION . . . I WILL GO AND RETURN TO MY PLACE, TILL THEY ACKNOWLEDGE THEIR OFFENCE, AND SEEK MY FACE . . . The figure of God behaving like a lion toward Israel is to depict His ferocity and invincibility. God will be irresistible—like the king of beasts. God rules the universe with an invincible hand. He goes and comes as He pleases—and there are none to gainsay Him or stop Him! He is preparing to carry both Israel and Judah into captivity and all the alliances in the world will not stop Him, (cf. Deuteronomy 32:39; Hosea 13:7-11, etc.).

Zerr: Hosea 5:14. God is always displeased when his people look to strangers for help; it is an indication that they have lost faith in Him. Hence, when these kings of the Jews appealed to the heathen for help, they not only failed to obtain any. but brought down upon them the wrath of the Lord. Hosea 5:15, Return to my place denotes that God would abandon his people to their fate; leave them in the hands of the heathen to whom they had appealed. This was not to be in the spirit of spite or resentment, for God is incapable of such a principle, but it was in order to make them see their folly, and repent. In their affliction they will seek me early is forcefully described in Psalms 137 and the fulfillment may be seen in Ezekiel 37:11, which was written in Babylon at the time it was happening.

God is withdrawing His Presence (Shekinah-glory), His protecting, sustaining Presence, from the covenant people. In so doing it is His purpose to discipline them into a humble, penitent, faithful dependence upon Himself. Such action by God always has as its end His perfect love and blessing, in restoring man to his proper relation to God—of sweet communion, fellowship, dominion and glory (cf. Hebrews 2:1-18; Hebrews 12:1-29; Hebrews 10:32-39; 2 Corinthians 1:3-11; 2 Corinthians 4:16 to 2 Corinthians 5:21, etc.).

The prophet Ezekiel pictured the Presence of God departing from Judah, In Ezekiel chapters 8–10 we see God preparing to forsake the Temple because of the abominations being practiced there, Then, in Ezekiel 11:22-25, God forsakes the Temple, not to return until the Messianic kingdom (the church) is depicted in Ezekiel, chapters 40–48. Ichabod means “the glory has departed from Israel” (cf. 1 Samuel 4:21) and this might be the name emblazoned over the gates of Samaria, Jerusalem and the Temple in the days of Hosea. The condition upon which God promises His return is “acknowledge your offence, and seek my face,” and the method by which God plans to bring about this condition is “in their affliction they will seek me earnestly.” So, Christian, “Count it all joy . . . when you meet various trials, for you know that the testing of your faith produces steadfastness. Blessed is the man who endures trial, for when he has stood the test he will receive the crown of life which God has promised to those who love him.” (James 1:2; James 1:12.)


1. What does the “far-sounding” horn signal? Why warn Judah?

2. How were the princes of Judah breaking God’s boundaries?

3. In what way was Israel “content to walk after man’s command?”

4. What warning did Hosea give Israel and Judah about international alliances?

5. What have great leaders of our own country said about alliances?

6. How is God like a lion in His actions toward Israel and Judah?

7. When did God withdraw from Israel? When did His Presence return?

8. What are the conditions and what is the method God uses to restore His Presence?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Hosea 5". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/hosea-5.html.
Ads FreeProfile