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Bible Commentaries
Jeremiah 30

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-3

Jer 30:1-3

Jeremiah 30:1-3

The word that came to Jeremiah from Jehovah, saying, Thus speaketh Jehovah, the God of Israel, saying, Write thee all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book. For, lo, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will turn again the captivity of my people Israel and Judah, saith Jehovah; and I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.

Write all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book...

(Jeremiah 30:2). We can find no grounds whatever for agreement with the usual scholarly proposition that this commandment regarding the placing of Jeremiah’s prophecies in a book applied only to this chapter and perhaps two or three other chapters additionally. Do those chapters include all the words that God spoke to Jeremiah? No matter what men say, the answer to that is negative.

What we have here is exactly the same commandment found again in Jeremiah 36:2, where God said to Jeremiah: "In the fourth year of Jehoiachim ... the word came from Jehovah to Jeremiah, saying, Take thee a roll of a book, and write therein all the words that I have spoken unto thee against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the nations, from the day I spake unto thee, from the days of Josiah, even unto this day."

This passage, along with what is written here, indicates that all of Jeremiah’s prophecies were carefully written down and preserved by him in a book. How else, do the scholars suppose we now possess his book, after so many centuries have fled away? The very existence of the book of Jeremiah in the sacred Hebrew Canon is the only proof needed that Jeremiah did what God commanded him to do. Of course, this glimpse of the truth plays havoc with all the speculative editors, redactors, and interpolators used in the imaginative guesses of Bible critics.

Keil mentioned a Dr. J. D. Michaelis who took the same view of these passages as the one taken here; and although Keil disagreed with him, he gave no reason whatever for doing so.

The days are coming...

(Jeremiah 30:3). These words look toward eschatological times. Jeremiah is contemplating the distant, not the near, future of the nation; and these words strike the keynote for the entire group of four chapters beginning here.

Yes, there is a definite promise here of the return of Israel to "the land" which God gave to their fathers; but the real fulfillment of this came, not in the return of a few Jews to Jerusalem, but in the ingathering of Jews and Gentiles alike into the kingdom of heaven under the preaching of the Gospel of Christ.

I will turn again the captivity of my people...

(Jeremiah 30:3). This expression in the Bible is sometimes used where no captivity of any kind is in view (Job 42:10; Ezekiel 16:53). In many passages, therefore, where this expression occurs, the meaning is, I will reverse or restore the fortunes. It was the captivity of Israel in their sins that was the principal concern of the Lord, as indicated by Jesus’ use of similar words in Luke 4:18.

My people Israel and Judah...

(Jeremiah 30:3). Thompson was impressed with the use of both these designations here and thought that, It indicates that both the southern and northern kingdoms of Israel were included in God’s plans for the future. However, the unification of all Israel in this passage has no reference whatever to the two kingdoms. It is the New Israel which will accomplish the fulfillment of God’s will in the future; and that Israel will not only include all of racial Israel, including both the northern tribes and the southern kingdom, but also the Gentiles as well.

JEREMIAH’S FAITH IN THE FUTURE

Jeremiah 30:1 to Jeremiah 33:26

Chapters 30–33, the so-called Book of Consolation, is the only consistently hopeful section of the Book of Jeremiah. It is likely that these chapters date to the tenth year of Zedekiah (588 B.C.). At least that is the date assigned to chapters 32 and 33. Chapters 30 and 31 have been assigned to periods all the way from the time of Josiah to the governorship of Gedaliah. While one cannot be absolutely certain about the dating of these two chapters, it is reasonable to assume that they were written at the same time as chapters 32 and 33. These were dark days for Judah and for Jeremiah. The Chaldean army was at the gates of Jerusalem. The city was experiencing the famine, pestilence and misery connected with siege operations. Jeremiah himself had been imprisoned in “the court of the guard” as a suspected traitor. Even though events had proved him to be speaking truth with regard to the fate of Jerusalem, still the people refused to acknowledge Jeremiah as the man of God that he was. They rather suspected that he was collaborating with the enemy. These dark and dire days gave birth to one of the most beautiful passages in the entire Bible. Here is the positive aspect of the prophet’s ministry. He is now beginning “to build and to plant” (Jeremiah 1:10). At times during his ministry Jeremiah had been permitted to have a glimpse of the events which were beyond the judgment. But this section of the book is unique in that here the focus is upon hope and salvation. Here the prophet treats the great themes of the destruction of Babylon; the return of God’s people; the reunification of Israel and Judah; the coming of Messiah and the establishment of His kingdom.

From the literary standpoint this section contains the following elements: an introduction (Jeremiah 30:1-3); a collection of poetic oracles (Jeremiah 30:4 to Jeremiah 31:22); two collections of prose sermons (Jeremiah 31:23-40; Jeremiah 32:26 to Jeremiah 33:26); a narrative account of a symbolic act (Jeremiah 32:1-15); a prayer for enlightenment (Jeremiah 32:16-25). A topical analysis of the material in these chapters suggests the following outline: (1) the promise of restoration (Jeremiah 30:4-24); (2) the blessings of restoration (Jeremiah 31:1-40); and (3) confidence in restoration (Jeremiah 32:1 to Jeremiah 33:26).

INTRODUCTION Jeremiah 30:1-3

The first three verses of chapter 30 serve to introduce the Book of Consolation. Here Jeremiah is commanded by the Lord to record in a book the words which God had spoken to him concerning the future of the nation. While some scholars think that the “book” mentioned here comprises only chapters 30.31, it is probably best to include chapters 32–33 as well. Unlike the collection of prophecies referred to in chapter Jeremiah 36:1-6, this “book” does not seem to be intended for public proclamation but rather for the personal comfort of the prophet. This is suggested by the words “write for your own sake” (Jeremiah 30:2). The Hebrew word member (book) can refer to any size document from a single page to an extensive treatise.

Chapters 30–33 have been described as “a little green oasis” in the midst of a “dry and barren desert." Jeremiah 30:3 sets the tone of the whole section. The reason Jeremiah is to compile another book is because there are glorious things for the covenant people. “Behold! days are coming” is an expression which points to a certain, but indefinite, time in the future. Three wonderful things are stipulated as part of those future days. (1) God will turn again the captivity i.e., reverse the fortunes of His people. (2) Israel and Judah will once again be reunited. (3) God’s people will return to the land which He had given to their fathers.

Verses 4-11

Jer 30:4-11

Jeremiah 30:4-7

And these are the words that Jehovah spake concerning Israel and concerning Judah. For thus saith Jehovah: We have heard a voice of trembling, of fear, and not of peace. Ask ye now, and see whether a man doth travail with child: wherefore do I see every man with his hands on his loins, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness? Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob’s trouble; but he shall be saved out of it.

Alas for that day...

(Jeremiah 30:7). Payne Smith, and others have understood this day to be the day when the armies of the Medo-Persians approached Babylon to destroy it; but we cannot believe that was the day of Jacob’s trouble. That was evidently the day of Babylon’s trouble!

That day is great. there is none like it .....

(Jeremiah 30:7) The unique day in view here, it appears to us, must be understood as the Judgment of the Great Day. See Amos 5:18 f and the first two chapters of Zephaniah. The great day mentioned here is not the day of the destruction of Jerusalem, nor the day of the destruction of Babylon. It is the Day of the Lord, a significant eschatological theme. Keil agreed with this, pointing out that the passage is an imitation of Joel 2:2. where that prophet, for the first time presents the idea of the great day of Judgment to come on all nations.

Jeremiah 30:8-11

And it shall come to pass in that day, saith Jehovah of hosts, that I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds; and strangers shall no more make him their bondman; but they shall serve Jehovah their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them. Therefore fear thou not, O Jacob my servant, saith Jehovah; neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I will save thee from afar, and thy seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be quiet and at ease, and none shall make him afraid. For I am with thee, saith Jehovah, to save thee: for I will make a full end of all the nations whither I have scattered thee, but I will not make a full end of thee; but I will correct thee in measure, and will in no wise leave thee unpunished.

Yoke from off thy neck...

(Jeremiah 30:8). Only in the most preliminary way can this refer to the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar on the neck of Jacob. What is meant is the liberation of God’s people from all foreign oppressors; and that could be accomplished only by the glorious intervention of Israel’s Messianic king. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to the further exploration of that theme.

Caesar was the name of a Roman emperor; but the name, in time, became a title for many subsequent emperors. Among the Jews, the same thing happened. David was the name of one of their kings; but, in time, it came to be the title of Messiah himself, "The Son of David" (Matthew 1:1). "It is very significant that in the prophetic scriptures the resurrection of David himself is never predicted as an antecedent to the rule of his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, on the Davidic throne."

They shall serve Jehovah their God, and David their king...

(Jeremiah 30:9). Note the parallelism. David their king, Messiah, is indeed God come in the flesh. Serving Christ is serving God. Some have missed the point here. Henderson noted that, The prophecy that the Jews would serve Messiah has hitherto had only a very partial fulfillment, yet the time is coming when they all shall adore him as their Saviour and their King. Such a comment overlooks the truth that All Israel, that is, All the true Israel are already serving Messiah. To construe this prophecy as a notion that all racial Israel shall ever adore Christ is a gross mistake.

Jacob my servant...

(Jeremiah 30:10). Theme of Jacob, or Israel, as God’s servant is more fully developed in Isaiah in the series of passages called The Servant Songs. (Isaiah 41:8-14; Isaiah 43:1-7; Isaiah 44:1-2; Isaiah 51:1 f; Isaiah 53, etc.).

Full end of all the nations. not a full end of thee .....

(Jeremiah 30:11). Ammon, Moab, Edom, Assyria, etc. no longer exist; but the nation of Israel is still on earth. How do critics explain this without designating it a predictive prophecy?

THE PROMISE OF RESTORATION Jeremiah 30:4-24

In Chapter 30 the focus is upon the promise of restoration to the homeland. Running throughout the chapter are four points of emphasis: (1) The yoke is removed from Jacob; (2) the wounds of Zion are healed; (3) the restored community is blessed; and (4) the pur poses of God are certain. Hall has presented an appealing outline of this chapter: Divine Judgment (Jeremiah 30:4-11); Divine Chastisement (Jeremiah 30:12-17); Divine Blessing (Jeremiah 30:18-22); Divine Purpose (Jeremiah 30:23-24).

The Promise to Enslaved Israel Jeremiah 30:4-11

The deliverance of Israel from servitude to Babylon will be preceded by a period of great trouble for Israel. The day of distress must precede the day of deliverance.

1. The day of distress (Jeremiah 30:4-7)

Jeremiah begins the prophecy which is to contain the promise of deliverance in a manner that will intensify the contrast that is coming. He describes in graphic terms the distress that Jacob, the entire covenant nation, is to experience. He hears the people saying, “We have heard a voice (or sound) of trembling, of fear, and not of peace” (Jeremiah 30:5). A great host is advancing. The people must submit themselves to the uncertainties and horrors of war and siege; they are scared. Convulsive pain grips the men of the nations so that they clutch their loins like a woman in travail (Jeremiah 30:6). That day of trouble which ushers in deliverance for the people of God will be great in suffering and distress (Jeremiah 30:7). This period of fearful tumult and upheaval is called “the time of Jacob’s trouble” (Jeremiah 30:7). Although there are several periods of discipline, judgment, adversity and persecution of the people of God this is the only use of the term “the time of Jacob’s trouble in Scripture.

It is not easy to determine precisely what period of time is being described in Jeremiah 30:5-7. Three basic views can be found among the commentators. (a) Some regard the time of Jacob’s trouble to be the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. According to this view Jeremiah is describing something that was presently taking place. (b) Others see here a prediction of confusion and fear that would grip the Jews at the fall of the Babylonian empire in 539 B.C. As this view would interpret it, the exiles in Babylonia would share the consternation of their captors when the Persians armies started marching south toward Babylon. (c) A third interpretation would regard the “time of Jacob’s trouble” as a period that is yet future. It is not uncommon to find commentators who regard the prefillment of the passage in the events of 539 B.C. while regarding the fulfillment to be yet future.

The present writer is inclined to think that the period of Jacob’s trouble began with the first deportation of Israelites to foreign soil in 733 B.C. This deportation certainly launched a day of distress for the covenant people. First they were oppressed by the Assyrians and then by the Babylonians. The calamity predicted by all the prophets had begun. With the final crushing blow in 587 B.C. the nation ceased to exist. Israel was a people without a land. The time of Jacob’s trouble extended to 539 B.C. when Babylon fell to the Persians and the exiles were allowed by the benevolent Cyrus to return to their homeland. This was the act that saved Israel in the day of distress (Jeremiah 30:7).

2. The day of deliverance (Jeremiah 30:8-11)

In stark contrast to the time of Jacob’s trouble is the glorious day of his deliverance. The yoke of the oppressor will be shattered and the bonds of captivity will be loosed. Foreigners would not subject Israel to bondage anymore (Jeremiah 30:8).

The question arises whether or not Jeremiah 30:8 refers exclusively to the deliverance from Babylonian bondage which occurred in 539 B.C. Two facts might lead one to think that the reference reaches beyond 539 B.C. First, the name of the oppressor is omitted. More weighty is the statement that foreigners would no more subject Israel to bondage. Of course, history records that Israel was subject to foreign powers after the fall of Babylon—Persia, Greece, the Ptolemaic and Seleucid empires and finally the Romans. If Jeremiah 30:8 refers exclusively to the release from Babylonian captivity then the last clause must be taken to mean that never again would Israel experience a bondage such as they experienced under the Babylonians. Never again would they be carried away en masse to a foreign land. The other alternative is to regard Jeremiah 30:8 as a general prediction that God would shatter the yoke of any nation which tried to oppress Israel down to the time that Messiah would come.

Once the yoke of the Assyrian-Babylonian captivity is removed from the neck of Israel, once more they would be able to worship and serve the Lord in their homeland. Freedom of religion is the highest form of liberty. They would also serve “David their king” whom the Lord would raise up for them. In this verse Jeremiah is reiterating the prediction of Hosea 3:5. This verse does not imply that David will literally reappear to rule over Israel as some modern cults have alleged. Rather it is the Messiah about whom the prophet speaks. Elsewhere He is spoken of under the name David as well (e.g., Ezekiel 34:23-24; Ezekiel 37:24). There is obviously a time gap between the two halves of Jeremiah 30:9. As an alternative Laetsch argues that long before Bethlehem the Messiah was worshiped. Frequently in predictive prophecy events which are separated by centuries of time are woven together as if they followed one another in immediate chronological order.

In view of the fact that God has promised a grand deliverance to His people they need not be terrified at the horrors of the present day. God will deliver them from the land of exile no matter how distant it may be. Jacob shall one day return to his own land there to dwell peaceably (Jeremiah 30:10). This deliverance will be possible for two reasons: (a) The Lord is with them to deliver them; and (b) God will utterly destroy the nations which had taken Israel captive (Jeremiah 30:11). Throughout the bitterness of the day of distress Israel should realize that God has not utterly rejected them. He is discipline them “in measure,” literally, according to what is just. In bringing judgment upon Israel God was not acting capriciously or merely to satisfy a feeling of revenge. Israel must be punished; but that punishment had a positive purpose. Through exile and suffering Israel would experience a national regeneration. The nation would be purged and purified from idolatry in preparation for the coming of Messiah.

Verses 12-17

Jer 30:12-17

Jeremiah 30:12-17

For thus saith Jehovah, Thy hurt is incurable, and thy wound grievous. There is none to plead thy cause, that thou mayest be bound up: thou hast no healing medicines. All thy lovers have forgotten thee; they seek thee not: for I have wounded thee with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one, for the greatness of thine iniquity, because thy sins were increased. Why criest thou for thy hurt? thy pain is incurable: for the greatness of thine iniquity, because thy sins were increased, I have done these things unto thee. Therefore all they that devour thee shall be devoured; and all thine adversaries, every one of them, shall go into captivity; and they that despoil thee shall be a spoil, and all that prey upon thee will I give for a prey. For I will restore health unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy wounds, saith Jehovah; because they have called thee an outcast, [saying], It is Zion, whom no man seeketh after.

Thy hurt is incurable. I will heal thee of thy wounds .....

(Jeremiah 30:12; Jeremiah 30:17). From the human standpoint, there was no remedy for the condition of Israel, but God would supply the healing and restoration which were impossible from any other source.

Notice how the metaphors are multiplied here. There is an incurable sickness; there is a terrible wound; there are no medicines available; there is a lawsuit and no one to plead the cause of the defendant; all of Israel’s lovers have forsaken her!

Thy lovers have forgotten thee...

(Jeremiah 30:14). These were the surrounding nations upon which Israel had relied for help against Babylon.

The greatness of thine iniquity . .. thy sins were increased...

(Jeremiah 30:15). The terrible punishment which God decreed for Israel was fully justified and amply deserved by the apostate people.

The Plight of Apostate Israel Jeremiah 30:12-17

After soaring ahead in the time to the grand day of Israel’s deliverance the prophet now returns to the present plight of the nation. He first indicates in some detail the present sad situation of Israel, then points out reasons for that condition, and finally moves forward positively to predict deliverance for the nation.

In a few bold strokes of the pen Jeremiah paints a picture of the present wretched condition of Israel. The nation has an incurable wound (Jeremiah 30:12) for which there are no healing medicines (Jeremiah 30:13 b). No one pleads for the nation at the judgment bar of God where their own iniquities condemn them (Jeremiah 30:13 a) Jeremiah has woven together two different figures of speech in Jeremiah 30:12-13. This is a characteristic of his writing. The nation has been forgotten by her lovers i.e., her allies who had encouraged her to revolt against Babylon (Jeremiah 30:14 a). The Lord Himself has treated Israel like an enemy. He has smitten them so severely that it would appear He was their implacable foe (Jeremiah 30:14 b).

Attacked! Devoured! Carried away! How did Israel come to be in such desperate straits? Twice the prophet indicates the reason for the present plight. “Because of the multitude of your iniquities, because your sins are great.” The chastisement of Israel was well deserved because of the enormous guilt piled up by their innumerable sins (Jeremiah 30:14-15).

The thought in the paragraph takes a sharp turn at Jeremiah 30:16. The word “therefore” at the beginning of the verse is most significant. Because of the extremity of your need, therefore I will intervene on your behalf. Because you are unable to aid yourself, therefore I will act on your behalf. Because I have afflicted you so severely for your sins, therefore I will now mete out to your tormentors their rightly-deserved punishment. The end of the present plight will come when God brings punishment upon all the adversaries of Israel (Jeremiah 30:16). Humanly speaking the case of Israel was hopeless. But God, the great and gracious Physician, then turns his attention to the wounds of Israel. Zion’s health is restored despite all the ridicule of her enemies. The sneering enemies had called Zion an “outcast” for whom no one was concerned. Yet the day will surely come when God in an act of pure grace will restore the nation (Jeremiah 30:17).

Verses 18-22

Jer 30:18-22

Jeremiah 30:18-22

Thus saith Jehovah: Behold, I will turn again the captivity of Jacob’s tents, and have compassion on his dwelling-places; and the city shall be builded upon its own hill, and the palace shall be inhabited after its own manner. And out of them shall proceed thanksgiving and the voice of them that make merry: and I will multiply them, and they shall not be few; I will also glorify them, and they shall not be small. Their children also shall be as aforetime, and their congregation shall be established before me; and I will punish all that oppress them. And their prince shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them; and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto me: for who is he that hath had boldness to approach unto me? saith Jehovah. And ye shall be my people, and I will be your God.

I will turn again the captivity of Jacob’s tents...

(Jeremiah 30:18). The mention of tents here does not mean that most of the people were still nomads, dwelling in tents, because the parallelism stresses dwelling-places in the next line. These verses look to the time when Israel’s punishment has been completed and a marvelous prosperity will return to them. The prophet speaks of Judah here as a type of the Church, with Immanuel as her king. The title of all four of the chapters here is The New Covenant; and the racial Israel hardly enters the picture at all.

And the city shall be builded upon its own hill...

(Jeremiah 30:18). The Hebrew word here for ’hill’ means mound (of a ruined city) and corresponds to the Arabic ’tell.’ Notice how many place-names have this word: Tel Aviv (Ezekiel 3:15), Tel el-Amarna (in Egypt), Tel Assar (2 Kings 19:12), Tel Melah and Tel Harsha (Ezra 2:59). For ages, in the East, it was customary to build cities upon the ruins (the tels) of cities that had been destroyed in order to decrease the chance of floods and to strengthen fortifications.

Their prince shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them...

(Jeremiah 30:21). It is the great prophecy of the Christ given by Moses in Deuteronomy 18:15 that explains these clauses. The Anchor Bible renders this whole verses thus:

"Their prince shall be one of their own,

Their ruler shall come from their midst;

And Him I’ll permit to approach me.

For who otherwise would be so bold

As thus to approach me? Yahweh’s word."

Keil tells us that the very words of this verse were used in Exodus 19:6 to denote the approach of Moses to Jehovah on Mount Sinai, thus indicating the priesthood of the prince or ruler mentioned here. It would be difficult to frame a verse more specifically identifying the character of these verses as "Like unto Moses" than what is given here. Moses was priest and king, so is Jesus Christ. Moses was "from the midst of the brethren" even as he prophesied that Christ also would be from the midst of the brethren.

This picture of a ruler-priest finds its Old Testament type also in the example of Melchizedek in Psalms 110.

For these and other reasons we find here a clear prophecy of the Messiah. As Keil expressed it, "Herein is contained the truth, that the sovereignty of Israel, as restored, culminates in the kingdom of the Messiah."

As Thompson noted, "The passage has a peculiarly Messianic ring to it." One such evidence was pointed out by Henderson who wrote of the question asked by God Himself "Who would be so bold as to approach me? ... Such an approach had never been made before; the question is put as something altogether unique."

Furthermore, both Henderson and Albert Barnes translate Jeremiah 30:21 thus, "And his Glorious One shall spring from himself." Such terminology is exclusively applicable to the Messiah. Matthew Henry also concurred in this rendition.

The Picture of Regenerate Israel Jeremiah 30:18-22

Having alluded to the destruction of Israel’s enemies and the restoration to Palestine, the prophet now paints a picture of the regenerate commonwealth of Israel. It is the picture of a happy, prosperous people enjoying freedom and security in their own land. Note the specific promises contained in this paragraph:

(a) the Jews who were taken captive will dwell again in their land as aforetime (Jeremiah 30:18 a). The phrase “I will turn again (Or return to) the captivity of Jacob’s tents” seems to mean that God will muse the desolate, uninhabited tents or dwelling places to be rebuilt and inhabited. Streane thinks literal tents are meant but this is unlikely.

(b) The city of Jerusalem will be rebuilt upon its own hill or mound i.e., on its original site (Jeremiah 30:18 b). Laetsch contends that “city” in this verse, which does not have the article in the Hebrew, is a collective singular referring to every city of Judah.

(c) The palace will be restored and shall be occupied in its usual fashion (Jeremiah 30:18 b). This need not be pressed to mean that the restored community Would have a king (Streane). The word “palace” here may mean nothing more than “governmental building.” Freedman suggests that “palace” here is an allusion to the Temple in Jerusalem.

(d) Thanksgiving and happiness shall characterize the inhabitants of the land (Jeremiah 30:19 a).

(e) The population of the restored community will be greatly increased (Jeremiah 30:19 b).

(f) As aforetime in the golden age of David and Solomon, God will protect them from their adversaries (Jeremiah 30:20).

(g) A glorious Prince shall rule over them (Jeremiah 30:21).

(h) They shall enter into a new relationship with God (Jeremiah 30:22).

A further comment is necessary with regard to Jeremiah 30:21. That this verse is Messianic in character has generally been acknowledged even by Jewish rabbis. The King James Version is somewhat misleading at this point in translating “their nobles.” The American Standard Version is more accurate in reading the singular “their prince.” A still more literal translation of the Hebrew would be “his Glorious One and his Ruler.” The masculine possessive pronoun throughout this passage refers to the nation. Two significant points about this glorious Ruler are brought out in the passage. (a) He shall be a Jewish as opposed to a foreign Prince. Streane sees another possible meaning in the words “from him from his midst.” The expression may mean that the new Ruler will spring from a lowly family. (b) The Prince shall draw near to God without a go-between. This implies that He will be Priest as well as King.

The last clause of Jeremiah 30:21 is extremely difficult. The King James Version renders: “who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto me?” The American Standard Version translates: “who is he that bath had boldness to approach unto me?” Perhaps a better translation would be: “who is he that has staked his life (or risked his life) to approach unto Me?” Under the Old Testament law only priests were permitted to enter the presence of the Lord. The Holy of Holies was open but once a year and then to the high priest alone. One king, Uzziah, tried to usurp the priestly prerogatives and offer incense before the Lord. He was smitten with incurable leprosy. But the glorious Ruler whose coming is predicted in this verse would be Priest as well as King. Zechariah a few years later would make it crystal clear that the Messiah would be “priest upon his throne” (Zechariah 6:13).

Verses 23-24

Jer 30:23-24

Jeremiah 30:23-24

Behold, the tempest of Jehovah, [even his] wrath, is gone forth, a sweeping tempest: it shall burst upon the head of the wicked. The fierce anger of Jehovah shall not return, until he have executed, and till he have performed the intents of his heart: in the latter days ye shall understand it.

Matthew Henry commented at length upon this revelation of the wrath of God, "as something very terrible, sudden, irresistible, hurtful and sure to accomplish God’s will."

God’s purpose to destroy wickedness from before his presence will be executed with no less precision and power than the execution of his purpose to redeem and bless those who love him.

We have already met with these two verses in Jeremiah 23:19-20; and, of course, radical critics never miss an opportunity to scream "interpolation" or "gloss." We appreciate the marvelous way in which Keil demonstrated that the subtle differences in the two passages are extremely significant in the different contexts and that, "There is thus no good ground for considering these verses a later interpolation into the text."

The purposes of a Sovereign God Jeremiah 30:23 to Jeremiah 31:1

The Hebrew chapter division places Jeremiah 31:1 as the last verse of chapter 30. The three verses of this paragraph serve to point to the purpose of God in history. Jeremiah 30:23-24 are almost identical with the threat made against the false prophets in Jeremiah 23:19 f. Here the words apply to the Gentile enemies of Israel and particularly wicked Babylon. The wrath of God like a whirlwind goes forth to execute the intents of His heart. He will not relent until (a) evil has been punished and (b) the families or clans of Israel acknowledge His lordship. Only in the “latter days,” after the judgment against Babylon has been accomplished, will the people of God fully comprehend the sovereign purposes of God. The “latter days” as envisioned by the Old Testament seers commenced with the coming of Jesus Christ. See Hebrews 1:1; Acts 2:16-17; 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 3:1; 1 John 2:18.

Restoration of Israel - Jeremiah 30:1 to Jeremiah 31:40

Open It

1.What thoughts and feelings would go through your mind if you were told you had an incurable illness?

2. What are the different ways that groups of people celebrate and demonstrate collective joy?

Explore It

3. What did God instruct Jeremiah to do with the words that had been revealed to him? (Jeremiah 30:1-2)

4. What good news summarized God’s plans for the defeated and divided nation? (Jeremiah 30:3)

5. What was the picture of judgment painted by Jeremiah? (Jeremiah 30:4-7)

6. What did Jeremiah predict that Israel would receive instead of its enslavement to foreign nations? (Jeremiah 30:8-9)

7. What two blessings did God say Israel once had and would have again? (Jeremiah 30:10)

8. What would characterize God’s discipline of His own people? (Jeremiah 30:11)

9. What was God’s metaphor for the sinful condition of His people? (Jeremiah 30:12-13)

10. How would the future look different for God’s people and for their enemies? (Jeremiah 30:16-17)

11. What miraculous event would be the occasion for great rejoicing? (Jeremiah 30:18-20)

12. What relationship did God intend to reestablish with all twelve tribes of Israel? (Jeremiah 31:1-2)

13. How did God plan to demonstrate the constancy of His love? (Jeremiah 31:3-6)

14. What picture did Jeremiah paint of the future return of the exiles? (Jeremiah 31:7-8)

15. What attitude did Jeremiah predict for Israel as they returned to the land God had given them? (Jeremiah 31:9)

16. Why did God say He would provide streams of water and a level path? (Jeremiah 31:9)

17. What two key actions did God promise to take on behalf of Israel, allowing them to return to the land? (Jeremiah 31:10-11)

18. What causes for rejoicing would the people of Israel have when God fulfilled His promise? (Jeremiah 31:10-14)

19. What hope for the future did Jeremiah hold out in order to encourage the mourners? (Jeremiah 31:16-17)

20. What hypothetical "conversation" did Jeremiah record between the repentant Ephraim (symbolic of the northern kingdom) and God? (Jeremiah 31:18-20)

21. What would become of the fatalistic proverb that reflected the people’s sense of helplessness and doom? (Jeremiah 31:29-30)

22. What was the new covenant described by Jeremiah? (Jeremiah 31:31-34)

23. How did God illustrate the certainty of His preservation of the descendants of Israel? (Jeremiah 31:35-37)

Get It

24. Why was it important for prophecies to be recorded for the future, not just spoken in the present?

25. How is God’s justice balanced with His mercy in the messages of Jeremiah?

26. Given the fact that our sinfulness is incurable, how can we be made right with God?

27. How attainable do peace and security seem in our day?

28. What kind of devotion does God look for in a leader?

29. What sort of behaviors does God model for earthly fathers to imitate?

30. In what sorts of circumstances does it help to know that God is a God of compassion?

31. How would you characterize the people around you with regard to fatalistic outlook?

Apply It

32. Knowing that you can never cure yourself of your sin, how can you express your gratitude to God for His forgiveness?

33. How can you remind yourself of the source of your peace and security each day?

34. How can you imitate God in your role as father, mother, friend, sibling, etc. in a specific situation this week?

Questions On Jeremiah Chapter Thirty

By Brent Kercheville

1 What is the primary point of the forthcoming prophecy (Jeremiah 30:1-3)?

2 What is the first picture given in this prophecy (Jeremiah 30:4-7)?

3 What changes will occur (Jeremiah 30:8-11)? Who will accomplish this?

4 Who can save Israel (Jeremiah 30:12-17)?

Who had Israel depended on to save them?

Did it help?

Who does God say inflicted Israel’s wound?

5 Write down all that God promises to do for his people and explain the meanings (Jeremiah 30:18-24).

6 What is God’s promise to the people (Jeremiah 30:22-24)?

TRANSFORMATION:

How does this relationship change your relationship with God?

What did you learn about him?

What will you do differently in your life?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Jeremiah 30". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/jeremiah-30.html.
 
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