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Bible Commentaries

Peake's Commentary on the Bible

Haggai 1

Verse 1

Haggai 1:1-11 . The Gist of Haggai’ s Sermon on Sep. 1, 520 B.C.

Haggai 1:1 and similar verses are the work of the editor, probably one of Haggai’ s disciples who first wrote down an account of the prophet’ s teaching. After “ by Haggai the prophet” the LXX inserts “ saying, Say.” But though this reading is probably correct, since the address in Haggai 1:3 ff. is to the people rather than to Zerubbabel and Joshua, the whole of Haggai 1:1 after “ by Haggai the prophet” is a later editorial addition from Haggai 2:1 f., the introductory clause being originally identical in form with Haggai 2:1; Haggai 2:10.

Shealtiel, Zerubbabel’ s father, was, according to 1 Chronicles 3:17, one of the sons of Jehoiachin. Zerubbabel’ s office seems to be the same as that to which Gedaliah had been appointed ( Jeremiah 40:5-7; Jeremiah 40:11), and which in the reign of Cyrus had been held by Sheshbazzar ( Ezra 1:8-11). The use of the title peḥ?â h in the case of Zerubbabel and of nâ sî in the case of Sheshbazzar probably does not imply any difference in the status or authority of the two men. Zerubbabel would have no jurisdiction over Samaria.

The title here given to Joshua “ the high priest” or, more literally, “ the great priest,” though applied to Jehoiada ( 2 Kings 12:10) was probably not in use before the age of Josiah, Hilkiah being termed simply “ the priest” ( 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Kings 23:24; but cf. 2 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 22:8, 2 Kings 23:4). According to the late genealogy in 1 Chronicles 6:13-15 Jehozadak, Joshua’ s father, was the son of Seraiah and had been carried into exile by Nebuchadnezzar. This statement, however, may be a mere inference by the Chronicler who combined the statement of 2 Kings 25:18 ( Jeremiah 52:24) and the description of Joshua in Hag., and argued that since, according to his view, there were no sacrifices at Jerusalem between 586 and the appointment of Zerubbabel, Joshua must have returned with the latter, and therefore his father, Jehozadak, must have been carried into captivity.

Verses 2-11

Haggai 1:2 . Read mg.

Haggai 1:3 . is a superfluous editorial addition.

Haggai 1:4 . A cieled house was one lined with timber, ordinary houses being left as rough inside as outside. “ This house” means the whole Temple area, as is evident from Haggai 1:14; Haggai 2:3-9.

Haggai 1:5 . Consider your ways: means “ take notice of your experiences.” In Haggai 1:5 Haggai exhorts the people to reflect on their past experiences (described in Haggai 1:6) and in Haggai 1:7 on what will be the experiences of the future, viz. the greater prosperity which will result from the building of the Temple. In the past, hopes have always been disappointed, and the Lord has “ blown upon,” i.e. bewitched the produce of the land.

Haggai 1:7 f. should be placed after Haggai 1:11.

Verses 12-15

Haggai 1:12-15 . The Effect of Haggai’ s Eloquence.— Work was actually begun at the Temple twenty-three days after the first appeal. The phrase “ the remnant” (apparently editorial), probably has the same sense as in Jeremiah 24:8; Jeremiah 40:11; Jeremiah 40:15; Jeremiah 41:10; Jeremiah 41:16; Jeremiah 42:2; Jeremiah 42:15; Jeremiah 42:19, etc., and denotes those who have not been carried away into exile.

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Bibliographical Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Haggai 1". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". 1919.