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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

1 Peter 2

Verse 1

Putting away therefore (αποτεμενοι ουνapothemenoi oun). Second aorist middle participle of αποτιτημιapotithēmi old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cleanse defilements (1 Peter 3:21; James 1:21) or to put off clothing (Romans 13:12; Colossians 3:5.; Ephesians 4:22). Either sense suits here. Therefore (ουνoun) because of the new birth (1 Peter 1:23) and the new life demanded.

Wickedness (κακιανkakian). This old word, from κακοςkakos (evil), in the ancients meant vice of any kind and note πασανpāsan (all) here.

Guile (δολονdolon). Old word (from δελωdelō to catch with bait), deceit.

Hypocrisies (υποκρισειςhupokriseis). Singular (υποκρισινhupokrisin) in the best MSS. See 1 Peter 1:22 (ανυποκριτονanupokriton) and Mark 7:6. for Christ‘s denunciation of hypocrites which the disciples did not understand, including Peter (Matthew 15:16.).

Envies (πτονουςphthonous). Genuine here, not πονουςphonous (murders), as B has it. For the word see Matthew 27:18.

Evil speakings (καταλαλιαςkatalalias). Late word (from καταλαλοςkatalalos defamer, Romans 1:30), in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 12:20. “Backbitings.” For verb see note on 1 Peter 2:12.

Verse 2

As newborn babes (ως αρτιγεννητα βρεπηhōs artigennēta brephē). ρεποςBrephos old word, originally unborn child (Luke 1:41-44), then infant (Luke 2:12), here figuratively, like νηπιοιnēpioi ΑρτιγεννηταArtigennēta is a late and rare compound (Lucian, imperial inscription) from αρτιarti and γενναωgennaō with evident allusion to αναγεγεννημενοιanagegennēmenoi in 1 Peter 1:23, probably meaning that they were recent converts, possibly slight proof that the Epistle written before Romans by Paul (Kuhl).

Long for (επιποτησατεepipothēsate). First aorist (constative) active imperative of επιποτεωepipotheō old verb for intense yearning (Philippians 2:26).

The spiritual milk which is without guile (το λογικον αδολον γαλαto logikon adolon gala). ΓαλαGala is old word for milk as in 1 Corinthians 9:7 and as metaphor in 1 Corinthians 3:2. ΑδολοςAdolos is an old compound (here alone in N.T.) adjective (alpha privative and δολοςdolos deceit), unadulterated milk which, alas, is so hard to get. ΛογικονLogikon is an old adjective in ικος̇ikos from λογοςlogos (reason, speech), in N.T. only here and Romans 12:1, used here with allusion to λογουlogou (1 Peter 1:23) and ρημαrēma (1 Peter 1:25), “the sincere milk of the word” (“the milk belonging to the word,” either the milk which is the word or the milk contained in the word, that is Christ). So Bigg holds. But in Romans 12:1 Paul uses λογικονlogikon in the sense of “rational” or “spiritual,” and that idea is possible here as Hort holds. In the Pelagia legend (Usener) we have the phrase των λογικων προβατων του Χριστουtōn logikōn probatōn tou Christou (the spiritual or rational sheep of Christ).

That ye may grow thereby (ινα εν αυτωι αυχητητεhina en autōi auxēthēte). Purpose clause with ιναhina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of αυχανωauxanō old and common verb to grow. See this same metaphor in Colossians 2:19; Ephesians 4:15. Peter uses the word of God as the food for growth, especially for babes in Christ, not emphasizing the distinction from solid food (βρωμαbrōma) made in 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:13. Salvation (σωτηριανsōtērian) here is final salvation.

Verse 3

If ye have tasted (ει εγευσαστεei egeusasthe). Condition of first class with ειei and first aorist middle indicative of γευωgeuō in figurative sense as in Hebrews 6:4. “A taste excites the appetite” (Bengel).

Gracious (χρηστοςchrēstos). Quotation from Psalm 34:8. The Hebrew for the lxx χρηστοςchrēstos is simply γαλαtobh (good). Plato used the word for food also, and Peter carries out the metaphor in gala (milk) as in Luke 5:39.

Verse 4

Unto whom (προς ονpros hon). The Lord, carrying on the imagery and language of the Psalm.

Coming (προσερχομενοιproserchomenoi). Present middle participle masculine plural of προσερχομαιproserchomai (προσελτατεproselthate in the Psalm) agreeing with the subject of οικοδομειστεoikodomeisthe living stone (λιτον ζωνταlithon zōnta). Accusative case in apposition with ονhon (whom, the Lord Christ). There is apparent an intentional contradiction between “living” and “stone.” Cf. “living hope” in 1 Peter 1:3 and “living word” in 1 Peter 1:23.

Rejected indeed of men (υπο αντρωπων μεν αποδεδοκιμασμενονhupo anthrōpōn men apodedokimasmenon). Perfect passive participle of αποδοκιμαζωapodokimazō old verb to repudiate after test (Luke 9:22), in the accusative case agreeing with λιτονlithon with God (παρα δε τεωιpara de theōi). “By the side of God,” as he looks at it, in contrast with the rejection “by men” (υπο αντρωπωνhupo anthrōpōn).

Elect (εκλεκτονeklekton). From Isaiah 28:6 as in εντιμονentimon (precious, for which see Luke 7:2) rather than δοκιμονdokimon (proved) expected after αποδεδοκιμασμενονapodedokimasmenon as meaning far more in God‘s sight, “a pre-eminence of position with” (Hort).

Verse 5

Ye also as living stones (και αυτοι ως λιτοι ζωντεςkai autoi hōs lithoi zōntes). Peter applies the metaphor about Christ as the living stone to the readers, “ye yourselves also.”

Are built up a spiritual house (οικοδομειστε οικος πνευματικοςoikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). Present passive indicative second person plural of οικοδομεωoikodomeō the very verb used by Jesus to Peter in Matthew 16:18 (οικοδομησωoikodomēsō) of building his church on the rock. If the metaphor of a house of living stones seems “violent” (Vincent), it should be remembered that Jesus employed the figure of a house of believers. Peter just carried it a bit farther and Paul uses a temple for believers in one place (1 Corinthians 3:16) and for the kingdom of God in general (Ephesians 2:22), as does the author of Hebrews (Hebrews 3:6). This “spiritual house” includes believers in the five Roman provinces of 1 Peter 1:1 and shows clearly how Peter understood the metaphor of Christ in Matthew 16:18 to be not a local church, but the church general (the kingdom of Christ).

To be a holy priesthood (εις ιερατευμα αγιονeis hierateuma hagion). Late word (from ιερατευωhierateuō to serve as priest, Luke 1:8 alone in N.T.), in lxx (Exodus 19:6), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:9, either the office of priest (Hort) or an order or body of priests. At any rate, Peter has the same idea of Revelation 1:6 (ιερειςhiereis priests) that all believers are priests (Hebrews 4:16) and can approach God directly.

To offer up (ανενεγκαιanenegkai). First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of αναπερωanapherō the usual word for offering sacrifices (Hebrews 7:27). Only these are “spiritual” (πνευματικαςpneumatikas) as pictured also in Hebrews 13:15.

Acceptable (ευπροσδεκτουςeuprosdektous). Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (ευ προσ δεχομαιeuprosdechomai) as in 2 Corinthians 6:2.

Verse 6

It is contained (περιεχειperiechei). Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of περιεχωperiechō old verb, to surround, transitive in Luke 5:9 to seize (only other N.T. example). The formula with περιεχειperiechei is in Josephus (Ant. XI. 7). This Scripture (εν γραπηιen graphēi) is Isaiah 28:16 with some changes. Peter had in 1 Peter 2:4 already quoted εκλεκτονeklekton and εντιμονentimon Now note ακρογωνιαιονakrogōniaion (a chief corner stone), a word apparently invented by Isaiah (from ακροςakros highest, and γωνιαιοςgōniaios Attic word for corner stone). Paul in Ephesians 2:20 uses the same word, making Christ the chief corner stone (the only other N.T. example). In Isaiah the metaphor is rather a foundation stone. Peter and Paul make it “the primary foundation stone at the structure” (W. W. Lloyd).

On him (επ αυτωιep' autōi). That is, “on it” (this corner stone, that is, Christ).

Shall not be put to shame (ου μη καταισχυντηιou mē kataischunthēi). Strong negatives ου μηou mē with first aorist passive subjunctive of καταισχυνωkataischunō old verb, to put to shame (Romans 5:5).

Verse 7

The preciousness (η τιμηhē timē). Or “the honour.” Explanation of εντιμονentimon and ου μη καταισχυντηιou mē kataischunthēi and only true “for you which believe” (τοις πιστευουσινtois pisteuousin ethical dative of articular present active participle of πιστευωpisteuō to believe).

But for such as disbelieve (απιστουσιν δεapistousin de). Dative present active participle again of απιστεωapisteō opposite of πιστευωpisteuō (Luke 24:11).

Was made the head of the corner (εγενητη εις κεπαλην γωνιαςegenēthē eis kephalēn gōnias). This verse is from Psalm 118:22 with evident allusion to Isaiah 28:16 (κεπαλην γωνιασακρογωνιαιονkephalēn gōnias =οι οικοδομουντες akrogōniaion). See Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17, where Jesus himself quotes Psalm 118:22 and applies the rejection of the stone by the builders (hoi oikodomountes the experts) to the Sanhedrin‘s conduct toward him. Peter quoted it also (and applied it as Jesus had done) in his speech at the Beautiful Gate (Acts 4:11). Here he quotes it again to the same purpose.

Verse 8

And (καιkai). Peter now quotes Isaiah 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed “a stone of stumbling (λιτος προσκομματοςlithos proskommatos) and rock of offence (πετρα σκανδαλουpetra skandalou),” quoted also by Paul in Romans 9:32. See note on Romans 9:32 for discussion. ΠροσκομμαProskomma (from προσκοπτωproskoptō to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while σκανδαλονskandalon is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between λιτοςlithos (a loose stone in the path) and πετραpetra (a ledge rising out of the ground).

For they (οιhoi). Causal use of the relative pronoun.

Stumble at the word, being disobedient (προσκοπτουσιν τωι λογωι απειτουντεςproskoptousin tōi logōi apeithountes). Present active indicative of προσκοπτωproskoptō with dative case, λογωιlogōi and present active participle of απειτεωapeitheō (cf. απιστουσινapistousin in 1 Peter 2:7) as in Romans 3:1. Τωι λογωιTōi logōi can be construed with απειτουντεςapeithountes (stumble, being disobedient to the word).

Whereunto also they were appointed (εις ο και ετετησανeis ho kai etethēsan). First aorist passive indicative of τιτημιtithēmi See this idiom in 1 Timothy 2:7. “Their disobedience is not ordained, the penalty of their disobedience is” (Bigg). They rebelled against God and paid the penalty.

Verse 9

But ye (υμεις δεhumeis de). In contrast with the disobedient ones.

An elect race (γενος εκλεκτονgenos eklekton). From Isaiah 43:20. The blood relation of the spiritual Israel (not the Jewish race) through the new birth (1 Peter 1:23).

A royal priesthood (βασιλειον ιερατευμαbasileion hierateuma). From Exodus 19:6 (cf. Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10). The official in Christian churches is πρεσβυτεροσεπισχοποςpresbuteros =ιερευς episcopos not ιερειςhiereus We are all ετνος αγιονhiereis (priests). Cf. 1 Peter 2:5.

A holy nation (λαος εις περιποιησινethnos hagion). Also from Exodus 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles).

A people for God‘s own possession (λαος περιουσιοςlaos eis peripoiēsin). The idea here occurs in Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, where we have εις περιποιησινlaos periousios as in Titus 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Malachi 3:17 we find Περιουσιος λαοςeis peripoiēsin (for a possession). περιποιησιςPeriousios laos is a people over and above the others and περιεποιησατοperipoiēsis is a possession in a special sense (Ephesians 1:14). See Paul‘s use of οπως εχαγγειλητεperiepoiēsato in Acts 20:28. The old rendering, “a peculiar people,” had this idea of possession, for “peculiar” is from pecus (Latin for flock).

That ye may shew forth (οπωςhopōs exaggeilēte). Purpose clause with ιναhopōs rather than εχαγγελλωhina with the first aorist active subjunctive of τας αρεταςexaggellō old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T.

The excellencies (τα μεγαλεια του τεουtas aretas). From Isaiah 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for “virtue,” but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5; Philippians 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isaiah 42:12. See Acts 2:11 σκοτουςta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God).

Darkness (το ταυμαστον αυτου πωςskotous). Heathenism.

His marvellous light (ταυμαστονto thaumaston autou phōs). Christianity. For ταυμαζωthaumaston (from thaumazō) see Matthew 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Colossians 1:12; Ephesians 5:8-14.

Verse 10

Which in time past (οι ποτεhoi pote). “Who once upon a time.”

No people (ου λαοςou laos). This phrase from Hosea 2:23. Note use of ουou (not ουδειςoudeis) with λαοςlaos like Hebrew negative.

Which had not obtained mercy (οι ουκ ελεημενοιhoi ouk eleēmenoi). Perfect passive articular participle of ελεεωeleeō and the emphatic negative ουou with which compare Paul‘s use of Hosea 1:1-11; 2 in Romans 9:25, which may have been known to Peter or not.

But now have obtained mercy (νυν δε ελεητεντεςnun de eleēthentes). Change to first aorist passive participle from “the long antecedent state” to “the single event of conversion which ended it” (Hort).

Verse 11

As sojourners and pilgrims (ως παροικους και παρεπιδημουςhōs paroikous kai parepidēmous). This combination from the lxx (Gen 33:4; Psalm 39:13). See note on 1 Peter 1:1 for παρεπιδημοςparepidēmos and see note on 1 Peter 1:17 for παροικιαparoikia and see note on Ephesians 2:19 for παροικοςparoikos (only there and here in N.T., Christians whose fatherland is heaven).

To abstain from (απεχεσταιapechesthai). Present middle (direct) infinitive of απεχωapechō old verb, to hold back from (1 Thessalonians 4:3). In indirect command (to keep on abstaining from) after παρακαλωparakalō (I beseech). With the ablative case των σαρκικων επιτυμιωνtōn sarkikōn epithumiōn the grosser sins of the flesh (for σαρκικοςsarkikos see 1 Corinthians 3:3) like the list in 1 Peter 4:3.

Which (αιτινεςhaitines). “Which very ones.” Like Latin quippe qui.

War against the soul (στρατευονται κατα της πσυχηςstrateuontai kata tēs psuchēs). Present middle indicative of στρατευωstrateuō to carry on a campaign (James 4:1). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Galatians 5:16-24.

Verse 12

Seemly (καληνkalēn). Predicate adjective with αναστροπηνanastrophēn for which see note on 1 Peter 1:15 and see note on 1 Peter 1:18. The Gentiles are on the watch for slips in moral conduct by the Christians.

That (ιναhina). Final conjunction with δοχασωσινdoxasōsin (they may glorify, first aorist active subjunctive of δοχαζωdoxazō the purpose of the Christians about the Gentiles.

Wherein (εν ωιen hōi). “In what thing.”

As evil-doers (ως κακοποιωνhōs kakopoiōn). As they did and do, old word (from κακονkakon and ποιεωpoieō John 18:30), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:14 in correct text. Heathen talk against us (καταλαλουσινkatalalousin) gleefully.

By your good works (εκ των καλων εργωνek tōn kalōn ergōn). “Out of (as a result of) your good (beautiful) deeds.”

Which they behold (εποπτευοντεςepopteuontes). Present active participle of εποπτευωepopteuō old verb (from, εποπτηςepoptēs overseer, spectator, 2 Peter 1:16), to be an overseer, to view carefully, in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:2.

In the day of visitation (εν ημεραι επισκοπηςen hēmerāi episkopēs). From Isaiah 10:33. Cf. its use in Luke 19:44, which see for the word επισκοπηepiskopē (from επισκοπεωepiskopeō to inspect (Hebrews 12:15). Clear echo here of Matthew 5:16.

Verse 13

Be subject to (υποταγητεhupotagēte). Second aorist passive imperative second person plural of υποτασσωhupotassō to subject to, as in 1 Peter 3:22.

Every ordinance of man (πασηι αντρωπινηι κτισειpasēi anthrōpinēi ktisei). Dative case of old and common word κτισιςktisis (from κτιζωktizō to create, to found), act of creation (Romans 1:20), a creature or creation (Romans 1:25), all creation (Colossians 1:15), an institution as here (in Pindar so). For αντρωπινοςanthrōpinos (human) see James 3:7. Peter here approves no special kind of government, but he supports law and order as Paul does (Romans 13:1-8) unless it steps in between God and man (Acts 4:20).

For the Lord‘s sake (δια τον κυριονdia ton kurion). For Jesus‘ sake. That is reason enough for the Christian not to be an anarchist (Matthew 22:21). The heathen were keen to charge the Christians with any crime after Nero set the fashion. “It should not be forgotten that, in spite of the fine language of the philosophers, the really popular religions in Greece and Rome were forms of devil-worship, intimately blended with magic in all its grades” (Bigg).

As supreme (ως υπερεχοντιhōs huperechonti). Dative singular of present active participle of υπερεχωhuperechō old verb (intransitive), to stand out above (to have it over), as in Romans 13:1. It is not the divine right of kings, but the fact of the king as the outstanding ruler.

Verse 14

Unto governors (ηγεμοσινhēgemosin). Dative again of ηγεμωνhēgemōn a leader (from ηγεομαιhēgeomai to lead), old and common word (Matthew 10:18).

As sent by him (ως δι αυτου πεμπομενοιςhōs di' autou pempomenois). Present passive participle of πεμπωpempō Δι αυτουDi' autou is “by God,” as Jesus made plain to Pilate; even Pilate received his authority ultimately “from above” (John 18:11).

For vengeance on evil-doers (εις εκδικησιν κακοποιωνeis ekdikēsin kakopoiōn). Objective genitive with εκδικησινekdikēsin for which see Luke 18:7.

For praise to them that do well (επαινον αγατοποιωνepainon agathopoiōn). Objective genitive again, αγατοποιοςagathopoios a late word (Plutarch, Sirach) from αγατονagathon and ποιεωpoieō here only in N.T. Found in a magical papyrus.

Verse 15

By well-doing (αγατοποιουνταςagathopoiountas). Present active participle of αγατοποιεωagathopoieō only in lxx and N.T. (Mark 3:4). In accusative case agreeing with υμαςhumas understood, accusative of general reference with πιμοινphimoin present active infinitive (epexegetic infinitive after το τελημα του τεουto thelēma tou theou the will of God), late and rare verb (from πιμοςphimos muzzle), as in Matthew 22:12.

The ignorance of foolish men (την των απρονων αντρωπων αγνωσιανtēn tōn aphronōn anthrōpōn agnōsian). ΑγνωσιαAgnōsia is late and rare word (in the papyri) from alpha privative and γνωσιςgnōsis (knowledge), in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 15:24 (disgraceful ignorance in both instances). Note alliteration.

Verse 16

As free (ως ελευτεροιhōs eleutheroi). Note nominative again connected with υποταγητεhupotagēte in 1 Peter 2:13, not with πιμοινphimoin in 1 Peter 2:14 (a parenthesis in fact). For this ethical sense of ελευτεροςeleutheros see Galatians 4:26.

And not using your freedom (και μη εχοντες την ελευτεριανkai mē echontes tēn eleutherian). “And not holding your liberty” (present active participle of εχωechō with usual negative μηmē with participle.

For a cloke of wickedness (ως επικαλυμμα της κακιαςhōs epikalumma tēs kakias). ΕπικαλυμμαEpikalumma (from επικαλυπτωepikaluptō Romans 4:7) is a rare word (Aristotle, lxx) for veil, here only in N.T. and in figurative sense for pretext to do wickedness under, a thing, alas, that sometimes happens.

But as bondservants of God (αλλ ως τεου δουλοιall' hōs theou douloi). Paul‘s proud title. There is no such thing as absolute freedom (personal freedom), for that is anarchy. Cf. Romans 6:22 “enslaved to God.”

Verse 17

Honour all men (παντας τιμησατεpantas timēsate). Not with the same honour. Constative use of the aorist imperative.

Love the brotherhood (την αδελποτητα αγαπατεtēn adelphotēta agapāte). Present active imperative of αγαπαωagapaō keep on doing it. Note the abstract αδελποτηςadelphotēs (from αδελποςadelphos brother) in the collective sense, rare save in ecclesiastical literature, though in 1 Maccabees 12:10; 4Macc. 10:3, and in late papyri. It is a word for all Christians.

Fear God (τον τεον ποβειστεton theon phobeisthe). In both senses of reverence and dread, and keep it up (present middle imperative).

Honour the king (τον βασιλεα τιματεton basilea timāte). Keep that up also. A fine motto in this verse.

Verse 18

Servants (οι οικεταιhoi oiketai). Note article with the class as with ανδρεςandres (1 Peter 3:7), though not with γυναικεςgunaikes (1 Peter 3:1). ΟικετηςOiketēs old word from οικοςoikos (house), means one in the same house with another (Latin domesticus), particularly house servants (slaves) in distinction from the general term δουλοςdoulos (slave). “Ye domestics.” See similar directions to Christian servants (slaves) in Colossians 3:22-25; Ephesians 6:5-7; 1 Timothy 6:1.; Titus 2:9. ΟικετηςOiketēs in N.T. occurs only here, Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Romans 14:4.

Be in subjection (υποτασσομενοιhupotassomenoi). Present middle participle of υποτασσωhupotassō common late compound to subject oneself to one (Luke 2:51). Either the participle is here used as an imperative (so in 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:7) as in Romans 12:16., or the imperative εστεeste has to be supplied (Robertson, Grammar, p. 945).

To your masters (τοις δεσποταιςtois despotais). Dative case of δεσποτηςdespotēs old word for absolute owner in contrast with δουλοςdoulos It is used also of God (Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24, Acts 4:29) and of Christ (2 Peter 2:1; Judges 1:4). ΚυριοςKurios has a wider meaning and not necessarily suggesting absolute power.

To the good and gentle (τοις αγατοις και επιεικεσινtois agathois kai epieikesin). Dative case also with the article with class. For επιεικηςepieikēs see note on James 3:17. There were slave-owners (masters) like this as there are housekeepers and employers of workmen today. This is no argument for slavery, but only a sidelight on a condition bad enough at its best.

To the froward (τοις σκολιοιςtois skoliois). “To the crooked.” Old word, also in Luke 3:5; Acts 2:40; Philippians 2:15. Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are employers today, like this group. The test of obedience comes precisely toward this group.

Verse 19

For this is acceptable (τουτο γαρ χαριςtouto gar charis). “For this thing (neuter singular τουτοtouto obedience to crooked masters) is grace” (χαριςcharis is feminine, here “thanks” as in Romans 7:25). “Acceptable” calls for ευπροσδεκτονeuprosdekton (1 Peter 2:5), which is not the text here.

If a man endureth griefs (ει υοπερει τις λυπαςei huopherei tis lupas). Condition of first class with ειei and present active indicative of υποπερωhupopherō old verb, to bear up under, in N.T. only here, 1 Corinthians 10:13; 2 Timothy 3:11. Note plural of λυπηlupē (grief).

For conscience toward God (δια συνειδησιν τεουdia suneidēsin theou). Suffering is not a blessing in and of itself, but, if one‘s duty to God is involved (Acts 4:20), then one can meet it with gladness of heart. ΤεουTheou (God) is objective genitive. For συνειδησιςsuneidēsis (conscience) see note on Acts 23:1; and see note on 1 Corinthians 8:7. It occurs again in 1 Peter 3:16.

Suffering wrongfully (πασχων αδικωςpaschōn adikōs). Present active participle of πασχωpaschō and the common adverb αδικωςadikōs unjustly, here alone in N.T. This is the whole point, made clear already by Jesus in Matthew 5:10-12, where Jesus has also “falsely” (πσευδομενοιpseudomenoi). See also Luke 6:32-34.

Verse 20

For what glory (ποιον γαρ κλεοςpoion gar kleos). Qualitative interrogative (what kind of glory). “What price glory?” ΚλεοςKleos is old word from κλεωkleō (καλεωkaleō to call), report, praise, glory, here only in N.T.

If ye shall take it patiently (ει υπομενειτεei hupomeneite). First-class condition with ειei and future active indicative of υπομενωhupomenō for which see James 1:12. Same condition also in next sentence (αλλ ειall' ei etc.).

When ye sin (αμαρτανοντεςhamartanontes). Present active participle of αμαρτανωhamartanō (continued repetition).

And are buffeted for it (και κολαπιζομενοιkai kolaphizomenoi). Present passive participle of κολαπιζωkolaphizō late word (from κολαποςkolaphos fist), only in N.T. (cf. Matthew 26:67) and ecclesiastical writers. Repeated action again. No posing as a martyr allowed here. Christians do sometimes deserve persecution, as Jesus implied (Matthew 5:10-12).

When ye do well (αγατοποιουντεςagathopoiountes). Present active participle of αγατοποιεωagathopoieō as in 1 Peter 2:15.

And suffer for it (και πασχοντεςkai paschontes). Present active participle of πασχωpaschō (1 Peter 2:19). No “for it” in the Greek here or in the previous sentence.

This is acceptable with God (τουτο χαρις παρα τεωιtouto charis para theōi). “This thing (neuter) is thanks (1 Peter 2:19) by the side of (παραpara) God (as God looks at it).”

Verse 21

For hereunto were ye called (εις τουτο γαρ εκλητητεeis touto gar eklēthēte). First aorist indicative of καλεωkaleō to call. They were called to suffer without flinching (Hort), if need be.

Because (οτιhoti). The fact that Christ suffered (επατενepathen) lifts their suffering to a new plane.

Leaving you an example (υμιν υπολιμπανων υπογραμμονhumin hupolimpanōn hupogrammon). Present active participle of the late Ionic verb υπολιμπανωhupolimpanō (in the papyri) for the common υπολειπωhupoleipō to leave behind (under), here only in N.T. υπογραμμοςHupogrammos is also a late and rare word (from υπογραπωhupographō to write under), a writing-copy for one to imitate, in 2 Macc. 2:28; Philo, Clement of Rome, here only in N.T. Clement of Alex. (Strom. V. 8. 49) uses it of the copy-head at the top of a child‘s exercise book for the child to imitate, including all the letters of the alphabet. The papyri give many examples of υπογραπηhupographē and υπογραπωhupographō in the sense of copying a letter.

That ye should follow his steps (ινα επακολουτησητε τοις ιχνεσιν αυτουhina epakolouthēsēte tois ichnesin autou). Purpose clause with ιναhina and first aorist active subjunctive of επακολουτεωepakoloutheō old verb, to follow closely upon, with the associative-instrumental (1 Timothy 5:10, 1 Timothy 5:24) or the locative here. ΙχνοςIchnos is old word (from ικωhikō to go), tracks, footprints, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 12:18; Romans 4:12. Peter does not mean that Christ suffered only as an example (1 Peter 1:18), but he did leave us his example for our copying (1 John 2:6).

Verse 22

Who did no sin (ος αμαρτιαν ουκ εποιησενhos hamartian ouk epoiēsen). Quotation from Isaiah 53:9. He has already expressed the sinlessness of Christ in 1 Peter 1:19. The next clause is a combination of Isaiah 53:9; Zephaniah 3:13. For “guile” (δολοςdolos) see 1 Peter 2:1.

Was found (ευρετηheurethē). First aorist passive indicative of ευρισκωheuriskō Christ‘s guilelessness stood the test of scrutiny (Vincent), as Peter knew (Matthew 26:60; John 18:38; John 19:4, John 19:6).

Verse 23

When he was reviled (λοιδορουμενοςloidoroumenos). Present passive participle of λοιδορεωloidoreō old verb (from λοιδοροςloidoros reviler, 1 Corinthians 5:11) as in John 9:28.

Reviled not again (ουκ αντελοιδορειouk anteloidorei). Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of αντιλοιδορεωantiloidoreō late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one papyrus example with compound following the simplex verb as here, Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary), here only in N.T. Idiomatic use of αντιanti (in turn, return, back).

Threatened not (ουκ ηπειλειouk ēpeilei). Imperfect again (repeated acts) of απειλεωapeileō old compound (from απειληapeilē threat, Acts 9:1), in N.T. only here and Acts 4:17.

But committed himself (παρεδιδου δεparedidou de). Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of παραδιδωμιparadidōmi to hand over, usually of one to a judge, but here not of another (as the Sanhedrin), but himself (supply εαυτονheauton), for Jesus uses this very idea in Luke 23:46 as he dies. Jesus thus handed himself and his cause over to the Father who judges righteously (τωι κρινοντι δικαιωςtōi krinonti dikaiōs dative of present active articular participle of κρινωkrinō).

Verse 24

Who his own self (ος αυτοςhos autos). Intensive pronoun with the relative referring to Christ (note relatives also in 1 Peter 2:22, 1 Peter 2:23).

Bare our sins (ανηνεγκεν τας αμαρτιας ημωνanēnegken tas hamartias hēmōn). Second aorist active indicative of αναπερωanapherō common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar. Combination here of Isaiah 53:12; Deuteronomy 21:23. Jesus is the perfect sin offering (Hebrews 9:28). For Christ‘s body (σωμαsōma) as the offering see 1 Corinthians 11:24. “Here St. Peter puts the Cross in the place of the altar” (Bigg).

Upon the tree (επι το χυλονepi to xulon). Not tree here as in Luke 23:31, originally just wood (1 Corinthians 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; and by Paul in Galatians 3:13 (quoting Deuteronomy 21:23).

Having died unto sins (ταις αμαρτιαις απογενομενοιtais hamartiais apogenomenoi). Second aorist middle participle of απογινομαιapoginomai old compound to get away from, with dative (as here) to die to anything, here only in N.T.

That we might live unto righteousness (ινα τηι δικαιοσυνηι ζησωμενhina tēi dikaiosunēi zēsōmen). Purpose clause with ιναhina and the first aorist active subjunctive of ζαωzaō with the dative (cf. Romans 6:20). Peter‘s idea here is like that of Paul in Rom 6:1-23, especially Romans 6:2 and Romans 6:10.).

By whose stripes ye were healed (ου τωι μωλωπι ιατητεhou tōi mōlōpi iathēte). From Isaiah 53:5. First aorist passive indicative of ιαομαιiaomai common verb to heal (James 5:16) and the instrumental case of μωλωπςmōlōps rare word (Aristotle, Plutarch) for bruise or bloody wound, here only in N.T. Cf. 1 Peter 1:18. Writing to slaves who may have received such stripes, Peter‘s word is effective.

Verse 25

For ye were going astray like sheep (ητε γαρ ως προβατα πλανωμενοιēte gar hōs probata planōmenoi). Brought from Isaiah 53:6, but changed to periphrastic imperfect indicative with ητεēte and present middle participle of πλαναωplanaō to wander away. Recall the words of Jesus in Luke 15:4-7.

But are now returned (αλλα επεστραπητεalla epestraphēte). Second aorist passive indicative of επιστρεπωepistrephō old verb, to turn, to return (Matthew 10:13).

Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls (επι τον ποιμενα και επισκοπον των πσυχων υμωνepi ton poimena kai episkopon tōn psuchōn humōn). Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd (John 10:11, and see also Hebrews 13:20). Here alone is Christ called our “Bishop” (overseer). See both ideas combined in Ezekiel 34:11. Philo calls God ΕπισχοποςEpiscopos Jesus is also ΑποστολοςApostolos (Hebrews 3:1) and he deserves all other titles of dignity that we can give him.

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.