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Putting away therefore (αποτεμενοι ουν apothemenoi oun). Second aorist middle participle of αποτιτημι apotithēmi old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cleanse defilements (1 Peter 3:21; James 1:21) or to put off clothing (Romans 13:12; Colossians 3:5.; Ephesians 4:22). Either sense suits here. Therefore (ουν oun) because of the new birth (1 Peter 1:23) and the new life demanded.Wickedness (κακιαν kakian). This old word, from κακος kakos (evil), in the ancients meant vice of any kind and note πασαν pāsan (all) here. Guile (δολον dolon). Old word (from δελω delō to catch with bait), deceit. Hypocrisies (υποκρισεις hupokriseis). Singular (υποκρισιν hupokrisin) in the best MSS. See 1 Peter 1:22 (ανυποκριτον anupokriton) and Mark 7:6. for Christ‘s denunciation of hypocrites which the disciples did not understand, including Peter (Matthew 15:16.). Envies (πτονους phthonous). Genuine here, not πονους phonous (murders), as B has it. For the word see Matthew 27:18. Evil speakings (καταλαλιας katalalias). Late word (from καταλαλος katalalos defamer, Romans 1:30), in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 12:20. “Backbitings.” For verb see note on 1 Peter 2:12.
As newborn babes (ως αρτιγεννητα βρεπη hōs artigennēta brephē). ρεπος Brephos old word, originally unborn child (Luke 1:41-44), then infant (Luke 2:12), here figuratively, like νηπιοι nēpioi Αρτιγεννητα Artigennēta is a late and rare compound (Lucian, imperial inscription) from αρτι arti and γενναω gennaō with evident allusion to αναγεγεννημενοι anagegennēmenoi in 1 Peter 1:23, probably meaning that they were recent converts, possibly slight proof that the Epistle written before Romans by Paul (Kuhl).Long for (επιποτησατε epipothēsate). First aorist (constative) active imperative of επιποτεω epipotheō old verb for intense yearning (Philippians 2:26). The spiritual milk which is without guile (το λογικον αδολον γαλα to logikon adolon gala). Γαλα Gala is old word for milk as in 1 Corinthians 9:7 and as metaphor in 1 Corinthians 3:2. Αδολος Adolos is an old compound (here alone in N.T.) adjective (alpha privative and δολος dolos deceit), unadulterated milk which, alas, is so hard to get. Λογικον Logikon is an old adjective in ικος ̇ikos from λογος logos (reason, speech), in N.T. only here and Romans 12:1, used here with allusion to λογου logou (1 Peter 1:23) and ρημα rēma (1 Peter 1:25), “the sincere milk of the word” (“the milk belonging to the word,” either the milk which is the word or the milk contained in the word, that is Christ). So Bigg holds. But in Romans 12:1 Paul uses λογικον logikon in the sense of “rational” or “spiritual,” and that idea is possible here as Hort holds. In the Pelagia legend (Usener) we have the phrase των λογικων προβατων του Χριστου tōn logikōn probatōn tou Christou (the spiritual or rational sheep of Christ). That ye may grow thereby (ινα εν αυτωι αυχητητε hina en autōi auxēthēte). Purpose clause with ινα hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of αυχανω auxanō old and common verb to grow. See this same metaphor in Colossians 2:19; Ephesians 4:15. Peter uses the word of God as the food for growth, especially for babes in Christ, not emphasizing the distinction from solid food (βρωμα brōma) made in 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:13. Salvation (σωτηριαν sōtērian) here is final salvation.
If ye have tasted (ει εγευσαστε ei egeusasthe). Condition of first class with ει ei and first aorist middle indicative of γευω geuō in figurative sense as in Hebrews 6:4. “A taste excites the appetite” (Bengel).Gracious (χρηστος chrēstos). Quotation from Psalm 34:8. The Hebrew for the lxx χρηστος chrēstos is simply γαλα tobh (good). Plato used the word for food also, and Peter carries out the metaphor in gala (milk) as in Luke 5:39.
Unto whom (προς ον pros hon). The Lord, carrying on the imagery and language of the Psalm.Coming (προσερχομενοι proserchomenoi). Present middle participle masculine plural of προσερχομαι proserchomai (προσελτατε proselthate in the Psalm) agreeing with the subject of οικοδομειστε oikodomeisthe living stone (λιτον ζωντα lithon zōnta). Accusative case in apposition with ον hon (whom, the Lord Christ). There is apparent an intentional contradiction between “living” and “stone.” Cf. “living hope” in 1 Peter 1:3 and “living word” in 1 Peter 1:23. Rejected indeed of men (υπο αντρωπων μεν αποδεδοκιμασμενον hupo anthrōpōn men apodedokimasmenon). Perfect passive participle of αποδοκιμαζω apodokimazō old verb to repudiate after test (Luke 9:22), in the accusative case agreeing with λιτον lithon with God (παρα δε τεωι para de theōi). “By the side of God,” as he looks at it, in contrast with the rejection “by men” (υπο αντρωπων hupo anthrōpōn). Elect (εκλεκτον eklekton). From Isaiah 28:6 as in εντιμον entimon (precious, for which see Luke 7:2) rather than δοκιμον dokimon (proved) expected after αποδεδοκιμασμενον apodedokimasmenon as meaning far more in God‘s sight, “a pre-eminence of position with” (Hort).
Ye also as living stones (και αυτοι ως λιτοι ζωντες kai autoi hōs lithoi zōntes). Peter applies the metaphor about Christ as the living stone to the readers, “ye yourselves also.”Are built up a spiritual house (οικοδομειστε οικος πνευματικος oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). Present passive indicative second person plural of οικοδομεω oikodomeō the very verb used by Jesus to Peter in Matthew 16:18 (οικοδομησω oikodomēsō) of building his church on the rock. If the metaphor of a house of living stones seems “violent” (Vincent), it should be remembered that Jesus employed the figure of a house of believers. Peter just carried it a bit farther and Paul uses a temple for believers in one place (1 Corinthians 3:16) and for the kingdom of God in general (Ephesians 2:22), as does the author of Hebrews (Hebrews 3:6). This “spiritual house” includes believers in the five Roman provinces of 1 Peter 1:1 and shows clearly how Peter understood the metaphor of Christ in Matthew 16:18 to be not a local church, but the church general (the kingdom of Christ). To be a holy priesthood (εις ιερατευμα αγιον eis hierateuma hagion). Late word (from ιερατευω hierateuō to serve as priest, Luke 1:8 alone in N.T.), in lxx (Exodus 19:6), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:9, either the office of priest (Hort) or an order or body of priests. At any rate, Peter has the same idea of Revelation 1:6 (ιερεις hiereis priests) that all believers are priests (Hebrews 4:16) and can approach God directly. To offer up (ανενεγκαι anenegkai). First aorist active infinitive (of purpose here) of αναπερω anapherō the usual word for offering sacrifices (Hebrews 7:27). Only these are “spiritual” (πνευματικας pneumatikas) as pictured also in Hebrews 13:15. Acceptable (ευπροσδεκτους euprosdektous). Late (Plutarch) double compound verbal adjective (ευ προσ δεχομαι euprosdechomai) as in 2 Corinthians 6:2.
It is contained (περιεχει periechei). Present active (here intransitive, to contain, only N.T. example) of περιεχω periechō old verb, to surround, transitive in Luke 5:9 to seize (only other N.T. example). The formula with περιεχει periechei is in Josephus (Ant. XI. 7). This Scripture (εν γραπηι en graphēi) is Isaiah 28:16 with some changes. Peter had in 1 Peter 2:4 already quoted εκλεκτον eklekton and εντιμον entimon Now note ακρογωνιαιον akrogōniaion (a chief corner stone), a word apparently invented by Isaiah (from ακρος akros highest, and γωνιαιος gōniaios Attic word for corner stone). Paul in Ephesians 2:20 uses the same word, making Christ the chief corner stone (the only other N.T. example). In Isaiah the metaphor is rather a foundation stone. Peter and Paul make it “the primary foundation stone at the structure” (W. W. Lloyd).On him (επ αυτωι ep' autōi). That is, “on it” (this corner stone, that is, Christ). Shall not be put to shame (ου μη καταισχυντηι ou mē kataischunthēi). Strong negatives ου μη ou mē with first aorist passive subjunctive of καταισχυνω kataischunō old verb, to put to shame (Romans 5:5).
The preciousness (η τιμη hē timē). Or “the honour.” Explanation of εντιμον entimon and ου μη καταισχυντηι ou mē kataischunthēi and only true “for you which believe” (τοις πιστευουσιν tois pisteuousin ethical dative of articular present active participle of πιστευω pisteuō to believe).But for such as disbelieve (απιστουσιν δε apistousin de). Dative present active participle again of απιστεω apisteō opposite of πιστευω pisteuō (Luke 24:11). Was made the head of the corner (εγενητη εις κεπαλην γωνιας egenēthē eis kephalēn gōnias). This verse is from Psalm 118:22 with evident allusion to Isaiah 28:16 (κεπαλην γωνιασακρογωνιαιον kephalēn gōnias =οι οικοδομουντες akrogōniaion). See Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17, where Jesus himself quotes Psalm 118:22 and applies the rejection of the stone by the builders (hoi oikodomountes the experts) to the Sanhedrin‘s conduct toward him. Peter quoted it also (and applied it as Jesus had done) in his speech at the Beautiful Gate (Acts 4:11). Here he quotes it again to the same purpose.
And (και kai). Peter now quotes Isaiah 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed “a stone of stumbling (λιτος προσκομματος lithos proskommatos) and rock of offence (πετρα σκανδαλου petra skandalou),” quoted also by Paul in Romans 9:32. See note on Romans 9:32 for discussion. Προσκομμα Proskomma (from προσκοπτω proskoptō to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while σκανδαλον skandalon is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between λιτος lithos (a loose stone in the path) and πετρα petra (a ledge rising out of the ground).For they (οι hoi). Causal use of the relative pronoun. Stumble at the word, being disobedient (προσκοπτουσιν τωι λογωι απειτουντες proskoptousin tōi logōi apeithountes). Present active indicative of προσκοπτω proskoptō with dative case, λογωι logōi and present active participle of απειτεω apeitheō (cf. απιστουσιν apistousin in 1 Peter 2:7) as in Romans 3:1. Τωι λογωι Tōi logōi can be construed with απειτουντες apeithountes (stumble, being disobedient to the word). Whereunto also they were appointed (εις ο και ετετησαν eis ho kai etethēsan). First aorist passive indicative of τιτημι tithēmi See this idiom in 1 Timothy 2:7. “Their disobedience is not ordained, the penalty of their disobedience is” (Bigg). They rebelled against God and paid the penalty.
But ye (υμεις δε humeis de). In contrast with the disobedient ones.An elect race (γενος εκλεκτον genos eklekton). From Isaiah 43:20. The blood relation of the spiritual Israel (not the Jewish race) through the new birth (1 Peter 1:23). A royal priesthood (βασιλειον ιερατευμα basileion hierateuma). From Exodus 19:6 (cf. Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10). The official in Christian churches is πρεσβυτεροσεπισχοπος presbuteros =ιερευς episcopos not ιερεις hiereus We are all ετνος αγιον hiereis (priests). Cf. 1 Peter 2:5. A holy nation (λαος εις περιποιησιν ethnos hagion). Also from Exodus 19:6, but here applied, not to the national Israel, but to the spiritual Israel of believers (both Jews and Gentiles). A people for God‘s own possession (λαος περιουσιος laos eis peripoiēsin). The idea here occurs in Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, where we have εις περιποιησιν laos periousios as in Titus 2:14 (alone in the N.T.), and in Malachi 3:17 we find Περιουσιος λαος eis peripoiēsin (for a possession). περιποιησις Periousios laos is a people over and above the others and περιεποιησατο peripoiēsis is a possession in a special sense (Ephesians 1:14). See Paul‘s use of οπως εχαγγειλητε periepoiēsato in Acts 20:28. The old rendering, “a peculiar people,” had this idea of possession, for “peculiar” is from pecus (Latin for flock). That ye may shew forth (οπως hopōs exaggeilēte). Purpose clause with ινα hopōs rather than εχαγγελλω hina with the first aorist active subjunctive of τας αρετας exaggellō old verb, to tell out, here alone in N.T. The excellencies (τα μεγαλεια του τεου tas aretas). From Isaiah 43:21. Old word for any preeminence (moral, intellectual, military), often for “virtue,” but not in that sense in the O.T. or the N.T. The word has the sense of moral worth in 2 Peter 1:3, 2 Peter 1:5; Philippians 4:8; and the Apocrypha. In Isaiah (here quoted) it means praise and glory to God. So also Isaiah 42:12. See Acts 2:11 σκοτους ta megaleia tou theou (the mighty works of God). Darkness (το ταυμαστον αυτου πως skotous). Heathenism. His marvellous light (ταυμαστον to thaumaston autou phōs). Christianity. For ταυμαζω thaumaston (from thaumazō) see Matthew 21:42. For the change from heathenism to Christianity see Colossians 1:12; Ephesians 5:8-14.
Which in time past (οι ποτε hoi pote). “Who once upon a time.”No people (ου λαος ou laos). This phrase from Hosea 2:23. Note use of ου ou (not ουδεις oudeis) with λαος laos like Hebrew negative. Which had not obtained mercy (οι ουκ ελεημενοι hoi ouk eleēmenoi). Perfect passive articular participle of ελεεω eleeō and the emphatic negative ου ou with which compare Paul‘s use of Hosea 1:1-11; 2 in Romans 9:25, which may have been known to Peter or not. But now have obtained mercy (νυν δε ελεητεντες nun de eleēthentes). Change to first aorist passive participle from “the long antecedent state” to “the single event of conversion which ended it” (Hort).
As sojourners and pilgrims (ως παροικους και παρεπιδημους hōs paroikous kai parepidēmous). This combination from the lxx (Gen 33:4; Psalm 39:13). See note on 1 Peter 1:1 for παρεπιδημος parepidēmos and see note on 1 Peter 1:17 for παροικια paroikia and see note on Ephesians 2:19 for παροικος paroikos (only there and here in N.T., Christians whose fatherland is heaven).To abstain from (απεχεσται apechesthai). Present middle (direct) infinitive of απεχω apechō old verb, to hold back from (1 Thessalonians 4:3). In indirect command (to keep on abstaining from) after παρακαλω parakalō (I beseech). With the ablative case των σαρκικων επιτυμιων tōn sarkikōn epithumiōn the grosser sins of the flesh (for σαρκικος sarkikos see 1 Corinthians 3:3) like the list in 1 Peter 4:3. Which (αιτινες haitines). “Which very ones.” Like Latin quippe qui. War against the soul (στρατευονται κατα της πσυχης strateuontai kata tēs psuchēs). Present middle indicative of στρατευω strateuō to carry on a campaign (James 4:1). See this struggle between the flesh and the spirit vividly pictured by Paul in Galatians 5:16-24.
Seemly (καλην kalēn). Predicate adjective with αναστροπην anastrophēn for which see note on 1 Peter 1:15 and see note on 1 Peter 1:18. The Gentiles are on the watch for slips in moral conduct by the Christians.That (ινα hina). Final conjunction with δοχασωσιν doxasōsin (they may glorify, first aorist active subjunctive of δοχαζω doxazō the purpose of the Christians about the Gentiles. Wherein (εν ωι en hōi). “In what thing.” As evil-doers (ως κακοποιων hōs kakopoiōn). As they did and do, old word (from κακον kakon and ποιεω poieō John 18:30), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:14 in correct text. Heathen talk against us (καταλαλουσιν katalalousin) gleefully. By your good works (εκ των καλων εργων ek tōn kalōn ergōn). “Out of (as a result of) your good (beautiful) deeds.” Which they behold (εποπτευοντες epopteuontes). Present active participle of εποπτευω epopteuō old verb (from, εποπτης epoptēs overseer, spectator, 2 Peter 1:16), to be an overseer, to view carefully, in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:2. In the day of visitation (εν ημεραι επισκοπης en hēmerāi episkopēs). From Isaiah 10:33. Cf. its use in Luke 19:44, which see for the word επισκοπη episkopē (from επισκοπεω episkopeō to inspect (Hebrews 12:15). Clear echo here of Matthew 5:16.
Be subject to (υποταγητε hupotagēte). Second aorist passive imperative second person plural of υποτασσω hupotassō to subject to, as in 1 Peter 3:22.Every ordinance of man (πασηι αντρωπινηι κτισει pasēi anthrōpinēi ktisei). Dative case of old and common word κτισις ktisis (from κτιζω ktizō to create, to found), act of creation (Romans 1:20), a creature or creation (Romans 1:25), all creation (Colossians 1:15), an institution as here (in Pindar so). For αντρωπινος anthrōpinos (human) see James 3:7. Peter here approves no special kind of government, but he supports law and order as Paul does (Romans 13:1-8) unless it steps in between God and man (Acts 4:20). For the Lord‘s sake (δια τον κυριον dia ton kurion). For Jesus‘ sake. That is reason enough for the Christian not to be an anarchist (Matthew 22:21). The heathen were keen to charge the Christians with any crime after Nero set the fashion. “It should not be forgotten that, in spite of the fine language of the philosophers, the really popular religions in Greece and Rome were forms of devil-worship, intimately blended with magic in all its grades” (Bigg). As supreme (ως υπερεχοντι hōs huperechonti). Dative singular of present active participle of υπερεχω huperechō old verb (intransitive), to stand out above (to have it over), as in Romans 13:1. It is not the divine right of kings, but the fact of the king as the outstanding ruler.
Unto governors (ηγεμοσιν hēgemosin). Dative again of ηγεμων hēgemōn a leader (from ηγεομαι hēgeomai to lead), old and common word (Matthew 10:18).As sent by him (ως δι αυτου πεμπομενοις hōs di' autou pempomenois). Present passive participle of πεμπω pempō Δι αυτου Di' autou is “by God,” as Jesus made plain to Pilate; even Pilate received his authority ultimately “from above” (John 18:11). For vengeance on evil-doers (εις εκδικησιν κακοποιων eis ekdikēsin kakopoiōn). Objective genitive with εκδικησιν ekdikēsin for which see Luke 18:7. For praise to them that do well (επαινον αγατοποιων epainon agathopoiōn). Objective genitive again, αγατοποιος agathopoios a late word (Plutarch, Sirach) from αγατον agathon and ποιεω poieō here only in N.T. Found in a magical papyrus.
By well-doing (αγατοποιουντας agathopoiountas). Present active participle of αγατοποιεω agathopoieō only in lxx and N.T. (Mark 3:4). In accusative case agreeing with υμας humas understood, accusative of general reference with πιμοιν phimoin present active infinitive (epexegetic infinitive after το τελημα του τεου to thelēma tou theou the will of God), late and rare verb (from πιμος phimos muzzle), as in Matthew 22:12.The ignorance of foolish men (την των απρονων αντρωπων αγνωσιαν tēn tōn aphronōn anthrōpōn agnōsian). Αγνωσια Agnōsia is late and rare word (in the papyri) from alpha privative and γνωσις gnōsis (knowledge), in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 15:24 (disgraceful ignorance in both instances). Note alliteration.
As free (ως ελευτεροι hōs eleutheroi). Note nominative again connected with υποταγητε hupotagēte in 1 Peter 2:13, not with πιμοιν phimoin in 1 Peter 2:14 (a parenthesis in fact). For this ethical sense of ελευτερος eleutheros see Galatians 4:26.And not using your freedom (και μη εχοντες την ελευτεριαν kai mē echontes tēn eleutherian). “And not holding your liberty” (present active participle of εχω echō with usual negative μη mē with participle. For a cloke of wickedness (ως επικαλυμμα της κακιας hōs epikalumma tēs kakias). Επικαλυμμα Epikalumma (from επικαλυπτω epikaluptō Romans 4:7) is a rare word (Aristotle, lxx) for veil, here only in N.T. and in figurative sense for pretext to do wickedness under, a thing, alas, that sometimes happens. But as bondservants of God (αλλ ως τεου δουλοι all' hōs theou douloi). Paul‘s proud title. There is no such thing as absolute freedom (personal freedom), for that is anarchy. Cf. Romans 6:22 “enslaved to God.”
Honour all men (παντας τιμησατε pantas timēsate). Not with the same honour. Constative use of the aorist imperative.Love the brotherhood (την αδελποτητα αγαπατε tēn adelphotēta agapāte). Present active imperative of αγαπαω agapaō keep on doing it. Note the abstract αδελποτης adelphotēs (from αδελπος adelphos brother) in the collective sense, rare save in ecclesiastical literature, though in 1 Maccabees 12:10; 4Macc. 10:3, and in late papyri. It is a word for all Christians. Fear God (τον τεον ποβειστε ton theon phobeisthe). In both senses of reverence and dread, and keep it up (present middle imperative). Honour the king (τον βασιλεα τιματε ton basilea timāte). Keep that up also. A fine motto in this verse.
Servants (οι οικεται hoi oiketai). Note article with the class as with ανδρες andres (1 Peter 3:7), though not with γυναικες gunaikes (1 Peter 3:1). Οικετης Oiketēs old word from οικος oikos (house), means one in the same house with another (Latin domesticus), particularly house servants (slaves) in distinction from the general term δουλος doulos (slave). “Ye domestics.” See similar directions to Christian servants (slaves) in Colossians 3:22-25; Ephesians 6:5-7; 1 Timothy 6:1.; Titus 2:9. Οικετης Oiketēs in N.T. occurs only here, Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Romans 14:4.Be in subjection (υποτασσομενοι hupotassomenoi). Present middle participle of υποτασσω hupotassō common late compound to subject oneself to one (Luke 2:51). Either the participle is here used as an imperative (so in 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:7) as in Romans 12:16., or the imperative εστε este has to be supplied (Robertson, Grammar, p. 945). To your masters (τοις δεσποταις tois despotais). Dative case of δεσποτης despotēs old word for absolute owner in contrast with δουλος doulos It is used also of God (Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24, Acts 4:29) and of Christ (2 Peter 2:1; Judges 1:4). Κυριος Kurios has a wider meaning and not necessarily suggesting absolute power. To the good and gentle (τοις αγατοις και επιεικεσιν tois agathois kai epieikesin). Dative case also with the article with class. For επιεικης epieikēs see note on James 3:17. There were slave-owners (masters) like this as there are housekeepers and employers of workmen today. This is no argument for slavery, but only a sidelight on a condition bad enough at its best. To the froward (τοις σκολιοις tois skoliois). “To the crooked.” Old word, also in Luke 3:5; Acts 2:40; Philippians 2:15. Unfortunately there were slave-holders as there are employers today, like this group. The test of obedience comes precisely toward this group.
For this is acceptable (τουτο γαρ χαρις touto gar charis). “For this thing (neuter singular τουτο touto obedience to crooked masters) is grace” (χαρις charis is feminine, here “thanks” as in Romans 7:25). “Acceptable” calls for ευπροσδεκτον euprosdekton (1 Peter 2:5), which is not the text here.If a man endureth griefs (ει υοπερει τις λυπας ei huopherei tis lupas). Condition of first class with ει ei and present active indicative of υποπερω hupopherō old verb, to bear up under, in N.T. only here, 1 Corinthians 10:13; 2 Timothy 3:11. Note plural of λυπη lupē (grief). For conscience toward God (δια συνειδησιν τεου dia suneidēsin theou). Suffering is not a blessing in and of itself, but, if one‘s duty to God is involved (Acts 4:20), then one can meet it with gladness of heart. Τεου Theou (God) is objective genitive. For συνειδησις suneidēsis (conscience) see note on Acts 23:1; and see note on 1 Corinthians 8:7. It occurs again in 1 Peter 3:16. Suffering wrongfully (πασχων αδικως paschōn adikōs). Present active participle of πασχω paschō and the common adverb αδικως adikōs unjustly, here alone in N.T. This is the whole point, made clear already by Jesus in Matthew 5:10-12, where Jesus has also “falsely” (πσευδομενοι pseudomenoi). See also Luke 6:32-34.
For what glory (ποιον γαρ κλεος poion gar kleos). Qualitative interrogative (what kind of glory). “What price glory?” Κλεος Kleos is old word from κλεω kleō (καλεω kaleō to call), report, praise, glory, here only in N.T.If ye shall take it patiently (ει υπομενειτε ei hupomeneite). First-class condition with ει ei and future active indicative of υπομενω hupomenō for which see James 1:12. Same condition also in next sentence (αλλ ει all' ei etc.). When ye sin (αμαρτανοντες hamartanontes). Present active participle of αμαρτανω hamartanō (continued repetition). And are buffeted for it (και κολαπιζομενοι kai kolaphizomenoi). Present passive participle of κολαπιζω kolaphizō late word (from κολαπος kolaphos fist), only in N.T. (cf. Matthew 26:67) and ecclesiastical writers. Repeated action again. No posing as a martyr allowed here. Christians do sometimes deserve persecution, as Jesus implied (Matthew 5:10-12). When ye do well (αγατοποιουντες agathopoiountes). Present active participle of αγατοποιεω agathopoieō as in 1 Peter 2:15. And suffer for it (και πασχοντες kai paschontes). Present active participle of πασχω paschō (1 Peter 2:19). No “for it” in the Greek here or in the previous sentence. This is acceptable with God (τουτο χαρις παρα τεωι touto charis para theōi). “This thing (neuter) is thanks (1 Peter 2:19) by the side of (παρα para) God (as God looks at it).”
For hereunto were ye called (εις τουτο γαρ εκλητητε eis touto gar eklēthēte). First aorist indicative of καλεω kaleō to call. They were called to suffer without flinching (Hort), if need be.Because (οτι hoti). The fact that Christ suffered (επατεν epathen) lifts their suffering to a new plane. Leaving you an example (υμιν υπολιμπανων υπογραμμον humin hupolimpanōn hupogrammon). Present active participle of the late Ionic verb υπολιμπανω hupolimpanō (in the papyri) for the common υπολειπω hupoleipō to leave behind (under), here only in N.T. υπογραμμος Hupogrammos is also a late and rare word (from υπογραπω hupographō to write under), a writing-copy for one to imitate, in 2 Macc. 2:28; Philo, Clement of Rome, here only in N.T. Clement of Alex. (Strom. V. 8. 49) uses it of the copy-head at the top of a child‘s exercise book for the child to imitate, including all the letters of the alphabet. The papyri give many examples of υπογραπη hupographē and υπογραπω hupographō in the sense of copying a letter. That ye should follow his steps (ινα επακολουτησητε τοις ιχνεσιν αυτου hina epakolouthēsēte tois ichnesin autou). Purpose clause with ινα hina and first aorist active subjunctive of επακολουτεω epakoloutheō old verb, to follow closely upon, with the associative-instrumental (1 Timothy 5:10, 1 Timothy 5:24) or the locative here. Ιχνος Ichnos is old word (from ικω hikō to go), tracks, footprints, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 12:18; Romans 4:12. Peter does not mean that Christ suffered only as an example (1 Peter 1:18), but he did leave us his example for our copying (1 John 2:6).
Who did no sin (ος αμαρτιαν ουκ εποιησεν hos hamartian ouk epoiēsen). Quotation from Isaiah 53:9. He has already expressed the sinlessness of Christ in 1 Peter 1:19. The next clause is a combination of Isaiah 53:9; Zephaniah 3:13. For “guile” (δολος dolos) see 1 Peter 2:1.Was found (ευρετη heurethē). First aorist passive indicative of ευρισκω heuriskō Christ‘s guilelessness stood the test of scrutiny (Vincent), as Peter knew (Matthew 26:60; John 18:38; John 19:4, John 19:6).
When he was reviled (λοιδορουμενος loidoroumenos). Present passive participle of λοιδορεω loidoreō old verb (from λοιδορος loidoros reviler, 1 Corinthians 5:11) as in John 9:28.Reviled not again (ουκ αντελοιδορει ouk anteloidorei). Imperfect active (for repeated incidents) of αντιλοιδορεω antiloidoreō late and rare compound (Plutarch, Lucian, one papyrus example with compound following the simplex verb as here, Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary), here only in N.T. Idiomatic use of αντι anti (in turn, return, back). Threatened not (ουκ ηπειλει ouk ēpeilei). Imperfect again (repeated acts) of απειλεω apeileō old compound (from απειλη apeilē threat, Acts 9:1), in N.T. only here and Acts 4:17. But committed himself (παρεδιδου δε paredidou de). Imperfect active again (kept on committing himself) of παραδιδωμι paradidōmi to hand over, usually of one to a judge, but here not of another (as the Sanhedrin), but himself (supply εαυτον heauton), for Jesus uses this very idea in Luke 23:46 as he dies. Jesus thus handed himself and his cause over to the Father who judges righteously (τωι κρινοντι δικαιως tōi krinonti dikaiōs dative of present active articular participle of κρινω krinō).
Who his own self (ος αυτος hos autos). Intensive pronoun with the relative referring to Christ (note relatives also in 1 Peter 2:22, 1 Peter 2:23).Bare our sins (ανηνεγκεν τας αμαρτιας ημων anēnegken tas hamartias hēmōn). Second aorist active indicative of αναπερω anapherō common verb of bringing sacrifice to the altar. Combination here of Isaiah 53:12; Deuteronomy 21:23. Jesus is the perfect sin offering (Hebrews 9:28). For Christ‘s body (σωμα sōma) as the offering see 1 Corinthians 11:24. “Here St. Peter puts the Cross in the place of the altar” (Bigg). Upon the tree (επι το χυλον epi to xulon). Not tree here as in Luke 23:31, originally just wood (1 Corinthians 3:12), then something made of wood, as a gibbet or cross. So used by Peter for the Cross in Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; and by Paul in Galatians 3:13 (quoting Deuteronomy 21:23). Having died unto sins (ταις αμαρτιαις απογενομενοι tais hamartiais apogenomenoi). Second aorist middle participle of απογινομαι apoginomai old compound to get away from, with dative (as here) to die to anything, here only in N.T. That we might live unto righteousness (ινα τηι δικαιοσυνηι ζησωμεν hina tēi dikaiosunēi zēsōmen). Purpose clause with ινα hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of ζαω zaō with the dative (cf. Romans 6:20). Peter‘s idea here is like that of Paul in Rom 6:1-23, especially Romans 6:2 and Romans 6:10.). By whose stripes ye were healed (ου τωι μωλωπι ιατητε hou tōi mōlōpi iathēte). From Isaiah 53:5. First aorist passive indicative of ιαομαι iaomai common verb to heal (James 5:16) and the instrumental case of μωλωπς mōlōps rare word (Aristotle, Plutarch) for bruise or bloody wound, here only in N.T. Cf. 1 Peter 1:18. Writing to slaves who may have received such stripes, Peter‘s word is effective.
For ye were going astray like sheep (ητε γαρ ως προβατα πλανωμενοι ēte gar hōs probata planōmenoi). Brought from Isaiah 53:6, but changed to periphrastic imperfect indicative with ητε ēte and present middle participle of πλαναω planaō to wander away. Recall the words of Jesus in Luke 15:4-7.But are now returned (αλλα επεστραπητε alla epestraphēte). Second aorist passive indicative of επιστρεπω epistrephō old verb, to turn, to return (Matthew 10:13). Unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls (επι τον ποιμενα και επισκοπον των πσυχων υμων epi ton poimena kai episkopon tōn psuchōn humōn). Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd (John 10:11, and see also Hebrews 13:20). Here alone is Christ called our “Bishop” (overseer). See both ideas combined in Ezekiel 34:11. Philo calls God Επισχοπος Episcopos Jesus is also Αποστολος Apostolos (Hebrews 3:1) and he deserves all other titles of dignity that we can give him.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/