Faithful is the saying (πιστος ο λογος pistos ho logos). Here the phrase points to the preceding words (not like 1 Timothy 1:15) and should close the preceding paragraph.If a man seeketh (ει τις ορεγεται ei tis oregetai). Condition of first class, assumed as true. Present middle indicative of ορεγω oregō old verb to reach out after something, governing the genitive. In N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 6:10; Hebrews 11:16. The office of a bishop (επισκοπης episkopēs). Genitive case after ορεγεται oregetai Late and rare word outside of lxx and N.T. (in a Lycaonian inscription). From επισκοπεω episkopeō and means “over-seership” as in Acts 1:20.
The bishop (τον επισκοπον ton episkopon). The overseer. Old word, in lxx, and inscriptions and papyri. Deissmann (Bible Studies, pp. 230f.) has shown it is applied to communal officials in Rhodes. See note on Acts 20:28 for its use for the elders (presbyters) in Acts 20:17. So also in Titus 1:5, Titus 1:7. See note on Philemon 1:1. The word does not in the N.T. have the monarchical sense found in Ignatius of a bishop over elders.Without reproach (ανεπιλημπτον anepilēmpton). Accusative case of general reference with δει dei and ειναι einai Old and common verbal (α a privative and επιλαμβανω epilambanō not to be taken hold of), irreproachable. In N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 5:7; 1 Timothy 6:14. Of one wife (μιας γυναικος mias gunaikos). One at a time, clearly. Temperate (νηπαλιον nēphalion). Old adjective. In N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:2. But see νηπω nēphō to be sober in 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 1 Thessalonians 5:8. Soberminded (σωπρονα sōphrona). Another old adjective (from σαος saos or σως sōs sound, πρην phrēn mind) in N.T. only here, Titus 1:8; Titus 2:2, Titus 2:5. Orderly (κοσμιον kosmion). See note on 1 Timothy 2:9. Seemly, decent conduct. Given to hospitality (πιλοχενον philoxenon). Old word (see πιλοχενια philoxenia in Romans 12:13), from πιλος philos and χενος xenos in N.T. only here, Titus 1:8; 1 Peter 4:9. Apt to teach (διδακτικον didaktikon). Late form for old διδασκαλικος didaskalikos one qualified to teach. In Philo and N.T. only (1 Timothy 3:2; 2 Timothy 2:24).
No brawler (μη παροινον mē paroinon). Later word for the earlier παροινιος paroinios one who sits long at (beside, παρα para) his wine. In N.T. only here and Titus 1:3.No striker (μη πληκτην mē plēktēn). Late word from πλησσω plēssō to strike. In N.T. only here and Titus 1:3. Gentle (επιεικη epieikē). See note on Philippians 4:5 for this interesting word. Not contentious (αμαχον amachon). Old word (from α a privative and μαχη machē), not a fighter. In N.T. only here and Titus 3:2. No lover of money (απιλαργυρον aphilarguron). Late word (α a privative and compound πιλαργυρος phil̇arguros) in inscriptions and papyri (Nageli; also Deissmann, Light, etc., pp. 85f.). In N.T. only here and Hebrews 13:5.
Ruling (προισταμενον proistamenon). Present middle participle of προιστημι proistēmi old word to place before and (intransitive as here) to stand before. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Romans 12:8.In subjection (εν υποταγηι en hupotagēi). See 1 Timothy 3:11.
If a man knoweth not (ει τις ουκ οιδεν ei tis ouk oiden). Condition of first class, assumed as true.How to rule (προστηναι prostēnai). Second aorist active infinitive of same verb προιστημι proistēmi and with οιδεν oiden means “know how to rule,” not “know that he rules.” How (πως pōs). Rhetorical question expecting negative answer. Shall he take care of (επιμελησεται epimelēsetai). Future middle of επιμελεομαι epimeleomai old compound (επι epi direction of care towards) verb, in lxx, in N.T. only here and Luke 10:34. The church of God (εκκλησιας τεου ekklēsias theou). Anarthrous as in 1 Timothy 3:15, elsewhere with article (1 Corinthians 10:32; 1 Corinthians 15:9; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:13). The local church described as belonging to God. No one in N.T. but Paul (Acts 20:28) so describes the church. This verse is a parenthesis in the characteristics of the bishop.
Not a novice (μη νεοπυτον mē neophuton). Our “neophyte.” Vernacular word from Aristophanes on, in lxx, and in papyri in the original sense of “newly-planted” (νεοσ πυω neosινα μη phuō). Only here in N.T.Lest (τυπωτεις hina mē). “That not.” Being puffed up (τυποω tuphōtheis). First aorist passive participle of τυπος tuphoō old word (from εμπεσηι εις tuphos smoke, pride), to raise a smoke or mist (a smoke-screen of pride). In N.T. only here; 1 Timothy 6:4; 2 Timothy 3:4. He fall into (ινα μη empesēi eis). Second aorist active subjunctive with εμπιπτω hina mē negative purpose, of εν empiptō old verb, to fall into. Note both εις en and κριμα του διαβολου eis as in Matthew 12:11; Luke 10:36. The condemnation of the devil (κριμα krima tou diabolou). See note on Romans 3:8 for του διαβολου krima Best to take tou diabolou as objective genitive, though subjective in 1 Timothy 3:7, “the condemnation passed on or received by the devil” (not just “the slanderer,” any slanderer).
From them that are without (απο των εχωτεν apo tōn exōthen). “From the outside (of the church) ones.” Paul‘s care for the witness of outsiders is seen in 1 Thessalonians 4:12; 1 Corinthians 10:32; Colossians 4:5. There are, of course, two sides to this matter.Reproach (ονειδισμον oneidismon). Late word from ονειδιζω oneidizō See note on Romans 15:3. The snare of the devil (παγιδα του διαβολου pagida tou diabolou). Here subjective genitive, snare set by the devil. Παγις Pagis old word from πηγνυμι pēgnumi to make fast. So a snare for birds (Luke 21:35), any sudden trap (Romans 11:9), of sin (1 Timothy 6:9), of the devil (1 Timothy 3:7; 2 Timothy 2:26). Ancients used it of the snares of love. The devil sets special snares for preachers (conceit 1 Timothy 3:6, money 1 Timothy 6:9, women, ambition).
Deacons (διακονους diakonous). Accusative case of general reference like the preceding with δει ειναι dei einai understood. Technical sense of the word here as in Philippians 1:1 which see (two classes of church officers, bishops or elders, deacons).Grave (σεμνους semnous). See note on Philippians 4:8. Repeated in 1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:2. Not double-tongued (μη διλογους mē dilogous). Rare word (δισ λεγω disδιλογεω legō) saying same thing twice. Xenophon has διλογια dilogeō and διγλωσσος dilogia In Pollux, but lxx has μη οινωι πολλωι προσεχοντας diglōssos (double-tongued, Latin bilinguis). Only here in N.T. One placed between two persons and saying one thing to one, another to the other. Like Bunyan‘s Parson “Mark. Two-Tongues.” Not given to much wine (τον νουν mē oinōi pollōi prosechontas). “Not holding the mind (προσεχω ton noun understood as usual with οινωι prosechō 1 Timothy 1:4) on much wine” (μη αισχροκερδεις oinōi dative case). That attitude leads to over-indulgence. Not greedy of filthy lucre (αισχρος mē aischrokerdeis). Old word from κερδος aischros (Ephesians 5:12) and kerdos (Philippians 1:21). “Making small gains in mean ways” (Parry). Not genuine in 1 Timothy 3:3. In N.T. only here and Titus 1:7 (of bishops).
The mystery of the faith (το μυστηριον της πιστεως to mustērion tēs pisteōs). “The inner secret of the faith,” the revelation given in Christ. See for μυστηριον mustērion in Paul (2 Thessalonians 2:7; 1 Corinthians 2:7; Romans 16:25; Colossians 1:26; Ephesians 3:9).In a pure conscience (εν καταραι συνειδησει en katharāi suneidēsei). See note on 1 Timothy 1:19. “The casket in which the jewel is to be kept” (Lock).
First be proved (δοκιμαζεστωσαν πρωτον dokimazesthōsan prōton). Present passive imperative third plural of δοκιμαζω dokimazō old and common verb, to test as metals, etc. (1 Thessalonians 2:4, and often in Paul). How the proposed deacons are to be “first” tested before approved Paul does not say. See note on Philemon 1:10 for the two senses (test, approve) of the word.Let them serve as deacons (διακονειτωσαν diakoneitōsan). Present active imperative of διακονεω diakoneō (same root as διακονος diakonos), common verb, to minister, here “to serve as deacons.” Cf. διακονειν diakonein in Acts 6:2. See also 1 Timothy 3:13. If they be blameless (ανεγκλητοι οντες anegklētoi ontes). “Being blameless” (conditional participle, οντες ontes). See note on 1 Corinthians 1:8; Colossians 1:22 for ανεγκλητος anegklētos f0).
Women (γυναικας gunaikas). Accusative with δει ειναι dei einai understood (οσαυτως hosautōs likewise) as in 1 Timothy 3:8. Apparently “women as deacons” (Romans 16:1 about Phoebe) and not women in general or just “wives of deacons.” See Pliny (Ep. X. 97) ministrae.Not slanderers (μη διαβολους mē diabolous). Original meaning of διαβολος diabolos (from διαβαλλω diaballō Luke 16:1), the devil being the chief slanderer (Ephesians 6:11). “She-devils” in reality (Titus 2:3). “While men are more prone to be διλογους dilogous double-tongued, women are more prone than men to be slanderers” (White). Faithful in all things (πιστας εν πασιν pistas en pāsin). Perhaps as almoners (Ellicott) the deaconesses had special temptations.
Of one wife (μιας γυναικος mias gunaikos). At a time as in 1 Timothy 3:2.Ruling well (προισταμενοι καλως proistamenoi kalōs). As in 1 Timothy 3:4.
Gain to themselves (εαυτοις περιποιουνται heautois peripoiountai). Present middle indicative of περιποιεω peripoieō old verb, to make besides (περι peri around, over), to lay by. Reflexive (indirect) middle with reflexive pronoun (εαυτοις heautois) repeated as often happens in the Koiné. In N.T. only here, Luke 17:33; Acts 20:28 (Paul also, quoting Isaiah 43:21).A good standing (βατμον καλον bathmon kalon). Late word from βαινω bainō in lxx for steps at a door (1 Samuel 5:5). In plural the steps of a stair. In the inscriptions it means a good foothold or standing. The ecclesiastical writers (Theodoret) take it to be a higher grade or rank, but it is doubtful if Paul means that here. Much boldness (πολλην παρρησιαν pollēn parrēsian). A Pauline phrase (2 Corinthians 3:12; 2 Corinthians 7:4; Philemon 1:20). In the faith which is in Christ Jesus (εν πιστει τηι εν Χριστωι Ιησου en pistei tēi en Christōi Iēsou). Pauline phrase again (Acts 26:18; Galatians 3:26; Colossians 1:4; Ephesians 1:15; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:15).
Shortly (εν ταχει en tachei). Old idiom (locative case of ταχος tachos quickness, speed). See note on Romans 16:20. A pseudonymous writer would hardly have put in this phrase. Paul‘s hopes were not to be realized, but he did not know that.
But if I tarry long (εαν δε βραδυνω ean de bradunō). Condition of third class with εαν ean and the present active subjunctive of βραδυνω bradunō old verb, to be slow (usually intransitive), from βραδυς bradus (slow, dull, Luke 24:25), in N.T. only here and 2 Peter 3:9.That thou mayest know (ινα ειδηις hina eidēis). Final clause with ινα hina and second perfect active subjunctive of οιδα oida to know. How men ought (πως δει pōs dei). “How it is necessary for thee” (supply σε se more naturally than τινα tina any one). Indirect question. To behave themselves (αναστρεπεσται anastrephesthai). Present middle (direct) infinitive of αναστρεπω anastrephō old verb, to turn up and down. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:12; Ephesians 2:3. In the house of God (εν οικωι τεου en oikōi theou). Probably here “household of God,” that is “the family of God” rather than “the house (or temple) of God.” Christians as yet had no separate houses of worship and οικος oikos commonly means “household.” Christians are the ναος naos (sanctuary) of God (1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16), and Paul calls them οικειοι του τεου oikeioi tou theou (Ephesians 2:19) “members of God‘s family.” It is conduct as members of God‘s family (οικος oikos) that Paul has in mind. Which (ητις hētis). “Which very house of God,” agreeing (feminine) with the predicate word εκκλησια ekklēsia (church). The church of the living God (εκκλησια τεου ζωντος ekklēsia theou zōntos). Probably here the general church or kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church in 1 Timothy 3:5. The pillar and ground of the truth (στυλος και εδραιωμα της αλητειας stulos kai hedraiōma tēs alētheias). Paul changes the metaphor again as he often does. Those words are in apposition to εκκλησια ekklēsia and οικος oikos On στυλος stulos old word for pillar, see note on Galatians 2:9; Revelation 3:12 (only other N.T. examples). εδραιωμα Hedraiōma late and rare word (from εδραιοω hedraioō to make stable) occurs here first and only in ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support rather than foundation or ground. See 1 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Timothy 2:19 for similar idea. See also Matthew 16:18.
Without controversy (ομολογουμενως homologoumenōs). Old adverb from the participle ομολογουμενος homologoumenos from ομολογεω homologeō Here only in N.T. “Confessedly.”Great (μεγα mega). See note on Ephesians 5:32. “A great mystery.” The mystery of godliness (το της ευσεβειας μυστηριον to tēs eusebeias mustērion). See 1 Timothy 3:9 “the mystery of the faith,” and 1 Timothy 2:2 for ευσεβεια eusebeia Here the phrase explains “a pillar and stay of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:15). See in particular 1 Corinthians 1:27. “The revealed secret of true religion, the mystery of Christianity, the Person of Christ” (Lock). He who (ος hos). The correct text, not τεος theos (God) the reading of the Textus Receptus (Syrian text) nor ο ho (neuter relative, agreeing with μυστηριον mustērion) the reading of the Western documents. Westcott and Hort print this relative clause as a fragment of a Christian hymn (like Ephesians 5:14) in six strophes. That is probably correct. At any rate ος hos (who) is correct and there is asyndeton (no connective) in the verbs. Christ, to whom ος hos refers, is the mystery (Colossians 1:27; Colossians 2:2). Was manifested (επανερωτη ephanerōthē). First aorist passive indicative of πανεροω phaneroō to manifest. Here used to describe the incarnation (εν σαρκι en sarki) of Christ (an answer also to the Docetic Gnostics). The verb is used by Paul elsewhere of the incarnation (Romans 16:26; Colossians 1:26) as well as of the second coming (Colossians 3:4). Justified in the spirit (εδικαιωτη εν πνευματι edikaiōthē en pneumati). First aorist passive indicative of δικαιοω dikaioō to declare righteous, to vindicate. Christ was vindicated in his own spirit (Hebrews 9:14) before men by overcoming death and rising from the dead (Romans 1:3.). Seen of angels (ωπτη αγγελοις ōphthē aggelois). First aorist passive indicative of οραω horaō to see, with either the instrumental or the dative case of angels (αγγελοις aggelois). The words were probably suggested by the appearance of Jesus (ωπτη ōphthē the usual form for the resurrection appearances of Christ) of the angels at the tomb and at the ascension of Christ. See note on Philippians 2:10; 1 Peter 3:22 for the appearance of Jesus to the angels in heaven at the ascension. Some would take “angels” here to be “messengers” (the women). Preached among the nations (εκηρυχτη εν ετνεσιν ekēruchthē en ethnesin). First aorist passive indicative of κηρυσσω kērussō to proclaim. The word ετνος ethnos may mean “all creation” (Colossians 1:23) and not just Gentiles as distinct from Jews. Paul had done more of this heralding of Christ among the Gentiles than any one else. It was his glory (Ephesians 3:1, Ephesians 3:8). Cf. 1 Timothy 2:7. Believed on in the world (επιστευτη εν κοσμωι episteuthē en kosmōi). First aorist indicative passive again of πιστευω pisteuō to believe (2 Thessalonians 1:10). Cf. 1 Timothy 1:15; 2 Corinthians 5:19. Received up in glory (ανελημπτη εν δοχηι anelēmphthē en doxēi). First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn). Cf. Romans 8:29. This time the verb is αναλαμβανω analambanō the verb used of the ascension (Acts 1:11, Acts 1:22, which see). In a wonderful way this stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 3". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany