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Bible Commentaries
1 Timothy 2

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New TestamentRobertson's Word Pictures

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Verse 1

First of all (πρωτον παντων). Take with παρακαλω. My first request (first in importance).

Intercessions (εντευξεις). Late word (Polybius, Plutarch, etc.), only here in N.T. and 1 Timothy 4:5, though the verb εντυγχανω in Romans 8:27; Romans 8:34; Romans 11:2; Romans 11:25. The other three words for prayer are common (Philippians 4:6).

For all men (υπερ παντων ανθρωπων). The scope of prayer is universal including all kinds of sinners (and saints).

Verse 2

For kings (υπερ βασιλεων). And this included Nero who had already set fire to Rome and laid it on the Christians whom he was also persecuting.

And all them that are in high place (κα παντων των εν υπεροχη οντων). Hυπεροχη is old word (from υπεροχος and this from υπερ and εχω), but in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 2:1.

That we may lead (ινα διαγωμεν). Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of διαγω, an old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and Titus 3:3.

Tranquil (ηρεμον). Late adjective from the old adverb ηρεμα (stilly, quietly). Here only in N.T.

Quiet (ησυχιον). Old adjective, once in LXX (Isaiah 66:2), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:4.

Life (βιον). Old word for course of life (not ζωη). So Luke 8:14.

Gravity (σεμνοτητ). Old word from σεμνος (Philippians 4:8), in N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 3:4; Titus 2:7.

Verse 3

Acceptable (αποδεκτον). Late verbal adjective from αποδεχομα. In inscriptions and papyri. In N.T. only here and 1 Timothy 5:4.

Verse 4

Willeth (θελε). God's wish and will in so far as he can influence men.

That all men should be saved (παντας ανθρωπους σωθηνα). First aorist passive infinitive of σωζω with accusative of general reference. See 1 Corinthians 10:33; 2 Corinthians 5:18.

To the knowledge (εις επιγνωσιν). "The full knowledge" as in Colossians 1:6; Ephesians 4:13 (ten times in Paul). See 2 Timothy 3:7 for the whole phrase "full knowledge of the truth" (αληθεια 14 times in the Pastorals). Paul is anxious as in Colossians and Ephesians that the Gnostics may not lead the people astray. They need the full intellectual apprehension of Christianity.

Verse 5

One God (εις θεος). Regular Pauline argument for a universal gospel (Galatians 3:20; Romans 3:30; Ephesians 4:6).

One mediator (εις μεσιτης). Late word (Polybius, Philo) from μεσος (middle), a middle man. In N.T. only here, Galatians 3:20; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24.

Between God and men (θεου κα ανθρωπων). Ablative case (though objective genitive may explain it) after μεσιτης (notion of separation) as in Romans 10:12; Hebrews 5:14.

Himself man (ανθρωπος). No "himself" (αυτος) in the Greek.

Verse 6

A ransom for all (αντιλυτρον υπερ παντων). "A reminiscence of the Lord's own saying" (Lock) in Matthew 20:28 (Mark 10:45) where we have λυτρον αντ πολλων. In the papyri υπερ is the ordinary preposition for the notion of substitution where benefit is involved as in this passage. Αντ has more the idea of exchange and αντιλυτρον υπερ combines both ideas. Λυτρον is the common word for ransom for a slave or a prisoner. Paul may have coined αντιλυτρον with the saying of Christ in mind (only one MS. of Psalms 48:9 and Orph. Litt. 588). See Galatians 1:4 "who gave himself for our sins."

The testimony (το μαρτυριον). Either the nominative absolute or the accusative absolute in apposition to the preceding clause like το αδυνατον in Romans 8:3.

In its own times (καιροις ιδιοις). Locative case as in 1 Timothy 6:15; Titus 1:3. See Galatians 6:9 for "due season." There is no predicate or participle here, "the testimony in its due seasons" (plural).

Verse 7

For which (εις ο). The testimony of Jesus in his self-surrender (verse 1 Timothy 2:6). See εις ο in 2 Timothy 1:11.

I was appointed (ετεθην εγω). First aorist passive indicative of τιθημ.

Preacher and apostle (κηρυξ κα αποστολος). In 2 Timothy 1:10 Paul adds διδασκαλος (herald, apostle, teacher) as he does here with emphasis. In Colossians 1:23 he has διακονος (minister). He frequently uses κηρυσσω of himself (1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 9:27; Galatians 2:2; Romans 10:8).

I speak the truth, I lie not (αληθειαν λεγω, ου ψευδομα). A Pauline touch (Romans 9:1). Cf. Galatians 1:20; 2 Corinthians 11:31. Here alone he calls himself "a teacher of the Gentiles," elsewhere apostle (Romans 11:13), minister (Romans 15:16), prisoner (Ephesians 3:1).

Verse 8

I desire (βουλομα). So Philippians 1:12.

The men (τους ανδρας). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive προσευχεσθα. The men in contrast to "women" (γυναικας) in 1 Timothy 2:9. It is public worship, of course, and "in every place" (εν παντ τοπω) for public worship. Many modern Christians feel that there were special conditions in Ephesus as in Corinth which called for strict regulations on the women that do not always apply now.

Lifting up holy hands (επαιροντας οσιους χειρας). Standing to pray. Note also οσιους used as feminine (so in Plato) with χειρας instead of οσιας. The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up "clean hands" (morally and spiritually clean). See Luke 24:50. Adverb οσιως in 1 Thessalonians 2:10 and οσιοτης in Ephesians 4:24.

Without wrath and disputing (χωρις οργης κα διαλογισμου). See Philippians 2:14.

Verse 9

In like manner that women (οσαυτως γυναικας). Βουλομα must be repeated from verse 1 Timothy 2:8, involved in οσαυτως (old adverb, as in Romans 8:26). Parry insists that προσευχομενας (when they pray) must be supplied also. Grammatically that is possible (Lock), but it is hardly consonant with verses 1 Timothy 2:11-15 (White).

Adorn themselves (κοσμειν εαυτας). Present active infinitive after βουλομα understood. Old word from κοσμος (arrangement, ornament, order, world). See Luke 21:5; Titus 2:10. See 1 Corinthians 11:5 for Paul's discussion of women's dress in public worship.

In modest apparel (εν καταστολη κοσμιω). Καταστολη is a late word (a letting down, καταστελλω, of demeanour or dress, arrangement of dress). Only here in N.T. Κοσμιος is old adjective from κοσμος and means well-arranged, becoming. W. H. have adverb in margin (κοσμιως).

With shamefastness (μετα αιδους). Old word for shame, reverence, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:28.

Sobriety (σωφροσυνης). Old word, in N.T. only here, verse 1 Timothy 2:15, and Acts 26:15 (Paul also).

Not with braided hair (μη εν πλεγμασιν). Old word from πλεκω, to plait, to braid, for nets, baskets, here only in N.T. Cf. 1 Peter 3:1 (εμπλοκης).

And gold (εν χρυσιω). Locative case with εν repeated. Some MSS. read χρυσω. Both used for gold ornaments.

Or pearls (η μαργαριταις). See Matthew 7:6 for this word.

Or costly raiment (η ιματισμω πολυτελε). Hιματισμος a common Koine word from ιματιζω, to clothe. Πολυτελης, old word from πολυς and τελος (great price). See Mark 14:3.

Verse 10

Becometh (πρεπε). Old word for seemly. Paul wishes women to wear "becoming" clothes, but θεοσεβειαν (godliness, from θεοσεβης, John 9:31, θεοσ, σεβομα, worship) is part of the "style" desired. Only here in N.T. Good dress and good works combined.

Verse 11

In quietness (εν ησυχια). Old word from ησυχιος. In N.T. only here, Acts 22:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:12.

In all subjection (εν παση υποταγη). Late word (Dion. Hal., papyri), in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 9:13; Galatians 2:5. See 1 Corinthians 14:33-35.

Verse 12

I permit not (ουκ επιτρεπω). Old word επιτρεπω, to permit, to allow (1 Corinthians 16:7). Paul speaks authoritatively.

To teach (διδασκειν). In the public meeting clearly. And yet all modern Christians allow women to teach Sunday school classes. One feels somehow that something is not expressed here to make it all clear.

Nor to have dominion over a man (ουδε αυθεντειν ανδρος). The word αυθεντεω is now cleared up by Kretschmer (Glotta, 1912, pp. 289ff.) and by Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary. See also Nageli, Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus and Deissmann, Light, etc., pp. 88f. Αυτοδικεω was the literary word for playing the master while αυθεντεω was the vernacular term. It comes from αυτ-εντες, a self-doer, a master, autocrat. It occurs in the papyri (substantive αυθεντης, master, verb αυθεντεω, to domineer, adjective αυθεντικος, authoritative, "authentic"). Modern Greek has αφεντες = Effendi = "Mr."

Verse 13

Was first formed (πρωτος επλασθη). Note πρωτος, not πρωτον, first before Eve. First aorist passive indicative of πλασσω, old verb, in N.T. only here and Romans 9:20 (cf. Genesis 2:7).

Verse 14

Being beguiled (εξαπατηθεισα). First aorist passive participle of εξαπατεω, old compound verb, in N.T. only by Paul (2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Romans 7:11; Romans 16:18; 1 Timothy 2:14). Not certain that εξ- here means "completely deceived" in contrast to simplex (ουκ ηπατηθη) used of Adam, though possible.

Hath fallen (γεγονεν). Second perfect indicative active, permanent state. See 1 Corinthians 11:7.

Verse 15

Through the child-bearing (δια της τεκνογονιας). Late and rare word (in Aristotle). Here alone in N.T. From τεκνογονος and this from τεκνον and root γενω. This translation makes it refer to the birth of the Saviour as glorifying womanhood. That is true, but it is not clear that Paul does not have mostly in mind that child-bearing, not public teaching, is the peculiar function of woman with a glory and dignity all its own. "She will be saved" (σωθησετα) in this function, not by means of it.

If they continue (εαν μεινωσιν). Condition of third class, εαν with first aorist active subjunctive of μενω, to continue. Note change to plural from the singular (σωθησετα).

Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/rwp/1-timothy-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.
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