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According to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus (κατ' επαγγελιαν ζωης της εν Χριστω Ιησου). "With a view to the fulfilment of the promise." See Titus 1:1 for this same use of κατα. For κατ' επαγγελιαν see Galatians 3:29. See 1 Timothy 4:8 for the phrase "promise of life." Here or there "life that in Christ Jesus" includes the present as well as the future.
Beloved (αγαπητο). Instead of γνησιω (genuine) in 1 Timothy 1:2. He had already called Timothy αγαπητον (verbal adjective of αγαπαω) in 1 Corinthians 4:17, an incidental and strong proof that it is Paul who is writing here. This argument applies to each of the Pastorals for Paul is known by other sources (Acts and previous Pauline Epistles) to sustain precisely the affectionate relation toward Timothy and Titus shown in the Pastorals.
I thank (χαριν εχω). "I have gratitude." As in 1 Timothy 1:12. Robinson cites examples of this phrase from the papyri. It occurs also in Luke 17:9; Acts 2:47. Χαρις in doxologies Paul uses (1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 8:16; 1 Corinthians 9:15; Romans 6:17; Romans 7:25). His usual idiom is ευχαριστω (1 Corinthians 1:4; Romans 1:8; Philemon 1:4; Philippians 1:3) or ευχαριστουμεν (1 Thessalonians 1:2; Colossians 1:3) or ου παυομα ευχαριστων (Ephesians 1:16) or ευχαριστειν οφειλομεν (2 Thessalonians 1:3).
Whom I serve from my forefathers (ω λατρευω απο προγονων). The relative ω is the dative case with λατρευω (see Romans 1:9 for this verb), progressive present (I have been serving). For προγονων (forefathers) see 1 Timothy 5:4. Paul claims a pious ancestry as in Acts 24:14; Acts 26:5; Galatians 2:14; Philippians 3:4-7.
In a pure conscience (εν καθαρα συνειδησε). See 1 Timothy 1:5; Acts 23:1.
Unceasing (αδιαλειπτον). Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and Romans 9:2 which see. The adverb αδιαλειπτως is more frequent (in the papyri, literary Koine, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Romans 1:9). The adjective here is the predicate accusative, "how I hold the memory concerning thee unceasing." The use of αδιαλειπτως (adverb) is a sort of epistolary formula (papyri, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Romans 1:9).
Remembrance (μνειαν). Old word, in N.T. only Pauline (seven times, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Romans 1:9; Philippians 1:3).
Night and day (νυκτος κα ημερας). Genitive of time, "by night and by day." As in 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 3:10.
Longing (επιποθων). Present active participle of επιποθεω, old word, eight times in Paul (1 Thessalonians 3:6; Philippians 1:8, etc.).
Remembering thy tears (μεμνημενος σου των δακρυων). Perfect middle participle of μιμνησκω, old and common verb with the genitive, only here in the Pastorals and elsewhere by Paul only in 1 Corinthians 11:2. Probably an allusion to the scene at Miletus (Acts 20:37). Cf. Acts 20:19.
That I may be filled with joy (ινα χαρας πληρωθω). Final clause with ινα and first aorist passive subjunctive of πληροω (with genitive case χαρας), a verb common with Paul (Romans 8:4; Romans 13:8).
Having been reminded (υπομνησιν λαβων). "Having received (second aorist active participle of λαμβανω) a reminder" (old word from υπομιμνησκω, to remind, in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 1:13). For the idiom see Romans 7:8; Romans 7:11. A reminder by another while αναμνησις remembrance (1 Corinthians 11:24) is rather a recalling by oneself (Vincent).
Of the unfeigned faith (της ανυποκριτου πιστεως). Late compound for which see 2 Corinthians 6:6; Romans 12:9.
Dwelt (ενωικησεν). First aorist active indicative of ενοικεω, old verb, in N.T. only in Paul (Romans 8:11; Colossians 3:16).
First (πρωτον). Adverb, not adjective (πρωτη).
In thy grandmother Lois (εν τη μαμμη Λωιδ). Old word, originally the infantile word for μητηρ (mother), then extended by writers to grandmother as here. Common for grandmother in the papyri. Lois is the mother of Eunice, Timothy's mother, since Timothy's father was a Greek (Acts 16:1). Probably both grandmother and mother became Christians.
I am persuaded (πεπεισμα). Perfect passive indicative of πειθω, "I stand persuaded." In the Pastorals only here and verse 2 Timothy 1:12, common in Paul's other writings (Romans 8:38, etc.).
For the which cause (δι' ην αιτιαν). "For which cause," stronger than διο. So in verse 2 Timothy 1:12; Titus 1:13. Only example of αιτια by Paul save in Acts 28:20.
I put thee in remembrance (αναμιμνησκω). Old compound to remind (1 Corinthians 4:17; 2 Corinthians 7:15).
That thou stir up (σε αναζωπυρειν). Present active infinitive of αναζωπυρεω, old double compound (ανα and ζωπυρον, live coal, ζωος and πυρ, then the bellows for kindling), to rekindle, to stir into flame, to keep blazing (continuous action, present time), only here in N.T. See 1 Thessalonians 5:19 for the figure of fire concerning the Holy Spirit. See αναπτω in Luke 12:49.
The gift of God (το χαρισμα του θεου). See 1 Timothy 4:14. Here Paul says μου (my), there he mentions the presbytery. Paul felt a deep personal interest in Timothy. See 1 Corinthians 7:7; Romans 6:23; Romans 11:29 for the gift of God.
A spirit of fearfulness (πνευμα δειλιας). Here πνευμα is the χαρισμα of verse 2 Timothy 1:6, the human spirit as endowed by the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:15). Δειλια is an old word (δειλοσ, δειδω) and always in a bad sense of cowardice, only here in N.T.
Of power (δυναμεως). One of Paul's characteristic words (Romans 1:16).
Of love (αγαπης). One of the gifts of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22). "Which drives out fear" (Lock) as in 1 John 4:18.
Of discipline (σωφρονισμου). Late Koine word (from σωφρονιζω, to control), self-control, here only in N.T. See 1 Timothy 2:9 for σωφροσυνη.
Be not ashamed of (μη επαισχυνθηις). First aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive (in prohibition) of επαισχυνομα, old word, to be ashamed. Again in verse 2 Timothy 1:16 without augment (επαισχυνθην), transitive use of the passive voice as often in the Koine (Robertson, Grammar, p. 818). See Romans 1:16; Romans 6:21. "Do not become ashamed" (as he had not).
The testimony of our Lord (το μαρτυριον του κυριου). For the old word μαρτυριον see 1 Corinthians 1:6; 1 Corinthians 2:1. Paul probably has in mind the saying of Jesus preserved in Mark 8:38 (Luke 9:26). See also 2 Timothy 2:12.
His prisoner (τον δεσμιον αυτου). As in Philippians 1:12; Philemon 1:1; Philemon 1:9; Ephesians 3:1; Ephesians 4:1 (the first Roman captivity). Paul is in his last captivity and refers to it again in verse 2 Timothy 1:16; 2 Timothy 2:9.
Suffer hardship with (συνκακοπαθησον). First aorist active imperative of the double compound συνκακοπαθεω, first known use and in N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:3 (in eccles. writers). But κακοπαθεω, to suffer evil, is old verb (2 Timothy 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:5). Paul is fond of compounds of συν. Paul challenges Timothy by this verb which he apparently coins for the purpose to a joint (συν) suffering with the Lord Jesus and Paul "for the gospel" (τω ευαγγελιω, dative case rather than associative instrumental "with").
According to the power of God (κατα δυναμιν θεου). Given by God (2 Corinthians 6:7).
Called us with a holy calling (καλεσαντος κλησε αγια). Probably dative, "to a holy calling." Κλησις here apparently not the invitation, but the consecrated service, "the upward calling" (Philippians 3:14). See 1 Corinthians 7:20; Ephesians 4:1; Ephesians 4:4 for the use of καλεω with κλησις. Paul often uses καλεω of God's calling men (1 Thessalonians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 1:9; Galatians 1:6; Romans 8:20; Romans 9:11).
Purpose (προθεσιν). See Romans 9:11; Ephesians 1:11 for προθεσιν.
Which was given (την δοθεισαν). First aorist passive articular participle agreeing with χαρις (grace), a thoroughly Pauline expression (1 Corinthians 3:10; Romans 12:3; Romans 12:6, etc.), only here in Pastoral Epistles.
Before times eternal (προ χρονων αιωνιων). See Titus 1:2.
But hath now been manifested (φανερωθεισαν δε νυν). First aorist passive participle of φανεροω agreeing with χαριν. See Titus 1:3; Colossians 1:26; Colossians 3:4 for φανεροω and the contrast made.
By the appearing (δια της επιφανειας). Only here of the Incarnation (except the verb, Titus 2:11; Titus 3:4), but for the second coming see Titus 2:13.
Who abolished death (καταργησαντος μεν τον θανατον). First aorist active participle of καταργεω, the very phrase in 1 Corinthians 15:26; Hebrews 2:14.
Brought to light (φωτισαντος δε). First aorist active participle of φωτιζω, literary Koine word for which see 1 Corinthians 4:5; Ephesians 1:18, to turn the light on.
Life and incorruption (ζωην κα αφθαρσιαν). The opposite of θανατος, "life and immortality" (unchangeable life).
For which (εις ο). For the gospel. See 1 Timothy 2:7 for this verse.
These things (ταυτα). His imprisonment in Rome.
Yet I am not ashamed (αλλ' ουκ επαισχυνομα). Plain reference to the exhortation to Timothy in verse 2 Timothy 1:8.
Him whom I have believed (ω πεπιστευκα). Dative case of the relative (ω) with the perfect active of πιστευω, the antecedent to the relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted.
I am persuaded (πεπεισμα). See verse 2 Timothy 1:5.
To guard (φυλαξα). First aorist active infinitive of φυλασσω, the very word used in 1 Timothy 6:20 with παραθηκην as here, to guard against robbery or any loss.
That which I have committed unto him (την παραθηκην μου). Literally, "my deposit," as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19). See this word also in verse 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακαταθηκη (a sort of double deposit, παρα, beside, down, κατα).
Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν). The day of Christ's second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philippians 1:6; Philippians 1:10; Philippians 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5; Romans 2:16).
The pattern of sound words (υποτυπωσιν υγιαινοντων λογων). See 1 Timothy 1:16 for υποτυπωσιν and 1 Timothy 1:10 for υγιαινω.
Which (ων). Genitive plural with ηκουσας (didst hear) or attracted to case of λογων (ακουω is used either with the accusative or the genitive).
That good thing which was committed unto thee (την καλην παραθηκην). Simply, "the good deposit."
Guard (φυλαξον). As in 1 Timothy 6:20. God has also made an investment in Timothy (cf. verse 2 Timothy 1:12). Timothy must not let that fail.
Which dwelleth in us (του ενοικουντος εν ημιν). It is only through the Holy Spirit that Timothy or any of us can guard God's deposit with us.
Are turned away from me (απεστραφησαν με). Second aorist passive (still transitive here with με) of αποστρεφω, for which verb see Titus 1:14. For the accusative with these passive deponents see Robertson, Grammar, p. 484. It is not known to what incident Paul refers, whether the refusal of the Christians in the Roman province of Asia to help Paul on his arrest (or in response to an appeal from Rome) or whether the Asian Christians in Rome deserted Paul in the first stage of the trial (2 Timothy 4:16). Two of these Asian deserters are mentioned by name, perhaps for reasons known to Timothy. Nothing else is known of Phygelus and Hermogenes except this shameful item.
Grant mercy (δωιη ελεος). The phrase nowhere else in the N.T. Second aorist active optative of διδωμ, the usual form being δοιη. This is the usual construction in a wish about the future.
Unto the house of Onesiphorus (τω Ονησιφορου οικω). The same phrase in 2 Timothy 4:19. Apparently Onesiphorus is now dead as is implied by the wish in 2 Timothy 1:18.
For he oft refreshed me (οτ πολλακις με ανεψυξεν). First aorist active indicative of αναψυχω, old verb, to cool again, in LXX and Koine often, here only in N.T., but αναψυξις in Acts 3:20. In the first imprisonment or the second. If he lost his life for coming to see Paul, it was probably recently during this imprisonment.
Was not ashamed of my chain (αλυσιν μου ουκ επαισχυνθη). Passive deponent again (first aorist indicative) with accusative as in 2 Timothy 1:8. For αλυσιν (chain) see Ephesians 6:20. Note absence of augment in επαισχυνθη.
When he was in Rome (γενομενος εν Ρομη). Second aorist middle participle of γινομα (coming to Rome, happening in Rome).
He sought me diligently and found me (σπουδαιως εζητησεν με κα ευρεν). Effective aorists both of them (first of ζητεω, second of ευρισκω). He did it at the risk of his own life apparently.
Grant to him to and mercy (δωιη αυτω ευρειν ελεος). Second aorist active optative in wish for the future again as in verse 2 Timothy 1:16. Find mercy from the Lord (Jesus) as he found me.
Thou knowest very well (βελτιον συ γινωσκεις). Literally, "thou knowest better (than I)," for he did those things in Ephesus where thou art. Only N.T. example of βελτιον, in D text of Acts 10:28.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
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