That ye should not be made to stumble (ινα μη σκανδαλιστητε hina mē skandalisthēte). Purpose clause with negative μη mē and first aorist passive of σκανδαλιζω skandalizō common verb in the Synoptics (Matthew 13:21) “the σκανδαλα skandala of faith, the stumblingblocks which trip up a disciple” (Bernard), in John only John 6:61 and here (cf. 1 John 2:10).
They shall put you out of the synagogues (αποσυναγωγους ποιησουσιν υμας aposunagōgous poiēsousin humas). “They will make you outcasts from the synagogues.” Predicate accusative of the compound adjective αποσυναγωγος aposunagōgos for which see John 9:22; John 12:42.Yea (αλλ all'). Use of αλλα alla as coordinating conjunction, not adversative. That (ινα hina) not in the sense of “when” (οτε hote), but as in John 12:23 for God‘s purpose (Luke 2:34, οπως hopōs). Shall think (δοχηι doxēi). First aorist active subjunctive of δοκεω dokeō “So blind will he be” (Bernard). That he offereth service unto God (λατρειαν προσπερειν τωι τεωι latreian prospherein tōi theōi). Infinitive (present active) indirect discourse after δοχηι doxēi For the phrase see Hebrews 6:1.; Hebrews 8:3.; Hebrews 9:7. The rabbis so felt when they crucified Jesus and when they persecuted the disciples (Acts 6:13; Acts 7:57.). No persecution is more bitter than when done by religious enthusiasts and bigots like the Spanish Inquisition.
Because (οτι hoti). Definite reason for the religious hatred is ignorance of God and Christ as in John 15:21.
Have I spoken (λελαληκα lelalēka). Perfect active indicative as in John 15:11; John 16:1. Solemn repetition.When their hour is come (οταν ελτηι η ωρα αυτων hotan elthēi hē hōra autōn). Indefinite temporal clause, οταν hotan with the second aorist active subjunctive of ερχομαι erchomai “whenever their hour comes.” The time appointed for these things. Now that (οτι hoti). Simply “that” (declarative conjunction in indirect discourse. Forewarned is to be forearmed. Cf. John 13:19. From the beginning (εχ αρχης ex archēs). As in John 6:64 but practically like απ αρχης ap' archēs in John 15:27. While Christ was with them, he was the object of attack (John 15:18).
And none of you asketh me (και ουδεις εχ υμων ερωται με kai oudeis ex humōn erōtāi me). Adversative use of και kai = “and yet” as in John 1:10. Now that they realize that Jesus is going, the thoughts of the disciples turn on themselves and they cease asking the query of Peter (John 13:36).
Sorrow hath filled (η λυπη πεπληρωκεν hē lupē peplērōken). This word is not used of Jesus in the Gospels, in John only in this chapter. Perfect active indicative of πληροω plēroō They do not see their way to go on without Jesus.
It is expedient for you (συμπερει υμιν sumpherei humin). Present active indicative of συμπερω sumpherō old verb to bear together. See John 11:50 where the phrase is used by Caiaphas “for us,” here “for you” (υμιν humin ethical dative).That I go away (ινα εγω απελτω hina egō apelthō). Subject clause the subject of συμπερει sumpherei ινα hina and second aorist active subjunctive of απερχομαι aperchomai The reason (γαρ gar) for this startling statement follows. If I go not away (εαν μη απελτω ean mē apelthō). Third-class condition with εαν ean and the negative μη mē with απελτω apelthō as before. Will not come (ου μη ελτηι ou mē elthēi). Strong double negative with second aorist active subjunctive of ερχομαι erchomai The Holy Spirit was, of course, already at work in the hearts of men, but not in the sense of witnessing as Paraclete which could only take place after Jesus had gone back to the Father. But if I go (εαν δε πορευτω ean de poreuthō). Third-class condition again (εαν ean and the first aorist passive subjunctive of πορευομαι poreuomai). I will send (πεμπσω pempsō). First person future as in John 16:15.
And he (και εκεινος kai ekeinos). Emphatic demonstrative masculine pronoun.When he is come (ελτων elthōn). Second aorist active participle of ερχομαι erchomai “having come” or “coming.” Will convict the world (ελεγχει τον κοσμον elegxei ton kosmon). Future active of ελεγχω elegchō old word for confuting, convicting by proof already in John 3:29; John 8:46. Jesus had been doing this (John 7:7), but this is pre-eminently the work of the Holy Spirit and the most needed task today for our complacent age. In respect of sin (περι αμαρτιας peri hamartias). Concerning the reality of sin as missing the mark and as wronging God and man, and not a mere slip or animal instinct or devoid of moral responsibility or evil. Some scientists and psychologists (Freudians and behaviourists) seem bent on destroying man‘s sense of sin. Hence crime waves even in youth. And of righteousness (και περι δικαιοσυνης kai peri dikaiosunēs). The opposite of “sin” and to be yearned for after conviction. Cf. Rom 1:19-3:21 about the necessity of the God-kind of righteousness and the Sermon on the Mount for Christ‘s idea of righteousness. And of judgment (και περι κρισεως kai peri kriseōs). As certain to come as condemnation because of sin and the lack of righteousness. These are not played out motives in human life, but basal. For this ministry we have the help of the Paraclete. The Paraclete is here spoken of “not as man‘s advocate with God (1 John 2:1), but as Christ‘s advocate with the world” (Bernard).
Because they believe not on me (οτι ου πιστευουσιν εις εμε hoti ou pisteuousin eis eme). Without this conviction by the Paraclete such men actually have a pride of intellectual superiority in refusing to believe on Jesus.
And ye behold me no more (και ουκετι τεωρειτε με kai ouketi theōreite me). With the bodily eyes and without the Holy Spirit they are unable to behold Jesus with the spiritual vision (John 14:19). Without Christ they lose the sense of righteousness as is seen in the “new morals” (immorality, loose views of marriage, etc.).
Because the prince of this world hath been judged (οτι ο αρχων του κοσμου τουτου κεκριται hoti ho archōn tou kosmou toutou kekritai). Cf. John 12:31; John 14:31 for the title. Perfect passive indicative of κρινω krinō He stands condemned. The sinful world is in his grip, but he will be cast out (John 12:31).
But ye cannot bear them now (αλλ ου δυναστε βασταζειν αρτι all' ou dunasthe bastazein arti). The literal sense of βασταζω bastazō to bear, occurs in John 12:6. For the figurative as here see Acts 15:10. The untaught cannot get the full benefit of teaching (1 Corinthians 3:1; Hebrews 5:11-14). The progressive nature of revelation is a necessity.
Howbeit (δε de). One of the most delicate and difficult particles to translate, varying from “and” to “but.”When he, the Spirit of truth, is come (οταν ελτηι εκεινοσ το πνευμα της αλητειας hotan elthēi ekeinos class="normal greek">οταν to pneuma tēs alētheias). Indefinite relative clause (ερχομαι hotan and the second aorist active subjunctive of εκεινος erchomai no futurum exactum), “whenever he comes.” Note πνευμα ekeinos (masculine demonstrative pronoun, though followed by neuter οδηγησει υμας pneuma in apposition. See John 15:26 for this phrase about the Holy Spirit. He shall guide you (οδηγεω hodēgēsei humas). Future active of old verb οδηγος hodēgeō (from οδος hodēgos from ηγεομαι hodos way, οδηγησον με εις την αλητειαν σου hēgeomai to lead). See Psalm 24:5 for “lead me into thy truth” (απ εαυτου hodēgēson me eis tēn alētheian sou). Christ is both the Way and the Truth (John 14:6) and the Holy Spirit is the Guide who shows the way to the Truth (John 16:14). This he does gradually. We are still learning the truth in Christ. From himself (αναγγελει aph' heautou). In this he is like Christ (John 1:26; John 12:49; John 14:10). He shall declare (αναγγελλω anaggelei). Future active of τα ερχομενα anaggellō as in John 4:25. See it also repeated in John 16:14. The things that are yet to come (ερχομαι ta erchomena). Neuter plural articular participle of ο ερχομενος erchomai “the coming things.” This phrase only here in the N.T. The things already begun concerning the work of the Kingdom (Luke 7:19.; Luke 18:30) not a chart of future history. See Luke 7:20; John 6:14; John 11:27 for ho erchomenos (the coming one) used of the Messiah.
He shall glorify me (εκεινος εμε δοχασει ekeinos eme doxasei). This is the glory of the Holy Spirit, to glorify Jesus Christ.For he shall take of mine (οτι εκ του εμου λημπσεται hoti ek tou emou lēmpsetai). Future middle of λαμβανω lambanō and a definite promise of the Spirit‘s guidance in interpreting Christ. One need only refer to Peter‘s sermon at pentecost after the coming of the Holy Spirit, to Peter‘s Epistles, to Paul‘s Epistles, to Hebrews, to John‘s Epistles, to see how under the tutelage of the Holy Spirit the disciples grew into the fulness of the knowledge of God in the face of Christ (2 Corinthians 6:4).
Therefore said I (δια τουτο ειπον dia touto eipon). Jesus explains how and why the Holy Spirit can and will reveal to the disciples what they need to know further concerning him. They had failed so far to understand Christ‘s words about his death and resurrection. The Holy Spirit as Guide and Teacher will teach them what they can only receive and understand after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus.
A little while (μικρον mikron). The brief period now till Christ‘s death as in John 7:33; John 13:33; John 14:19.Again a little while (παλιν μικρον palin mikron). The period between the death and the resurrection of Jesus (from Friday afternoon till Sunday morning). Ye shall see me (οπσεστε με opsesthe me). Future middle of οπτομαι optomai the verb used in John 1:51; John 16:22 as here of spiritual realities (Bernard), though τεωρεω theōreō is so used in John 20:14.
Some of the disciples (εκ των ματητων αυτου ek tōn mathētōn autou). Ellipsis of time (some) before εκ ek as in John 7:40. Jesus seemed to contradict himself, for the disciples took both verbs in the same sense and were still puzzled over the going to the Father of John 14:3. But they talk to one another, not to Jesus.
We know not what he saith (ουκ οιδαμεν τι λαλει ouk oidamen ti lalei). The questions to Jesus cease and the disciples frankly confess to each other their own ignorance.
Jesus perceived (εγνω Ιησους egnō Iēsous). Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskōThat they were desirous to ask him (οτι ητελον αυτον ερωταιν hoti ēthelon auton erōtāin). Imperfect active tense of τελω thelō in indirect discourse instead of the retention of the present τελουσιν thelousin (the usual idiom), just like our English. Their embarrassment was manifest after four inquiries already (Peter, Thomas, Philip, Judas). So Jesus takes the initiative.
Ye shall weep and lament (κλαυσετε και τρηνησετε klausete kai thrēnēsete). Future active of κλαιω klaiō and τρηνεω thrēneō both old words (for κλαιω klaiō see John 11:31, for τρηνεω thrēneō see Matthew 11:17), both words used of the loud lamentations so common in the east.Shall rejoice (χαρησεται charēsetai). Second future passive of χαιρω chairō in violent contrast. Picture the women on the way to the Cross (Luke 23:27, εκοπτοντο και ετρηνουν ekoptonto kai ethrēnoun two descriptive imperfects) and Mary Magdalene by the tomb (John 20:11, κλαιουσα klaiousa). Ye shall be sorrowful (λυπητησεστε lupēthēsesthe). First future passive of λυπεω lupeō word for inward grief. See the change from sorrow to joy in John 20:14-16 when “they disbelieved for joy” (Luke 24:41). So violent was the reaction on the sudden appearance of Jesus.
A woman (η γυνη hē gunē). “The woman,” any woman.When she is in travail (οταν τικτηι hotan tiktēi). Indefinite temporal clause, “whenever she is about to bear (or give birth),” οταν hotan and present active subjunctive of τικτω tiktō common O.T. image for pain. Her hour is come (ηλτεν η ωρα αυτης ēlthen hē hōra autēs). Second aorist active indicative, timeless aorist, “her hour” for giving birth which she knows is like a living death. But when she is delivered of the child (οταν δε γεννησηι το παιδιον hotan de gennēsēi to paidion). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν hotan and first aorist active subjunctive of γενναω gennaō “But whenever she bears the child.” The anguish (της τλιπσεως tēs thlipseōs). Genitive case after μνημονευει mnēmoneuei of τλιπσις thlipsis usual word for tribulation (Matthew 13:21). Is born (εγεννητη egennēthē). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of γενναω gennaō f0).
And ye therefore now (και υμεις ουν νυν kai humeis oun nun). See John 8:38 for like emphasis on ye (υμεις humeis). The “sorrow” (λυπην lupēn) is like that of the mother in childbirth (real, but fleeting, with permanent joy following). The metaphor points, of course, to the resurrection of Jesus which did change the grief of the disciples to gladness, once they are convinced that Jesus has risen from the dead.But I will see you again (παλιν δε οπσομαι υμας palin de opsomai humas). Future middle of οραω horaō to see. In John 16:16, John 16:19 Jesus had said “ye shall see me” (οπσεστε με opsesthe me), but here we have one more blessed promise, “I shall see you,” showing “that we are the objects of God‘s regard” (Westcott). Shall rejoice (χαρησεται charēsetai). Second future passive of χαιρω chairō Taketh away (αιρει airei). Present active indicative, futuristic present, but B D have αρει arei the future active (shall take away). This joy is a permanent possession.
Ye shall ask me nothing (εμε ουκ ερωτησετε eme ouk erōtēsete). Either in the sense of question (original meaning of ερωταω erōtaō) as in John 16:19, John 16:30 since he will be gone or in the sense of request or favours (like αιτεω aiteō in this verse) as in John 14:16; Acts 3:2. In John 16:26 both αιτεω aiteō and ερωταω erōtaō occur in this sense. Either view makes sense here.If ye shall ask (αν τι αιτησητε an ti aitēsēte). Third-class condition, αν an like εαν ean with first aorist active subjunctive of αιτεω aiteō See note on John 14:26 for “in my name.”
Hitherto (εως αρτι heōs arti). Up till now the disciples had not used Christ‘s name in prayer to the Father, but after the resurrection of Jesus they are to do so, a distinct plea for parity with the Father and for worship like the Father.May be fulfilled (ηι πεπληρωμενη ēi peplērōmenē). Periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of πληροω plēroō in a purpose clause with ινα hina See John 15:11 for some verb (first aorist passive subjunctive with ινα hina) and 1 John 1:4 for same form as here, emphasizing the abiding permanence of the joy.
In proverbs (εν παροιμιαις en paroimiais). See note on John 10:6 for this word.Shall tell (απαγγελω apaggelō). Future active of απαγγελλω apaggellō to report, correct text and not αναγγελω anaggelō (John 16:13, John 16:14, John 16:15), as in 1 John 1:2. Plainly (παρρησιαι parrēsiāi). See note on John 7:13 for this word.
I say not (ου λεγω ou legō). “I speak not.” Christ did pray for the disciples before his death (John 14:16; John 17:9, John 17:15, John 17:24) and he prays also for sinners (Luke 23:34; 1 John 2:1). Here it is the special love of God for disciples of Jesus (John 14:21, John 14:23; John 17:23; 1 John 4:19). Note αιτεω aiteō and ερωταω erōtaō used in practically the same sense as in John 16:23.
Loveth (πιλει philei). Present active indicative of πιλεω phileō the word for warm and friendly love, here used of God‘s love for the disciples, while in John 3:16 αγαπαω agapaō occurs of God‘s love for the world.Ye have loved me (πεπιληκατε pephilēkate). Perfect active indicative of πιλεω phileō “loved and still love me warmly.” And have believed (πεπιστευκατε pepisteukate). Perfect active indicative again. Recall the exhortation in John 14:1.
I came out from the Father (εχηλτον εκ του πατρος exēlthon ek tou patros). Definite act (aorist), the Incarnation, with repetition of εκ ek (out of), while in John 16:27 we have (παρα του πατρος εχηλτον para tou patros exēlthon) with no practical distinction between εκ ek and παρα para in resultant idea.Am come (εληλυτα elēlutha). Perfect active indicative of ερχομαι erchomai as in John 18:37. The Incarnation is now a permanent fact, once only a blessed hope (John 11:27). His leaving the world and going to the Father does not set aside the fact of the Incarnation. Both απιημι aphiēmi (I leave) and πορευομαι poreuomai (I go) are futuristic present indicatives.
No proverb (παροιμιαν ουδεμιαν paroimian oudemian). No wayside saying, no dark saying. See John 10:6; John 16:25.
Now know we (νυν οιδαμεν nun oidamen). They had failed to understand the plain words of Jesus about going to the Father heretofore (John 16:5), but Jesus read their very thoughts (John 16:19.) and this fact seemed to open their minds to grasp his idea.Should ask (ερωται erōtāi). Present active subjunctive with ινα hina in original sense of asking a question. By this (εν τουτωι en toutōi). In Christ‘s supernatural insight into their very hearts. From God (απο τεου apo theou). Compare παρα του πατρος para tou patros (John 16:27) and εκ του πατρος ek tou patros (John 16:28), απο εκ παρα apo class="translit"> ek class="translit"> para all with the ablative of source or origin.
Do ye now believe? (αρτι πιστευετε arti pisteuete). For αρτι arti (just now) see John 9:19; John 13:33, John 13:37. Their belief in Christ was genuine as far as it went, but perils await them of which they are ignorant. They are too self-confident as their despair at Christ‘s death shows.
Cometh (ερχεται erchetai). Futuristic present middle indicative of ερχομαι erchomaiYea, is come (και εληλυτεν kai elēluthen). Explanatory use of και kai and the perfect active indicative as in John 12:23. The long-looked-for hour (ωρα hōra) is so close that it has virtually begun. The time for the arrest of Jesus is near. See also John 17:1. That (ινα hina). See John 16:2 for this same use of ινα hina (not οτε hote) with ερχομαι ωρα erchomai hōra Ye shall be scattered (σκορπιστητε skorpisthēte). First aorist passive subjunctive of σκορπιζω skorpizō used in John 10:12 of sheep scampering from the wolf. Cf. Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:33. To his own (εις τα ιδια eis ta idia). “To his own home” as in John 1:11; John 19:27. So Appian VI. 23. Shall leave (απητε aphēte). Second aorist subjunctive of απιημι aphiēmi with ινα hina And yet (και kai). Clear case of και kai in adversative sense, not just “and.”
That in me ye may have peace (ινα εν εμοι ειρηνην εχητε hina en emoi eirēnēn echēte). Present active subjunctive of εχω echō “that ye may keep on having peace in me,” even when I am put to death, peace to be found nowhere save in me (John 14:27).Be of good cheer (ταρσειτε tharseite). Imperative active from ταρσος tharsos courage (Acts 28:15). A word for courage in the face of danger, only here in John, but see Matthew 9:2, Matthew 9:22; Mark 10:49. I have overcome the world (εγω νενικηκα τον κοσμον egō class="normal greek">νικαω nenikēka ton kosmon). Perfect active indicative of τετελεσται nikaō to be victorious, to conquer. Always of spiritual victory in the N.T. See 1 John 5:4. This majestic proclamation of victory over death may be compared with υπερνικωμεν tetelestai (It is finished) in John 19:30 as Christ died and with Paul‘s hupernikōmen (we are more than conquerors) in Romans 8:37.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 16". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany