But Jesus went (Ιησους δε επορευτη Iēsous de eporeuthē). Same deponent use of πορευομαι poreuomai as in John 7:53 and in contrast to the Sanhedrin‘s conduct, though it seems “pointless” (Dods). Apparently Jesus was lodging in the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus.
Early in the morning (ορτρου orthrou). Genitive of time, ορτρος orthros meaning daybreak, old word, not in John, though in Luke 24:1; Acts 5:21. John uses πρωι prōi (John 18:28; John 20:1; John 21:4).He came again into the temple (παλιν παρεγενετο εις το ιερον palin paregeneto eis to hieron). If the paragraph is genuine, the time is the next day after the eighth and last day of the feast. If not genuine, there is no way of telling the time of this apparently true incident. And all the people came unto him (και πας ο λαος ηρχετο προς αυτον kai pās ho laos ērcheto pros auton). Imperfect middle of ερχομαι erchomai picturing the enthusiasm of the whole (πας pas) crowd now as opposed to the divisions in chapter 7. Taught (εδιδασκεν edidasken). Imperfect active of διδασκω didaskō He took his seat (κατισας kathisas ingressive active participle of κατιζω kathizō) as was customary for Jesus and began to teach (inchoative imperfect). So the picture.
The scribes and the Pharisees (οι γραμματεις και οι Παρισαιοι hoi grammateis kai hoi Pharisaioi). John does not mention “scribes,” though this combination (note two articles) is common enough in the Synoptics (Luke 5:30; Luke 6:7, etc.).Bring (αγουσιν agousin). Vivid dramatic present active indicative of αγω agō Dods calls this “in itself an unlawful thing to do” since they had a court for the trial of such a case. Their purpose is to entrap Jesus. Taken in adultery (επι μοιχειαι κατειλεμμενην epi moicheiāi kateilemmenēn). Perfect passive participle of καταλαμβανω katalambanō old compound to seize (Mark 9:18), to catch, to overtake (John 12:35), to overcome (or overtake) in John 1:5. Having let her in the midst (στησαντες αυτην εν μεσωι stēsantes autēn en mesōi). First aorist active (transitive) participle of ιστημι histēmi Here all could see her and what Jesus did with such a case. They knew his proneness to forgive sinners.
Hath been taken (κατειληπται kateilēptai). Perfect passive indicative of καταλαμβανω katalambanō (see John 8:3), caught and still guilty.In adultery (μοιχευομενη moicheuomenē). Present passive participle of μοιχευω moicheuō “herself suffering adultery” (Matthew 5:32). Used of married people. Not in John. In the very act (επ αυτοπωρωι ep' autophōrōi). Old adjective (αυτοπωροσ αυτος autophōros class="normal greek">πωρ autos self, and phōr thief) caught in the act of theft, then extended to any crime in which one is caught. Old idiom, but not elsewhere in the Greek Bible. One example in a Berlin papyrus.
Commanded (ενετειλατο eneteilato). First aorist middle indicative of εντελλω entellō old verb to enjoin (Matthew 4:6).To stone such (τας τοιαυτας λιταζειν tas toiautas lithazein). Present active infinitive of λιταζω lithazō (from λιτος lithos), from Aristotle on. Stoning was specified for the case of a betrothed woman guilty of adultery (Deuteronomy 22:23.) and for a priest‘s daughter if guilty. In other cases just death was commanded (Leviticus 20:10; Deuteronomy 22:22). The Talmud prescribes strangulation. This case may have strictly come within the regulation as a betrothed virgin. What then sayest thou of her? (συ ουν τι λεγεισ su oun ti legeis). “Thou then, what dost thou say?” This was the whole point, to catch Jesus, not to punish the woman.
Tempting him (πειραζοντες αυτον peirazontes auton). Evil sense of this present active participle of πειραζω peirazō as so often (Mark 8:11; Mark 10:2, etc.).That they might have whereof to accuse him (ινα εχωσιν κατηγορειν αυτου hina echōsin katēgorein autou). Purpose clause with ινα hina and present active subjunctive of εχω echō This laying of traps for Jesus was a common practice of his enemies (Luke 11:16, etc.). Note present active infinitive of κατηγορεω katēgoreō (see Matthew 12:10 for the verb) to go on accusing (with genitive αυτου autou). It was now a habit with these rabbis. Stooped down (κατω κυπσας katō kupsas). First aorist active participle of κυπτω kuptō old verb to bow the head, to bend forward, in N.T. only here and John 8:8; Mark 1:7. The use of κατω katō (down) gives a vivid touch to the picture. With his finger (τωι δακτυλωι tōi daktulōi). Instrumental case of δακτυλος daktulos for which see Matthew 23:4. Wrote on the ground (κατεγραπεν εις την γην kategraphen eis tēn gēn). Imperfect active of καταγραπω katagraphō old compound, here only in N.T., to draw, to delineate, to write down, apparently inchoative, began to write on the sand as every one has done sometimes. The only mention of writing by Jesus and the use of καταγραπω katagraphō leaves it uncertain whether he was writing words or drawing pictures or making signs. If we only knew what he wrote! Certainly Jesus knew how to write. And yet more books have been written about this one who wrote nothing that is preserved than any other person or subject in human history. There is a tradition that Jesus wrote down the names and sins of these accusers. That is not likely. They were written on their hearts. Jesus alone on this occasion showed embarrassment over this woman‘s sin.
When they continued asking (ως επεμενον ερωτωντες hōs epemenon erōtōntes). Imperfect active indicative of επιμενω epimenō (waiting in addition or still, επι epi old verb) with supplementary active participle of ερωταω erōtaō to question. See same construction in Acts 12:16 The verb επιμενω epimenō does not occur in John. They saw that Jesus seemed embarrassed, but did not know that it was as much because of “the brazen hardness of the prosecutors” as because of the shame of the deed.He lifted himself up (ανεκυπσεν anekupsen). First aorist active indicative of ανακυπτω anakuptō the opposite of κατακυπτω katakuptō to bend down (John 8:8) or of κατω κυπτω katō kuptō (John 8:6). He that is without sin (ο αναμαρτητος ho anamartētos). Verbal adjective (αν an privative and αμαρτητος hamartētos from αμαρτανω hamartanō), old word, either one who has not sinned as here and Deuteronomy 29:19 or one who cannot sin, not in the N.T. Among you (υμων humōn). Objective genitive. First cast (πρωτος βαλετω prōtos baletō). The nominative πρωτος prōtos means first before others, be the first to cast, not cast before he does something else. See John 20:4. The verb is second aorist imperative of βαλλω ballō old verb to fling or cast. Jesus thus picks out the executioner in the case.
Again he stooped down (παλιν κατακυπσας palin katakupsas). First aorist active participle of κατακυπτω katakuptō old and rare verb (in Epictetus II, 16. 22) instead of κατω κυπσας katō kupsas in John 8:6.With his finger (τωι δακτυλωι tōi daktulōi). Not genuine, only in D and Western class. Wrote on the ground (εγραπεν εις την γην egraphen eis tēn gēn). Imperfect active of the simplex γραπω graphō not καταγραπω katagraphō The second picture of Jesus writing on the ground.
Went out (εχηρχοντο exērchonto). Inchoative imperfect. Graphic picture.One by one (εις κατ εις heis kath' heis). Not a Johannine phrase, but in Mark 14:19 where also the second nominative is retained as if κατ kath' (κατα kata) is regarded as a mere adverb and not as a preposition. Beginning from the eldest (αρχαμενοι απο των πρεσβυτερων arxamenoi apo tōn presbuterōn). “From the elder (comparative form, common in Koiné as superlative) men,” as was natural for they had more sins of this sort which they recalled. “They are summoned to judge themselves rather than the woman” (Dods). Was left alone (κατελειπτη μονος kateleiphthē monos). First aorist effective passive indicative of καταλειπω kataleipō to leave behind, with predicate nominative μονος monos “Jesus was left behind alone.” And the woman, where she was, in the midst (και η γυνη εν μεσωι ουσα kai hē gunē en mesōi ousa). The woman was left behind also “being in the midst” as they had placed her (John 8:3) before they were conscience stricken and left.
Lifted up himself (ανακυπσας anakupsas). First aorist active participle of ανακυπτω anakuptō as in John 8:7.Where are they? (Που εισιν Pou eisin). Jesus had kept on writing on the ground as the accusers had slipped away one by one. Did no man condemn thee? (ουδεις σε κατεκρινεν oudeis se katekrinen). First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω katakrinō old and common verb to give judgment against (down on) one, but not in John. No one dared to cast a stone at the woman on Christ‘s terms.
No man, Lord (Ουδεισ Κυριε Oudeis class="normal greek">Ουδε εγω σε κατακρινω Kurie). “No one, Sir.” She makes no excuse for her sin. Does she recognize Jesus as “Lord”?Neither do I condemn thee (απο του νυν μηκετι αμαρτανε Oude egō se katakrinō). Jesus does not condone her sin. See John 8:15 for “I do not judge (condemn) any one.” But he does give the poor woman another chance. Henceforth sin no more (apo tou nun mēketi hamartane). See also John 5:14 where this same language is used to the impotent man. It literally means (prohibition with present active imperative): “Henceforth no longer go on sinning.” One can only hope that the woman was really changed in heart and life. Jesus clearly felt that even a wicked woman can be saved.
Again therefore (παλιν ουν palin oun). This language fits in better with John 7:52 than with John 8:11. Just suppose Jesus is in the temple on the following day.Unto them (αυτοις autois). The Pharisees and crowds in the temple after the feast was past. I am the light of the world (εγω ειμι το πως του κοσμου egō eimi to phōs tou kosmou). Jesus had called his followers “the light of the world” (Matthew 5:14), but that was light reflected from him. Already Jesus (the Logos) had been called the true light of men (John 1:9; John 3:19). The Psalmist calls God his Light (Psalm 27:1). So Isaiah 60:19. At the feast of tabernacles in the Court of the Women where Jesus was on this day (John 8:20) there were brilliant candelabra and there was the memory of the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. But with all this background this supreme and exclusive claim of Jesus (repeated in John 9:5) to being the light of the whole world (of Gentiles as well as of Jews) startled the Pharisees and challenged their opposition. Shall have the light of life (εχει το πως της ζωης hexei to phōs tēs zōēs). The light which springs from and issues in life (Westcott). Cf. John 6:33, John 6:51 about Jesus being the Bread of Life. In this sublime claim we come to a decisive place. It will not do to praise Jesus and deny his deity. Only as the Son of God can we justify and accept this language which otherwise is mere conceit and froth.
Of thyself (περι σεαυτου peri seautou). This technical objection was according to the rules of evidence among the rabbis. “No man can give witness for himself” (Mishnah, Ketub. 11. 9). Hence, they say, “not true” (ουκ αλητες ouk alēthes), not pertinent. “They were still in the region of pedantic rules and external tests.” In John 5:31 Jesus acknowledged this technical need of further witness outside of his own claims (John 5:19-30) and proceeded to give it (John 5:32-47) in the testimony of the Baptist, of the Father, of his works, of the Scriptures, and of Moses in particular.
Even if (καν kan). That is και εαν kai ean a condition of the third class with the present active subjunctive μαρτυρω marturō Jesus means that his own witness concerning himself is true (αλητες alēthes) even if it contravenes their technical rules of evidence. He can and does tell the truth all by himself concerning himself.For I know whence I came and whither I go (οτι οιδα ποτεν ηλτον και που υπαγω hoti oida pothen ēlthon kai pou hupagō). In this terse sentence with two indirect questions Jesus alludes to his pre-existence with the Father before his Incarnation as in John 17:5 and to the return to the Father after the death and resurrection as in John 13:3; John 14:2. He again puts both ideas together in one crisp clause in John 16:28 for the apostles who profess to understand him then. But here these Pharisees are blind to the words of Jesus. “But ye know not whence I come nor whither I go” (υμεις δε ουκ οιδατε ποτεν ερχομαι η που υπαγω humeis de ouk oidate pothen erchomai ē pou hupagō). He had spoken of his heavenly destiny (John 7:33). Jesus alone knew his personal consciousness of his coming from, fellowship with, and return to the Father. Stier (Words of the Lord Jesus) argues that one might as well say to the sun, if claiming to be the sun, that it was night, because it bore witness of itself. The answer is the shining of the sun.
After the flesh (κατα την σαρκα kata tēn sarka). According to the standards of the flesh (2 Corinthians 5:16). The Baptist had said: “There stands one among you whom ye know not” (John 1:26). The Light of the World had come, but they loved darkness rather than light (John 3:19), because the god of this age had blinded their thoughts so that they could not see the illumination of the gospel of the glory of Christ who is the image of God (2 Corinthians 4:4).
Yea and if I judge (και εαν κρινω δε εγω kai ean krinō de egō). “And even if I pass judgment.” Condition of third class again.True (ale4thine4). See John 1:9 for αλητινος alēthinos genuine, soundly based (cf. δικαια dikaia in John 5:30), “satisfying our perfect conception” (Westcott), not merely true (αλητες alēthes) in the particular facts (John 8:14). For I am not alone (οτι μονος ουκ ειμι hoti monos ouk eimi). Jesus now takes up the technical criticism in John 8:13 after justifying his right to speak concerning himself. But I and the Father that sent me (αλλ εγω και ο πεμπσας με πατηρ all egō kai ho pempsas me patēr). See John 16:32 for a like statement about the Father being with Christ. It is not certain that πατηρ patēr is genuine here (omitted by Aleph D, but in B L W), but the Father is clearly meant as in John 7:18, John 7:33. Jesus gives the Father as the second witness.
Yea and in your law (και εν τωι νομωι δε τωι υμετερωι kai en tōi nomōi de tōi humeterōi). Same use of καιδε kai -de as in John 8:16. They claimed possession of the law (John 7:49) and so Jesus takes this turn in answer to the charge of single witness in John 8:13. He will use similar language (your law) in John 10:34 in an argumentum ad hominem as here in controversy with the Jews. In John 15:24 to the apostles Jesus even says “in their law” in speaking of the hostile Jews plotting his death. He does not mean in either case to separate himself wholly from the Jews and the law, though in Matthew 5 he does show the superiority of his teaching to that of the law. For the Mosaic regulation about two witnesses see Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15. This combined witness of two is not true just because they agree, unless true in fact separately. But if they disagree, the testimony falls to the ground. In this case the Father confirms the witness of the Son as Jesus had already shown (John 5:37).
The Father (ο πατηρ ho patēr). Clearly genuine here. So these are the two witnesses that Jesus presents to the Pharisees in defense of his claim to be the Light of the World (John 8:12).
Where is thy Father? (που εστιν ο πατηρ σου pou estin ho patēr sou). “The testimony of an unseen and unheard witness would not satisfy them” (Vincent). Bernard understands the Pharisees to see that Jesus claims God the Father as his second witness and so ask “where,” not “who” he is. Augustine has it: Patrem Christi carnaliter acceperunt, Christ‘s human father, as if the Pharisees were “misled perhaps by the Lord‘s use of αντρωπον anthrōpon (John 8:17)” (Dods). Cyril even took it to be a coarse allusion to the birth of Jesus as a bastard according to the Talmud. Perhaps the Pharisees used the question with double entendre, even with all three ideas dancing in their hostile minds.Ye would know my Father also (και τον πατερα μου αν ηιδειτε kai ton patera mou an ēideite). Conclusion of second-class condition determined as unfulfilled with αν an and second perfect active of οιδα oida used as imperfect in both condition and conclusion. See this same point made to Philip in John 14:9. In John 14:7 Jesus will use γινωσκω ginōskō in the condition and οιδα oida in the conclusion. The ignorance of the Pharisees about Jesus proves it and is due to their ignorance of the Father. See this point more fully stated in John 5:36-38 when Jesus had his previous controversy in Jerusalem. In John 7:28 Jesus said that they knew his home in Nazareth, but he denied then that they knew the Father who sent him. Jesus will again on this occasion (John 8:55) deny their knowledge of the Father. Later he will deny their knowledge of the Father and of the Son (John 16:3). The Pharisees are silenced for the moment.
In the treasury (εν τωι γαζοπυλακιωι en tōi gazophulakiōi). See note on Mark 12:41 and note on Luke 21:1 for this word for the treasure-chambers of the temple. “It abutted on the Court of the Women, and against its walls were placed chests, trumpet-like in form, as receptacles for the offerings of the worshippers” (Bernard). The Persian word gaza (treasure) occurs only once in the N.T. (Acts 8:27) and the compound (πυλακη phulakē guard) only here in John. Jesus hardly taught within a treasure-chamber. It probably means “at the treasury in the temple.” This court was probably the most public part of the temple (Vincent).And (και kai) = “and yet” as in John 1:10, etc. Because his hour was not yet come (οτι ουπω εληλυτει η ωρα αυτου hoti oupō elēluthei hē hōra autou). Reason (οτι hoti) given why no one seized (επιασεν epiasen cf. John 7:30) him. Εληλυτει Elēluthei is past perfect active of ερχομαι erchomai “had not yet come.” This very use of ωρα hōra appears in John 2:4 and the very clause in John 7:30 which see.
Again (παλιν palin). Probably παλιν palin (again) in John 8:12 refers to a day after the feast is over since the last day is mentioned in John 7:37. So then here again we probably move on to another day still beyond that in John 8:12.And ye shall seek me (και ζητησετε με kai zētēsete me). As in John 7:34, “the search of despair” (Bernard), seeking for the Messiah when it is too late, the tragedy of Judaism today (John 1:11). And ye shall die in your sin (και εν τηι αμαρτιαι υμων αποτανειστε kai en tēi hamartiāi humōn apothaneisthe). Future middle indicative of αποτνησκω apothnēskō which is the emphatic word here (cf. Ezekiel 3:18; Ezekiel 18:18; Proverbs 24:9). Note singular αμαρτιαι hamartiāi (sin) here, but plural αμαρτιαις hamartiais (sins) when the phrase is repeated in John 8:24 (sin in its essence, sin in its acts). Ye cannot come (υμεις ου δυναστε ελτειν humeis ou dunasthe elthein). Precise language of John 7:34 to the Jews and to the apostles in John 13:33.
Will he kill himself? (μητι αποκτενει εαυτον mēti apoktenei heauton). Negative answer formally expected, but there is a manifest sneer in the query. “The mockery in these words is alike subtle and bitter” (Vincent). It was a different group of Jews in John 7:31 who cynically suggested that he was going to work among the Greeks in the Dispersion. Here they infer that Jesus refers to the next world. They suggest the depths of Gehenna for him as the abode of suicides (Josephus, War III. viii. 5). Of course the rabbis could not join Jesus there! Edersheim argues against this view.
Ye are from beneath (υμεις εκ των κατω humeis ek tōn katō). This language, peculiar to John, could take up the idea in Josephus that these rabbis came from Gehenna whence they will go as children of the devil (John 8:44), but the use of εκ του κοσμου τουτου ek tou kosmou toutou (“of this world” in origin) as parallel to what we have here seems to prove that the contrast between κατω katō and ανω anō here is between the earthly (sensual) and the heavenly as in James 3:15-17. See also Colossians 3:1. This is the only use of κατω katō in John (except John 8:6). These proud rabbis had their origin in this world of darkness (John 1:9) with all its limitations.I am from above (εγω εκ των ανω ειμι egō ek tōn anō eimi). The contrast is complete in origin and character, already stated in John 3:31, and calculated to intensify their anger.
For except ye believe (εαν γαρ μη πιστευσητε ean gar mē pisteusēte). Negative condition of third class with εαν μη ean mē and ingressive aorist active subjunctive of πιστευω pisteuō “For unless ye come to believe.”That I am he (οτι εγω ειμι hoti egō eimi). Indirect discourse, but with no word in the predicate after the copula ειμι eimi Jesus can mean either “that I am from above” (John 8:23), “that I am the one sent from the Father or the Messiah” (John 7:18, John 7:28), “that I am the Light of the World” (John 8:12), “that I am the Deliverer from the bondage of sin” (John 8:28, John 8:31., and John 8:36), “that I am” without supplying a predicate in the absolute sense as the Jews (Deuteronomy 32:39) used the language of Jehovah (cf. Isaiah 43:10 where the very words occur ινα πιστευσητεοτι εγω ειμι hina pisteusēte -εγω ειμι hoti egō eimi). The phrase egō eimi occurs three times here (John 8:24, John 8:28, John 8:58) and also in John 13:19. Jesus seems to claim absolute divine being as in John 8:58.
Who art thou? (Συ τις ει Su tis ei). Proleptic use of συ su before τις tis “Thou, who art thou?” Cf. John 1:19. He had virtually claimed to be the Messiah and on a par with God as in John 5:15. They wish to pin him down and to charge him with blasphemy.Even that which I have also spoken unto you from the beginning (την αρχην οτι και λαλω υμιν tēn archēn hoti kai lalō humin). A difficult sentence. It is not clear whether it is an affirmation or a question. The Latin and Syriac versions treat it as affirmative. Westcott and Hort follow Meyer and take it as interrogative. The Greek fathers take it as an exclamation. It seems clear that the adverbial accusative την αρχην tēn archēn cannot mean “from the beginning” like απ αρχης ap' archēs (John 15:27) or εχ αρχης ex archēs (John 16:4). The lxx has την αρχην tēn archēn for “at the beginning” or “at the first” (Gen 43:20). There are examples in Greek, chiefly negative, where την αρχην tēn archēn means “at all,” “essentially,” “primarily.” Vincent and Bernard so take it here, “Primarily what I am telling you.” Jesus avoids the term Messiah with its political connotations. He stands by his high claims already made.
I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you (πολλα εχω περι υμων λαλειν και κρινειν polla echō peri humōn lalein kai krinein). Instead of further talk about his own claims (already plain enough) Jesus turns to speak and to judge concerning them and their attitude towards him (cf. John 8:16). Whatever they think of Jesus the Father who sent him is true (αλητης alēthēs). They cannot evade responsibility for the message heard. So Jesus goes on speaking it from the Father.
They perceived not (ουκ εγνωσαν ouk egnōsan). Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō “Preoccupied as they were with thoughts of an earthly deliverer” (Westcott) and prejudiced against recognizing Jesus as the one sent from God.That he spake to them of the Father (οτι τον πατερα αυτοις ελεγεν hoti ton patera autois elegen). Indirect assertion, but with the present indicative (λεγει legei) changed to the imperfect (ελεγεν elegen) as was sometimes done (John 2:25) after a secondary tense.
When ye have lifted up the Son of man (οταν υπσωσητε τον υιον του αντρωπου hotan hupsōsēte ton huion tou anthrōpou). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν hotan (οτε αν hote +υπσοω an) and the first aorist active subjunctive of υπσος hupsoō to lift up (Koiné verb from γνωσεστε hupsos height), used several times in John of the Cross of Christ (John 3:14; John 8:28; John 12:32, John 12:34). It is unnecessary to render the aorist subjunctive as if a future perfect, simply “whenever ye lift up” (actually lift up, ingressive aorist). In Acts 2:33 the verb is used of the Ascension.Shall ye know (γινωσκω gnōsesthe). Future (ingressive aoristic) middle of εγω ειμι ginōskō Cognoscetis ex re quod nunc ex verbo non creditis (Bengel). But the knowledge from the facts like the fall of Jerusalem will come too late and will not bring a change of heart. The Holy Spirit will convict them concerning judgment (John 16:8). For I am (Κατως εδιδασκεν με ο πατηρ egō eimi) see note on John 8:24. As the Father taught me (Kathōs edidasken me ho patēr). This claim Jesus repeats (see John 8:26) and clearly makes on his arrival at the feast (John 7:16.). This fact marks Jesus off from the rabbis.
Is with me (μετ εμου εστιν met' emou estin). The Incarnation brought separation from the Father in one sense, but in essence there is complete harmony and fellowship as he had already said (John 8:16) and will expand in John 17:21-26.He hath not left me alone (ουκ απηκεν με μονον ouk aphēken me monon). First aorist active indicative of απιημι aphiēmi “He did not leave me alone.” However much the crowds and the disciples misunderstood or left Jesus, the Father always comforted and understood him (Mark 6:46; Matthew 14:23; John 6:15). That are pleasing to him (τα αρεστα αυτωι ta aresta autōi). This old verbal adjective, from αρεσκω areskō to please, in N.T. only here, Acts 6:4; Acts 12:3; 1 John 3:22. The joy of Jesus was in doing the will of the Father who sent him (John 4:34).
Many believed on him (πολλοι επιστευσαν εις αυτον polloi episteusan eis auton). Ingressive aorist active indicative, came to believe, nominally at any rate, as in John 2:23. But the tension was keen and Jesus proceeded to test the faith of these new believers from among the Pharisees.
Which had believed him (τους πεπιστευκοτας αυτωι tous pepisteukotas autōi). Articular perfect active participle of πιστευω pisteuō with dative αυτωι autōi (trusted him) rather than εις αυτον eis auton (on him) in John 8:30. They believed him (cf. John 6:30) as to his claims to being the Messiah with their own interpretation (John 6:15), but they did not commit themselves to him and may represent only one element of those in John 8:30, but see John 2:23 for πιστευω εις pisteuō eis there.If ye abide in my word (εαν υμεις μεινητε εν τωι λογωι τωι εμωι ean humeis meinēte en tōi logōi tōi emōi). Third-class condition with εαν ean and first aorist (constative) active subjunctive. Are ye truly my disciples (αλητως ματηται μου εστε alēthōs mathētai mou este). Your future loyalty to my teaching will prove the reality of your present profession. So the conclusion of this future condition is put in the present tense. As then, so now. We accept church members on profession of trust in Christ. Continuance in the word (teaching) proves the sincerity or insincerity of the profession. It is the acid test of life.
And ye shall know the truth (και γνωσεστε την αλητειαν kai gnōsesthe tēn alētheian). Truth is one of the marks of Christ (John 1:14) and Jesus will claim to Thomas to be the personification of truth (John 14:6). But it will be for them knowledge to be learned by doing God‘s will (John 7:17). The word is from αλητης alēthēs (α a privative and λητω lēthō to conceal, unsealed, open). See also John 8:40, John 8:44, John 8:45.And the truth shall make you free (και η αλητεια ελευτερωσει υμας kai hē alētheia eleutherōsei humas). Future active indicative of ελευτεροω eleutheroō old verb from ελευτερος eleutheros (from ερχομαι erchomai to go where one wishes and so free). One of Paul‘s great words for freedom from the bondage of the law (Romans 6:18; Galatians 5:1). The freedom of which Jesus here speaks is freedom from the slavery of sin as Paul in Romans 8:2. See John 8:36. This freedom is won alone by Christ (John 8:36) and we are sanctified in truth (John 17:19). In John 1:17 truth is mentioned with grace as one of the marks of the gospel through Christ. Freedom (intellectual, moral, spiritual) is only attainable when we are set free from darkness, sin, ignorance, superstition and let the Light of the World shine on us and in us.
We be Abraham‘s seed (Σπερμα Αβρααμ εσμεν Sperma Abraam esmen). “We are Abraham‘s seed,” the proudest boast of the Jews, of Sarah the freewoman and not of Hagar the bondwoman (Galatians 4:22.). Yes, but the Jews came to rely solely on mere physical descent (Matthew 3:9) and so God made Gentiles the spiritual children of Abraham by faith (Matthew 3:7; Romans 9:6.).And have never yet been in bondage to any man (και ουδενι δεδουλευκαμεν πωποτε kai oudeni dedouleukamen pōpote). Perfect active indicative of δουλευω douleuō to be slaves. This was a palpable untruth uttered in the heat of controversy. At that very moment the Jews wore the Roman yoke as they had worn that of Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Alexander, the Ptolemies, the Syrian (Seleucid) kings. They had liberty for a while under the Maccabees. “These poor believers soon come to the end of their faith” (Stier). But even so they had completely missed the point in the words of Jesus about freedom by truth.
Every one that committeth sin is the bondservant of sin (πας ο ποιων την αμαρτιαν δουλος εστιν της αμαρτιασ pas ho poiōn tēn hamartian doulos estin ̣tēs hamartiaš). The Western class omits της αμαρτιας tēs hamartias (sin), but that is the idea anyhow. Note the use of ποιων poiōn (present active participle, continuous habit or practice), not ποιησας poiēsas (aorist active participle for single act), precisely as in 1 John 3:4-8. Note also John 3:21 for ο ποιων την αλητειαν ho poiōn tēn alētheian (the one who practises the truth). Sin, like the worst narcotic, is habit forming. Hence the problem today for criminologists for paroled or pardoned criminals nearly always go back to crime, sink again into sin, the slaves of sin. Xenophon has this notion of the slavery of sin (Memor. IV. 5. 3). So Paul clearly in Romans 6:17, Romans 6:20 “slaves of sin” (δουλοι της αμαρτιας douloi tēs hamartias).
The bondservant (ο δουλος ho doulos) the son (ο υιος ho huios). There is a change in the metaphor by this contrast between the positions of the son and the slave in the house. The slave has no footing or tenure and may be cast out at any moment while the son is the heir and has a permanent place. Cf. Ishmael and Isaac (Genesis 21:10) and Paul‘s use of it in Galatians 4:30. We do not know that there is any reference here to Hagar and Ishmael. See also Hebrews 3:5 (Numbers 12:7) for a like contrast between Moses as servant (τεραπων therapōn) in God‘s house and Christ as Son (υιος huios) over God‘s house.
If therefore the son shall make you free (εαν ουν ο υιος υμας ελευτερωσηι ean oun ho huios humas eleutherōsēi). Condition of third class with εαν ean and first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive. “If therefore the Son set you free,” as he has the power to do.Ye shall be free indeed (οντως ελευτεροι εσεστε ontōs eleutheroi esesthe). Old and common adverb from participle οντων ontōn actually, really (cf. Luke 24:34). But this spiritual freedom was beyond the concept or wish of these Jews.
Yet ye seek to kill me (αλλα ζητειτε με αποκτειναι alla zēteite me apokteinai). As at the recent feast (John 7:20, John 7:25, John 7:30, John 7:32; John 8:20). Some of these very professed believers were even now glowering with murderous vengeance.Hath not free course in you (ου χωρει εν υμιν ou chōrei en humin). Intransitive use of χωρεω chōreō old verb from χωρος chōros (space, place), to have space or room for. They would not abide in Christ‘s word (John 8:31). They had no longer room for his word when once they understood the spiritual aspect of his message. Jerusalem was now just like Galilee once before (John 6:60-66).
With my Father (παρα τωι πατρι para tōi patri). Locative case of πατηρ patēr and article used as possessive (common idiom), “by the side of my Father,” picture of intimate fellowship like προς τον τεον pros ton theon (face to face with God) in John 1:1.From your father (παρα του πατρος para tou patros). Ablative case with παρα para (from the side of) and same possessive use of του tou in each instance, though “the” will really answer both times. But ο πατηρ ho patēr does not mean the same person. Christ‘s Father by contrast is not their father.
Our father is Abraham (ο πατηρ ημων Αβρααμ εστιν ho patēr hēmōn Abraam estin). They saw the implication and tried to counter it by repeating their claim in John 8:33 which was true so far as physical descent went as Jesus had admitted (John 8:37).If ye were (ει εστε ei este). Strictly, “if ye are” as ye claim, a condition of the first class assumed to be true. Ye would do (εποιειτε αν epoieite an). Read by C L N and a corrector of Aleph while W omits αν an This makes a mixed condition (protasis of the first class, apodosis of the second. See Robertson, Grammar, p. 1022). But B reads ποιειτε poieite like the Sin. Syriac which has to be treated as imperative (so Westcott and Hort).
But now (νυν δε nun de). Clear statement that they are not doing “the works of Abraham” in seeking to kill him. See this use of νυν δε nun de after a condition of second class without αν an in John 16:22, John 16:24.This did not Abraham (τουτο Αβρααμ ουκ εποιησεν touto Abraam ouk epoiēsen). Blunt and pointed of their unlikeness to Abraham. A man that hath told you the truth (αντρωπον ος τεν αλητειαν υμιν λελαληκα anthrōpon hos ten alētheian humin lelalēka). Αντρωπον Anthrōpon (here = person, one) is accusative case in apposition with me (με me) just before. The perfect active indicative λελαληκα lelalēka from λαλεω laleō is in the first person singular because the relative ος hos has the person of με me an idiom not retained in the English that hath (that have or who have) though it is retained in the English of 1 Corinthians 15:9 “that am” for ος ειμι hos eimi Which I heard from God (ην ηκουσα παρα του τεου hēn ēkousa para tou theou). Here we have “I” in the English. “God” here is equal to “My Father” in John 8:38. The only crime of Jesus is telling the truth directly from God.
Ye do the works of your father (υμεις ποιειτε τα εργα του πατρος υμων humeis poieite ta erga tou patros humōn). Who is not Abraham and not God as Jesus plainly indicates.We were not born of fornication (ημεις εκ πορνειας εγεννητημεν hēmeis ek porneias egennēthēmen). First aorist passive indicative of γενναω gennaō This they said as a proud boast. Jesus had admitted that they were physical (Deuteronomy 23:2) descendants of Abraham (John 8:37), but now denies that they are spiritual children of Abraham (like Paul in Romans 9:7). Πορνεια Porneia is from πορνος pornos (harlot) and that from περνημι pernēmi to sell, a woman who sells her body for sexual uses. It is vaguely possible that in this stern denial the Pharisees may have an indirect fling at Jesus as the bastard son of Mary (so Talmud). We have one Father, even God (ενα πατερα εχομεν τον τεον hena patera echomen ton theon). No “even” in the Greek, “One Father we have, God.” This in direct reply to the implication of Jesus (John 8:38) that God was not their spiritual Father.
Ye would love me (ηγαπατε αν εμε ēgapate an eme). Conclusion of second-class condition with distinct implication that their failure to love Jesus is proof that God is not their Father (protasis).For I came forth from God (εγω γαρ εκ του τεου εχηλτον egō gar ek tou theou exēlthon). Second aorist active indicative of εχερχομαι exerchomai definite historical event (the Incarnation). See John 4:30 for εχηλτον εκ exēlthon ek In John 13:3; John 16:30 Jesus is said to have come from (απο apo) God. The distinction is not to be pressed. Note the definite consciousness of pre-existence with God as in John 17:5. And am come (και ηκω kai hēkō). Present active indicative with perfect sense in the verb stem (state of completion) before rise of the tense and here retained. “I am here,” Jesus means. Of myself (απ εμαυτου ap' emautou). His coming was not self-initiated nor independent of the Father. “But he (εκεινος ekeinos emphatic demonstrative pronoun) sent me” and here I am.
My speech (την λαλιαν την εμην tēn lalian tēn emēn) and my word (τον λογον τον εμον ton logon ton emon). Perhaps λαλια lalia old word from λαλος lalos (talk), means here more manner of speech than just story (John 4:42), while λογος logos refers rather to the subject matter. They will not listen (ου δυναστε ακουειν ou dunasthe akouein) to the substance of Christ‘s teaching and hence they are impatient with the way that he talks. How often that is true.
Ye are of your father the devil (υμεις εκ του πατρος του διαβολου humeis ek tou patros tou diabolou). Certainly they can “understand” (γινωσκετε ginōskete in John 8:43) this “talk” (λαλιαν lalian) though they will be greatly angered. But they had to hear it (ακουειν akouein in John 8:43). It was like a bombshell in spite of the preliminary preparation.Your will to do (τελετε ποιειν thelete poiein). Present active indicative of τελω thelō and present active infinitive, “Ye wish to go on doing.” This same idea Jesus presents in Matthew 13:38 (the sons of the evil one, the devil) and Matthew 23:15 (twofold more a son of Gehenna than you). See also 1 John 3:8 for “of the devil” (εκ του διαβολου ek tou diabolou) for the one who persists in sinning. In Revelation 12:9 the devil is one who leads all the world astray. The Gnostic view that Jesus means “the father of the devil” is grotesque. Jesus does not, of course, here deny that the Jews, like all men, are children of God the Creator, like Paul‘s offspring of God for all men in Acts 17:28. What he denies to these Pharisees is that they are spiritual children of God who do his will. They do the lusts and will of the devil. The Baptist had denied this same spiritual fatherhood to the merely physical descendants of Abraham (Matthew 3:9). He even called them “broods of vipers” as Jesus did later (Matthew 12:34). A murderer (αντρωποκτονος anthrōpoktonos). Old and rare word (Euripides) from αντρωπος anthrōpos man, and κτεινω kteinō to kill. In N.T. only here and 1 John 3:15. The Jews were seeking to kill Jesus and so like their father the devil. Stood not in the truth (εν τηι αλητειαι ουκ εστηκεν en tēi alētheiāi ouk estēken). Since ουκ ouk not ουχ ouch is genuine, the form of the verb is εστεκεν esteken the imperfect of the late present stem στηκω stēkō (Mark 11:25) from the perfect active εστηκα hestēka (intransitive) of ιστημι histēmi to place. No truth in him (ουκ εστιν αλητεια εν αυτωι ouk estin alētheia en autōi). Inside him or outside (environment). The devil and truth have no contact. When he speaketh a lie (οταν λαληι το πσευδος hotan lalēi to pseudos). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν hotan and the present active subjunctive of λαλεω laleō But note the article το to “Whenever he speaks the lie,” as he is sure to do because it is his nature. Hence “he speaks out of his own” (εκ των ιδιων λαλει ek tōn idiōn lalei) like a fountain bubbling up (cf. Matthew 12:34). For he is a liar (οτι πσευστης εστιν hoti pseustēs estin). Old word for the agent in a conscious falsehood (πσευδος pseudos). See 1 John 1:10; Romans 3:4. Common word in John because of the emphasis on αλητεια alētheia (truth). And the father thereof (και ο πατηρ αυτου kai ho patēr autou). Either the father of the lie or of the liar, both of which are true as already shown by Jesus. Autou in the genitive can be either neuter or masculine. Westcott takes it thus, “because he is a liar and his father (the devil) is a liar,” making “one,” not the devil, the subject of “whenever he speaks,” a very doubtful expression.
Because I speak the truth (εγω δε οτι την αλητειαν λεγω egō de hoti tēn alētheian legō). Proleptic emphatic position of εγω egō “Truth is uncongenial to them” (Bernard). See John 3:19 for their picture.
Which of you convicteth me of sin? (Τις εχ υμων ελεγχει με περι αμαριτασ Tis ex humōn elegchei me peri hamaritas). See on John 3:20; John 16:8 (the work of the Holy Spirit) for ελεγχω elegchō for charge and proof. The use of αμαρτια hamartia as in John 1:29 means sin in general, not particular sins. The rhetorical question which receives no answer involves sinlessness (Hebrews 4:15) without specifically saying so. Bernard suggests that Jesus paused after this pungent question before going on.Why do ye not believe me? (Δια τι υμεις ου πιστευετε μοι Dia ti humeis ou pisteuete moi). This question drives home the irrationality of their hostility to Jesus. It was based on prejudice and predilection.
He that is of God (ο ων εκ του τεου ho ōn ek tou theou). See this use of εκ ek in John 3:31. “Their not listening proved that they were not of God” (Dods). They were of the earth and the devil, not of God.
Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon (Σαμαρειτης ει συ και δαιμονιον εχεις Samareitēs ei su kai daimonion echeis). On the spur of the moment in their rage and fury they can think of no meaner things to say. They know, of course, that Jesus was not a Samaritan, but he had acted like a Samaritan in challenging their peculiar spiritual privileges (John 4:9, John 4:39). The charge of having a demon was an old one by the Pharisees (Matthew 12:24) and it is repeated later (John 10:20).
I have not a demon (εγω δαιμονιον ουκ εχω egō daimonion ouk echō). This Jesus says calmly, passing by the reference to the Samaritans as beneath notice.My Father (τον πατερα μου ton patera mou). As in John 2:16. He is not mad in claiming to honour God (cf. John 7:18). They were insulting the Father in insulting him (cf. John 5:23). On ατιμαζω atimazō (α a privative and τιμαω timaō to dishonour) see Luke 20:11.
But I seek not mine own glory (εγω δε ου ζητω την δοχαν μου egō de ou zētō tēn doxan mou). As they did not seek the glory of God (John 5:44; John 8:4).And judgeth (και κρινων kai krinōn). The Father judges between you and me, though the Son is the Judge of mankind (John 5:22). “It is only the δοχα doxa (glory) that comes from God that is worth having” (Bernard).
If a man keep my word (εαν τις τον εμον λογον τηρησηι ean tis ton emon logon tērēsēi). Condition of third class with εαν ean and constative aorist active subjunctive of τηρεω tēreō Repeated in John 8:52. See John 8:43 about hearing the word of Christ. Common phrase in John (John 8:51, John 8:52, John 8:55; John 14:23, John 14:24; John 15:20; John 17:6; 1 John 2:5). Probably the same idea as keeping the commands of Christ (John 14:21).He shall never see death (τανατον ου μη τεωρησηι εις τον αιονα thanaton ou mē theōrēsēi eis ton aiona). Spiritual death, of course. Strong double negative ου μη ou mē with first aorist active subjunctive of τεωρεω theōreō The phrase “see death” is a Hebraism (Psalm 89:48) and occurs with ιδειν idein (see) in Luke 2:26; Hebrews 11:5. No essential difference meant between οραω horaō and τεωρεω theōreō See John 14:23 for the blessed fellowship the Father and the Son have with the one who keeps Christ‘s word.
Now we know (νυν εγνωκαμεν nun egnōkamen). Perfect active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō state of completion, “Now since such talk we have come to certain knowledge that thou hast a demon” (John 8:48).Is dead (απετανεν apethanen). Second aorist active indicative of αποτνησκω apothnēskō “Abraham died.” And thou sayest (και συ λεγεις kai su legeis). Adversative use of και kai “and yet.” Emphatic position of συ su (thou). Same condition quoted as in John 8:51. He shall never taste of death (ου με γευσηται τανατου εις τον αιονα ou me geusētai thanatou eis ton aiona). Same emphatic negative with subjunctive as in John 8:51, but γευσηται geusētai (first aorist middle subjunctive of γευω geuō with genitive case τανατου thanatou (death). Another Hebraism for dying like τεωρησηι theōrēsēi (see) in John 8:51. Used in Hebrews 2:9 of the death of Jesus and in Synoptics (Matthew 16:28; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27). It occurs in the Talmud, but not in the O.T. The Pharisees thus did not misquote Jesus, though they misunderstood him.
Art thou greater than our father Abraham? (Μη συ μειζων ει του πατρος ημων Αβρααμ Mē su meizōn ei tou patros hēmōn Abraam). Negative answer expected by μη mē with ablative case of comparison in πατρος patros after μειζων meizōn The question was designed to put Jesus in a difficult position, for Abraham and the prophets all “died.” They do not see that Jesus uses death in a different sense.Whom makest thou thyself? (τινα σεαυτον ποιεισ tina seauton poieis). Σεαυτον Seauton is predicate accusative with ποιεις poieis They suspect that Jesus is guilty of blasphemy as they charged in John 5:18 in making himself equal with God. Later they will make it specifically (John 10:33; John 19:7). They set a trap for Jesus for this purpose.
If I glorify myself (εαν εγω δοχασω εμαυτον ean egō doxasō emauton). Third-class condition with εαν ean and first aorist active subjunctive (or future active indicative) of δοχαζω doxazōIt is my Father that glorifieth me (εστιν ο πατηρ μου ο δοχαζων με estin ho patēr mou ho doxazōn me). The position and accent of εστιν estin mean: “Actually my Father is the one,” etc. Of whom ye say (ον υμεις λεγετε hon humeis legete). The accusative of the person (ον hon) with λεγετε legete is regular (cf. John 10:36). Your God (τεος υμων theos humōn). So Aleph B D and apparently correct, though A C L W Delta Theta have ημων hēmōn (our God). The οτι hoti can be taken as recitative (direct quotation, ημων hēmōn our) or declarative (indirect, that, and so υμων humōn). The Jews claimed God as their peculiar national God as they had said in John 8:41. So Jesus turns this confession and claim against them.
And ye have not known him (και ουκ εγνωκατε αυτον kai ouk egnōkate auton). Adversative use again of και kai = “and yet.” Perfect active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō the verb for experiential knowledge. This was true of the κοσμος kosmos (John 1:10; John 17:25) and of the hostile Jews (John 16:3). Jesus prays that the world may know (John 17:23) and the handful of disciples had come to know (John 17:25).But I know him (εγω δε οιδα αυτον egō de oida auton). Equipped by eternal fellowship to reveal the Father (1:1-18). This peculiar intimate knowledge Jesus had already claimed (John 7:29). Jesus used οιδα oida (John 8:19; John 15:21) or γινωσκω ginōskō (John 17:23, John 17:25) for the knowledge of the Father. No undue distinction can be drawn here. And if I should say (καν ειπω kan eipō). Third-class condition (concession), “even if I say,” with και εαν kai ean (καν kan) and second aorist active subjunctive. “Suppose I say.” I shall be like you a liar (εσομαι ομοιος υμιν πσευστης esomai homoios humin pseustēs). Apodosis of the condition. ομοιος Homoios (like) is followed by the associative-instrumental case υμιν humin The word πσευστης pseustēs (liar), in spite of the statement that they are the children of the devil, the father of lying (John 8:44), comes with a sudden jolt because it is a direct charge. This word liar is not considered polite today in public speech when hurled at definite individuals. There is a rather free use of the word in 1 John 2:4, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:20; 1 John 5:10. It is not hard to imagine the quick anger of these Pharisees.
Rejoiced (ηγαλλιασατο ēgalliasato). First aorist middle indicative of αγαλλιαομαι agalliaomai a word of Hellenistic coinage from αγαλλομαι agallomai to rejoice.To see (ινα ιδηι hina idēi). Sub-final use of ινα hina and second aorist active subjunctive of οραω horaō This joy of Abraham is referred to in Hebrews 11:13 (saluting, ασπασαμενοι aspasamenoi the promises from afar). There was a Jewish tradition that Abraham saw the whole history of his descendants in the vision of Genesis 15:6., but that is not necessary here. He did look for and welcome the Messianic time, “my day” (την ημεραν την εμην tēn hēmeran tēn emēn). “He saw it, and was glad” (ειδεν και εχαρη eiden kai echarē). Second aorist active indicative of οραω horaō and second aorist passive indicative of χαιρω chairō Ye see it and are angry!
Thou art not yet fifty years old (πεντηκοντα ετι ουπω εχεις pentēkonta eti oupō echeis). Literally, “Thou hast not yet fifty years.” Not meaning that Jesus was near that age at all. It was the crisis of completed manhood (Numbers 4:3) and a round number. Jesus was about thirty to thirty-three.And hast thou seen Abraham? (Και Αβρααμ εωρακασ Kai Abraam heōrakas). So A C D and B W Theta have εωρακες heōrakes both second person singular of the perfect active indicative of οραω horaō But Aleph, Sin-syr., Coptic versions (accepted by Bernard) have και Αβρααμ εωρακε σε kai Abraam heōrake sė “Has Abraam seen thee?” Either makes sense here.
Before Abraham was (πριν Αβρααμ γενεσται prin Abraam genesthai). Usual idiom with πριν prin in positive sentence with infinitive (second aorist middle of γινομαι ginomai) and the accusative of general reference, “before coming as to Abraham,” “before Abraham came into existence or was born.”I am (εγω ειμι egō eimi). Undoubtedly here Jesus claims eternal existence with the absolute phrase used of God. The contrast between γενεσται genesthai (entrance into existence of Abraham) and ειμι eimi (timeless being) is complete. See the same contrast between εν en in John 1:1 and εγενετο egeneto in John 1:14. See the contrast also in Psalm 90:2 between God (ει ei art) and the mountains (γενητηναι genēthēnai). See the same use of ειμι eimi in John 6:20; John 9:9; John 8:24, John 8:28; John 18:6.
They took up stones therefore (ηραν ουν λιτους ēran oun lithous). First aorist active indicative of αιρω airō inferential use of ουν oun The time for argument had past.To cast at him (ινα βαλωσιν επ αυτον hina balōsin ep' auton). Final clause with ινα hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of βαλλω ballō Vivid picture of a mob ready to kill Jesus, already beginning to do so. Hid himself (εκρυβη ekrubē). Second aorist passive indicative of κρυπτω kruptō He was hidden. No Docetic vanishing, but quietly and boldly Jesus went out of the temple. His hour had not yet come. Once again three months later the Pharisees will try to kill him, but he will pass out of their hands (John 10:39).
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 8". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Easter