After these things (μετα ταυτα meta tauta). John‘s favourite general note of the order of events. Bernard conceives that the events in John 7:1-14 follow John 7:15-24 and both follow chapter 5, not chapter 6, a wholly needless readjustment of the narrative to suit a preconceived theory. John simply supplements the narrative in the Synoptics at points deemed important. He now skips the period of withdrawal from Galilee of about six months (from passover to tabernacles).Walked (περιεπατει periepatei). Imperfect active, a literal picture of the itinerant ministry of Jesus. He has returned to Galilee from the region of Caesarea Philippi. He had been avoiding Galilee as well as Judea for six months. For he would not walk in Judea (ου γαρ ητελεν εν τηι Ιουδαιαι ou gar ēthelen en tēi Ioudaiāi). Imperfect active of τελω thelō picturing the attitude of refusal to work in Judea after the events in chapter 5 (perhaps a year and a half before). Sought to kill (εζητουν αποκτειναι ezētoun apokteinai). Imperfect active again, progressive attitude, had been seeking to kill him as shown in John 5:18 where the same words occur.
The feast of tabernacles (η σκηνοπηγια hē skēnopēgia). Only New Testament example of this word (σκηνη skēnē tent, πηγνυμι pēgnumi to fasten as in Hebrews 8:2). Technical name of this feast (Deuteronomy 16:13; Leviticus 23:34, Leviticus 23:43). It began on the 15th of the month Tisri (end of September) and lasted seven days and finally eight days in post-exilic times (Nehemiah 8:18). It was one of the chief feasts of the Jews.
His brethren (οι αδελποι αυτου hoi adelphoi autou). “His brothers” (half-brothers actually), who “were not believing on him” (ουδε επιστευον εις αυτον oude episteuon eis auton) as stated in John 7:5. They were hostile to the Messianic assumptions of Jesus, a natural attitude as one can well see, though at first they were friendly (John 2:12).Depart hence (μεταβητι εντευτεν metabēthi enteuthen). Second aorist active imperative of μεταβαινω metabainō to pass to another place (John 5:24; John 13:1). It was impertinence on their part. That thy disciples also may behold (ινα και οι ματηται σου τεωρησουσιν hina kai hoi mathētai sou theōrēsousin). Final clause with ινα hina and the future active indicative of τεωρεω theōreō Jesus had many disciples in Judea at the start (John 2:23; John 4:1) and had left it because of the jealousy of the Pharisees over his success (John 4:3). The brothers may have heard of the great defection in the synagogue in Capernaum (John 6:66), but the advice is clearly ironical. Which thou doest (α ποιεις ha poieis). To what works they refer by this language we do not know. But Jesus had been away from Galilee for some months and from Judea for a year and a half. Perhaps the brothers of Jesus may actually have been eager to rush Jesus into the hostile atmosphere of Jerusalem again.
In secret (εν κρυπτωι en kruptōi). See Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6 for this phrase.Openly (εν παρρησιαι en parrēsiāi). “In public” (παν ρησις pān class="translit"> rēsis telling it all). See Matthew 8:32. Common in John (John 7:13, John 7:26; John 10:24; John 16:25, John 16:29; John 18:20; here again contrasted with en kruptōi). It is wise advice in the abstract that a public teacher must allow inspection of his deeds, but the motive is evil. They might get Jesus into trouble. εν κρυπτωι If thou doest these things (Ιφ του δοεστ τεσε τινγς ei tauta poieis). This condition of the first class assumes the reality of the deeds of Jesus, but the use of the condition at all throws doubt on it all as in Matthew 4:3, Matthew 4:6. Manifest thyself (ει ταυτα ποιεις phanerōson seauton). First aorist active imperative of πανερωσον σεαυτον phaneroō To the world (πανεροω tōi kosmōi). Not just to “thy disciples,” but to the public at large as at the feast of tabernacles. See John 8:26; John 14:22 for this use of τωι κοσμωι kosmos f0).
For even his brethren did not believe on him (ουδε γαρ οι αδελποι αυτου επιστευον εις αυτον oude gar hoi adelphoi autou episteuon eis auton). Literally, “For not even were his brothers believing on him.” Imperfect tense of πιστευω pisteuō with sad picture of the persistent refusal of the brothers of Jesus to believe in his Messianic assumptions, after the two rejections in Capernaum (Luke 4:16-31; Mark 6:1-6; Matthew 13:54-58), and also after the blasphemous accusation of being in league with Beelzebub when the mother and brothers came to take Jesus home (Mark 3:31-35; Matthew 12:46-50; Luke 8:19-21). The brothers here are sarcastic.
My time is not yet come (ο καιρος ο εμος ουπω παρεστιν ho kairos ho emos oupō parestin). Only use with John 7:8 of καιρος kairos in this Gospel, elsewhere χρονος chronos (John 5:6) or more often ωρα hōra (John 2:4) “the predestined hour” (Bernard). Here καιρος kairos is the fitting or proper occasion for Christ‘s manifesting himself publicly to the authorities as Messiah as in John 7:8. At the feast of tabernacles Jesus did make such public claims (John 7:29, John 7:33; John 8:12, John 8:28, John 8:38, John 8:42, John 8:58). Παρεστιν Parestin is present active indicative of παρειμι pareimi old compound, to be by, to be present. The brothers of Jesus had the regular Jewish obligation to go up to the feast, but the precise day was a matter of indifference to them.
Cannot hate (ου δυναται μισειν ou dunatai misein). Because of “the law of moral correspondence” (Westcott), often in John for “inherent impossibility” (Vincent). The brothers of Jesus here belong to the unbelieving world (κοσμος kosmos) which is unable to love Jesus (John 15:18, John 15:23, John 15:24) and which Jesus had already exposed (“testify,” μαρτυρω marturō John 5:42, John 5:45). This unbelieving “world” resented the exposure (John 3:19, cf. John 18:37).
Go ye up to the feast (υμεις αναβητε εις την εορτην humeis anabēte eis tēn heortēn). The emphatic word by position is υμεις humeis (ye) in contrast with εγω egō (I). Second aorist active imperative of αναβαινω anabainō old and common verb for going up to the feast (John 2:13) or anywhere. Take your own advice (John 7:3).I go not up yet (εγω ουπω αναβαινω egō oupō anabainō). So Westcott and Hort after B W L (Neutral) while ου ou (not) is read by Aleph D, African Latin, Vulgate, Coptic (Western). Some of the early Greek Fathers were puzzled over the reading ουκ ouk (I go not up) as contradictory to John 7:10 wherein it is stated that Jesus did go up. Almost certainly ουκ ouk (not) is correct and is not really contradictory when one notes in John 7:10 that the manner of Christ‘s going up is precisely the opposite of the advice of the brothers in John 7:3, John 7:4. “Not yet” (ουπω oupō) is genuine before “fulfilled” (πεπληρωται peplērōtai perfect passive indicative of πληροω plēroō). One may think, if he will, that Jesus changed his plans after these words, but that is unnecessary. He simply refused to fall in with his brothers‘ sneering proposal for a grand Messianic procession with the caravan on the way to the feast. He will do that on the journey to the last passover.
He abode still in Galilee (εμεινεν εν τηι Γαλιλαιαι emeinen en tēi Galilaiāi). No “still” (ετι eti) in the Greek text. The constative aorist active indicative εμεινεν emeinen covers a period of some days.
Were gone up (ανεβησαν anebēsan). Second aorist active indicative of αναβαινω anabainō not past perfect though the action is antecedent in fact to the following τοτε ανεβη tote anebē The Greek does not always draw the precise distinction between the merely punctiliar (aorist) antecedent action and the past perfect (John 2:9; John 4:45).He also (τοτε αυτος tote autos). As well as the brothers. Not publicly (ου πανερως ou phanerōs). Against their advice in John 7:4, using πανερωσον phanerōson (the very same word stem). But as it were in secret (αλλα ως εν κρυπτωι alla hōs en kruptōi). “Not with the usual caravan of pilgrims” (Bernard). Just the opposite of their advice in John 7:4 with the same phrase εν πανερωι en phanerōi Plainly Jesus purposely went contrary to the insincere counsel of his brothers as to the manner of his Messianic manifestation. This secrecy concerned solely the journey to Jerusalem, not his public teaching there after his arrival (John 7:26, John 7:28; John 18:20).
The Jews (οι Ιουδαιοι hoi Ioudaioi). The hostile leaders in Jerusalem, not the Galilean crowds (John 7:12) nor the populace in Jerusalem (John 7:25).Sought (εζητουν ezētoun). Imperfect active of ζητεω zēteō “were seeking,” picture of the attitude of the Jewish leaders toward Jesus who had not yet appeared in public at the feast. In fact he had avoided Jerusalem since the collision in chapter 5. The leaders clearly wished to attack him. Where is he? (που εστιν εκεινοσ pou estin ekeinos). “Where is that one? (emphatic use of εκεινος ekeinos as in John 1:8; John 9:12). Jesus had been at two feasts during his ministry (passover in John 2:12.; possibly another passover in John 5:1), but he had avoided the preceding passover (John 6:4; John 7:1). The leaders in Jerusalem had kept in touch with Christ‘s work in Galilee. They anticipate a crisis in Jerusalem.
Much murmuring (γογγυσμος πολυς goggusmos polus). This Ionic onomatopoetic word is from γογγυζω gogguzō for which verb see John 6:41, John 6:61; John 7:32, for secret displeasure (Acts 6:1) or querulous discontent (Philippians 2:14).Among the multitudes (εν τοις οχλοις en tois ochlois). “The multitudes” literally, plural here only in John. These different groups were visitors from Galilee and elsewhere and were divided in their opinion of Jesus as the Galileans had already become (John 6:66). A good man (αγατος agathos). Pure in motive. See Mark 10:17.; Romans 5:7 (absolute sense of God). Superior to δικαιος dikaios Jesus had champions in these scattered groups in the temple courts. Not so, but he leadeth the multitude astray (ου αλλα πλαναι τον οχλον ou class="normal greek">πλαναω alla planāi ton ochlon). Sharp clash in the crowd. Present active indicative of εκεινος ο πλανος planaō to go astray (Matthew 18:12.), like our “planets,” to lead others astray (Matthew 24:4, Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:11, etc.). In the end the rulers will call Jesus “that deceiver” (ekeinos ho planos Matthew 27:63). The Jewish leaders have a following among the crowds as is seen (John 7:31.).
Howbeit (μεντοι mentoi). See John 4:27 for this compound particle (μεν τοι men class="normal greek">ελαλει toi), by way of exception, but yet.Spake (λαλεω elalei). Imperfect active of ουδεις παρρησιαι laleō “was speaking,” picturing the whispering or secret talk (no man openly, εν oudeis parrēsiāi). Best MSS. do not have παρρησιαι en here with εν parrēsiāi (locative or instrumental case of manner) as in John 7:26; John 10:24; John 11:54, but παρρησιαι en genuine in John 7:4; Colossians 2:15. This adverbial use of δια τον ποβον των Ιουδαιων parrēsiāi is common enough (Mark 8:37). For fear of the Jews (dia ton phobon tōn Ioudaiōn). Objective genitive. The crowds really feared the Jewish leaders and evidently did not wish to involve Jesus or themselves. See the same phrase and attitude on the part of the disciples in John 19:38; John 20:19.
But when it was now in the midst of the feast (ηδη δε της εορτης μεσουσης ēdē de tēs heortēs mesousēs). Literally, “But feast being already midway.” Genitive absolute, present active participle, of μεσοω mesoō old verb from μεσος mesos in lxx, here only in N.T. The feast of tabernacles was originally seven days, but a last day (John 7:37; Leviticus 23:36) was added, making eight in all.And taught (και εδιδασκεν kai edidasken). Imperfect active of διδασκω didaskō probably inchoative, “began to teach.” He went up (ανεβη anebē effective aorist, arrived). The leaders had asked (John 7:11) where Jesus was. There he was now before their very eyes.
Marvelled (εταυμαζον ethaumazon). Picturesque imperfect active of ταυμαζω thaumazō “were wondering.” After all the bluster of the rulers (John 7:13) here was Jesus teaching without interruption.Knoweth letters (γραμματα οιδεν grammata oiden). Second perfect active indicative used as present. Γραμματα Grammata old word from γραπω graphō to write, is originally the letters formed (Galatians 6:11), then a letter or epistle (Acts 28:21), then the sacred Scriptures (John 5:47; 2 Timothy 3:15), then learning like Latin litterae and English letters (Acts 26:24; John 7:15). “The marvel was that Jesus showed Himself familiar with the literary methods of the time, which were supposed to be confined to the scholars of the popular teachers” (Westcott). Having never learned (μη μεματηκως mē memathēkōs). Perfect active participle of μαντανω manthanō with μη mē the usual negative (subjective) with the participle. It is not the wisdom of Jesus that disconcerted the Jewish leaders, but his learning (Marcus Dods). And yet Jesus had not attended either of the rabbinical theological schools in Jerusalem (Hillel, Shammai). He was not a rabbi in the technical sense, only a carpenter, and yet he surpassed the professional rabbis in the use of their own methods of debate. It is sometimes true today that unschooled men in various walks of life forge ahead of men of lesser gifts with school training. See the like puzzle of the Sanhedrin concerning Peter and John (Acts 4:13). This is not an argument against education, but it takes more than education to make a real man. Probably this sneer at Jesus came from some of the teachers in the Jerusalem seminaries. “Christ was in the eyes of the Jews a merely self-taught enthusiast” (Westcott).
Mine (εμη emē). Possessive pronoun, “not mine in origin.” Jesus denies that he is self-taught, though not a schoolman.But his that sent me (αλλα του πεμπσαντος με alla tou pempsantos me). Genitive case of the articular participle (first aorist active of πεμπω pempō). His teaching is not self-originated nor is it the product of the schools (see the Talmud in contrast with the New Testament). Jesus often in John uses this idiom of “the one who sent me” of the Father (John 4:34; John 5:23, John 5:24, John 5:30, John 5:37; John 6:38-40, John 6:44; John 7:16, John 7:18, John 7:28, etc.). The bold claim is here made by Jesus that his teaching is superior in character and source to that of the rabbis.
If any man willeth to do (εαν τις τεληι ποιειν ean tis thelēi poiein). Condition of third class with εαν ean and present active subjunctive τεληι thelēi not used as a mere auxiliary verb for the future “will do,” but with full force of τελω thelō to will, to wish. See the same use of τελω thelō in John 5:40 “and yet ye are not willing to come” (και ου τελετε ελτειν kai ou thelete elthein).He shall know (γνωσεται gnōsetai). Future middle indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō Experimental knowledge from willingness to do God‘s will. See this same point by Jesus in John 5:46; John 18:37. There must be moral harmony between man‘s purpose and God‘s will. “If there be no sympathy there can be no understanding” (Westcott). Atheists of all types have no point of contact for approach to the knowledge of Christ. This fact does not prove the non-existence of God, but simply their own isolation. They are out of tune with the Infinite. For those who love God it is also true that obedience to God‘s will brings richer knowledge of God. Agnostic and atheistic critics are disqualified by Jesus as witnesses to his claims. Of God (εκ του τεου ek tou theou). Out of God as source. From myself (απ εμαυτου ap' emautou). Instead of from God.
From himself (απ εαυτου aph' heautou). This kind of teacher is self-taught, pushes his own ideas, presses his own claims for position and glory, “blows his own horn” as we say. Jesus is the other type of teacher, seeks the glory of the one who sent him, whose herald and ambassador he is.The same (ουτος houtos). “This one.” Unrighteousness (αδικια adikia). Old word from αδικος adikos (α a privative and δικη dikē). Here in contrast with “true” (αλητης alēthēs). See 2 Thessalonians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 13:6 for the deceit of unrighteousness in contrast with truth as here.
And yet (και kai). Clear use of και kai in the adversative sense of “and yet” or “but.” They marvelled at Christ‘s “ignorance” and boasted of their own knowledge of the law of Moses. And yet they violated that law by not practising it.Why seek ye to kill me? (Τι με ζητειτε αποκτειναι Ti me zēteite apokteinai). A sudden and startling question as an illustration of their failure to do the law of Moses. Jesus had previously known (John 5:39, John 5:45-47) that the Jews really rejected the teaching of Moses while professing to believe it. On that very occasion they had sought to kill him (John 5:18), the very language used here. Apparently he had not been to Jerusalem since then. He undoubtedly alludes to their conduct then and charges them with the same purpose now.
The multitude (ο οχλος ho ochlos). Outside of Jerusalem (the Galilean crowd as in John 7:11.) and so unfamiliar with the effort to kill Jesus recorded in John 5:18. It is important in this chapter to distinguish clearly the several groups like the Jewish leaders (John 7:13, John 7:15, John 7:25, John 7:26, John 7:30, John 7:32, etc.), the multitude from Galilee and elsewhere (John 7:10-13, John 7:20, John 7:31, John 7:40, John 7:49), the common people of Jerusalem (John 7:25), the Roman soldiers (John 7:45.).Thou hast a devil (δαιμονιον εχεις daimonion echeis). “Demon,” of course, as always in the Gospels. These pilgrims make the same charge against Jesus made long ago by the Pharisees in Jerusalem in explanation of the difference between John and Jesus (Matthew 11:18; Luke 7:33). It is an easy way to make a fling like that. “He is a monomaniac labouring under a hallucination that people wish to kill him” (Dods).
One work (εν εργον hen ergon). Direct allusion to the healing of the impotent man when in Jerusalem before (John 5:1.). He had wrought others before (John 2:23; John 4:45), but this one on the Sabbath caused the rulers to try to kill Jesus (John 5:18). Some wondered then, others had murder in their hearts. This crowd here is ignorant.
For this cause (δια τουτο dia touto). Some would take this phrase with the preceding verb ταυμαζετε thaumazete (ye marvel for this cause).Hath given (δεδωκεν dedōken). Present active indicative of διδωμι didōmi (permanent state). Not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers (ουχ οτι εκ του Μωυσεως εστιν αλλ εκ των πατερων ouch hoti ek tou Mōuseōs estin all' ek tōn paterōn). A parenthesis to explain that circumcision is older in origin than Moses. And on the sabbath ye circumcise (και εν σαββατωι περιτεμνετε kai en sabbatōi peritemnete). Adversative use of και kai = and yet as in John 7:19. That is to say, the Jews keep one law (circumcision) by violating another (on the Sabbath, the charge against him in chapter 5, healing on the Sabbath).
That the law of Moses may not be broken (ινα μη λυτηι ο νομος Μωυσεως hina mē luthēi ho nomos Mōuseōs). Purpose clause with negative μη mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of λυω luō They are punctilious about their Sabbath rules and about circumcision on the eighth day. When they clash, they drop the Sabbath rule and circumcise.Are ye wroth with me? (εμοι χολατε emoi cholāte). Old word from χολη cholē (bile, gall), possibly from χλοη chloē or χλωρος chlōros (yellowish green). Only here in N.T. So to be mad. With dative. Vivid picture of bitter spleen against Jesus for healing a man on the sabbath when they circumcise on the Sabbath. A man every whit whole (ολον αντρωπον υγιη holon anthrōpon hugiē). Literally, “a whole (ολον holon) man (all the man) sound (υγιη hugiē well),” not just one member of the body mended.
According to appearance (κατ οπσιν kat' opsin). And so, superficially. See John 11:44. Also not “righteous” (δικαιαν dikaian) judgment.
Some therefore of them of Jerusalem (ουν τινες εκ των Ιεροσολυμειτων oun tines ek tōn Ierosolumeitōn). The people of the city in contrast to the multitude of pilgrims at the feast. They form a separate group. The word is made from Ιεροσολυμα Ierosoluma and occurs in Josephus and 4Maccabees. In N.T. only here and Mark 1:5. These Jerusalem people knew better than the pilgrims the designs of the rulers (Vincent).Is not this? (ουχ ουτος εστιν ouch houtos estin). Expecting affirmative answer. Clearly they were not as familiar with the appearance of Jesus as the Galilean multitude (Dods). They seek (ζητουσιν zētousin). The plural refers to the group of leaders already present (John 7:15) to whom the Jerusalem crowd probably pointed. They knew of their threats to kill Jesus (John 5:18).
They say nothing unto him (ουδεν αυτοι λεγουσιν ouden autoi legousin). But only make sneering comments about him (John 7:16) in spite of his speaking “openly” (παρρησιαι parrēsiāi for which word see John 7:13; John 18:20) before all. It was sarcasm about the leaders, though an element of surprise on the part of “these shrewd townsmen” (Bernard) may have existed also.Can it be that the rulers indeed know (μη ποτε αλητως εγνωσιν οι αρχοντες mē pote alēthōs egnōsin hoi archontes). Negative answer expected by μη ποτε mē pote and yet there is ridicule of the rulers in the form of the question. See a like use of μη ποτε mē pote in Luke 3:15, though nowhere else in John. Εγνωσαν Egnōsan (second aorist ingressive active indicative of γινωσκω ginōskō) may refer to the examination of Jesus by these rulers in John 5:19. and means, “Did they come to know or find out” (and so hold now)? That this is the Christ (οτι ουτος εστιν ο Χριστος hoti houtos estin ho Christos). The Messiah of Jewish hope.
Howbeit (αλλα alla). Clearly adversative here.This man (τουτον touton). Possibly contemptuous use of ουτος houtos as may be true in John 7:25, John 7:26. Whence he is (ποτεν εστιν pothen estin). The Galilean Jews knew the family of Jesus (John 6:42), but they knew Jesus only as from Nazareth, not as born in Bethlehem (John 7:42). When the Christ cometh (ο Χριστος οταν ερχηται ho Christos hotan erchētai). Prolepsis of ο Χριστος ho Christos and indefinite temporal clause with οταν hotan and the present middle subjunctive ερχηται erchētai rather than the more usual second aorist active ελτηι elthēi as in John 7:31, a trifle more picturesque. This is a piece of popular theology. “Three things come wholly unexpected - Messiah, a godsend, and a scorpion” (Sanhedrin 97a). The rulers knew the birthplace to be Bethlehem (John 7:42; Matthew 2:5.), but some even expected the Messiah to drop suddenly from the skies as Satan proposed to Jesus to fall down from the pinnacle of the temple. The Jews generally expected a sudden emergence of the Messiah from concealment with an anointing by Elijah (Apoc. of Bar. XXIX. 3; 2Esdr. 7:28; 13:32; Justin Martyr, Tryph. 110).
And I am not come of myself (και απ εμαυτου ουκ εληλυτα kai ap' emautou ouk elēlutha). Και Kai here = “and yet.” Jesus repeats the claim of John 7:17 and also in John 5:30; John 8:28; John 12:49; John 14:10.Whom ye know not (ον υμεις ουκ οιδατε hon humeis ouk oidate). Jesus passes by a controversy over the piece of popular theology to point out their ignorance of God the Father who sent him. He tersely agrees that they know something of him. Jesus says of these Jews that they know not God as in John 8:19, John 8:55.
I know him (εγω οιδα αυτον egō oida auton). In contrast to the ignorance of these people. See the same words in John 8:55 and the same claim in John 17:25; Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22 (the Johannine aerolite). “These three words contain the unique claim of Jesus, which is pressed all through the chapters of controversy with the Jews” (Bernard). Jesus is the Interpreter of God to men (John 1:18).And he sent me (κακεινος με απεστειλεν kakeinos me apesteilen). First aorist active indicative of αποστελλω apostellō the very verb used of Jesus when he sent forth the twelve (Matthew 10:5) and used by Jesus again of himself in John 17:3. He is the Father‘s Apostle to men.
They sought therefore (εζητουν ουν ezētoun oun). Imperfect active of ζητεω zēteō inchoative or conative, they began to seek. Either makes sense. The subject is naturally some of the Jerusalemites (Westcott) rather than some of the leaders (Bernard).To take him (αυτον πιασαι auton piasai). First aorist active infinitive, Doric form from πιαζω piazō from the usual πιεζω piezō occasionally so in the papyri, but πιαζω piazō always in N.T. except Luke 6:38. And (και kai). Here = “but.” Laid his hand (επεβαλεν την χειρα epebalen tēn cheira). Second aorist active indicative of επιβαλλω epiballō to cast upon. Old and common idiom for arresting one to make him a prisoner (Matthew 26:50). See repetition in John 7:44. His hour (η ωρα αυτου hē hōra autou). In John 13:1 we read that “the hour” had come, but that was “not yet” (ουπω oupō). “John is at pains to point out at every point that the persecution and death of Jesus followed a predestined course” (Bernard), as in John 2:4; John 7:6, John 7:8; John 8:10; John 10:39; John 13:1, etc. Was not yet come (ουπω εληλυτει oupō elēluthei). Past perfect active of ερχομαι erchomai as John looks back on the story.
When the Christ shall come (ο Χριστος οταν ελτηι ho Christos hotan elthēi). Proleptic position of ο Χριστος ho Christos again as in John 7:27, but ελτηι elthēi with οταν hotan rather than ερχηται erchētai calling more attention to the consummation (whenever he does come).Will he do? (μη ποιησει mē poiēsei). Future active indicative of ποιεω poieō with μη mē (negative answer expected). Jesus had won a large portion of the pilgrims (εκ του οχλου πολλοι ek tou ochlou polloi) either before this day or during this controversy. The use of επιστευσαν episteusan (ingressive aorist active) looks as if many came to believe at this point. These pilgrims had watched closely the proceedings. Than those which (ων hōn). One must supply the unexpressed antecedent τουτων toutōn in the ablative case after πλειονα pleiona (more). Then the neuter plural accusative relative α ha (referring to σημεια sēmeia signs) is attracted to the ablative case of the pronominal antecedent τουτων toutōn (now dropped out). Hath done (εποιησεν epoiēsen). First aorist active indicative of ποιεω poieō a timeless constative aorist summing up all the miracles of Jesus so far.
The Pharisees (οι Παρισαιοι hoi Pharisaioi). This group of the Jewish rulers (John 7:11, John 7:15, John 7:25.) was particularly hostile to Christ, though already the Sadducees had become critical (Matthew 16:6) and they join here (οι αρχιερεις hoi archiereis the chief priests being Sadducees) in determining to silence Jesus by bringing him before the Sanhedrin. They had heard the whispered talk about Jesus before he arrived (John 7:12.) and still more now.Heard the multitude murmuring (ηκουσαν του οχλου γογγυζοντος ēkousan tou ochlou gogguzontos). First aorist active indicative of ακουω akouō with the genitive case and the descriptive participle of the vivid onomatopoetic verb γογγυζω gogguzō (John 7:12) now grown louder like the hum of bees. It was the defense of Jesus by a portion of the crowd (John 7:31) that irritated the Pharisees. Here the Pharisees take the initiative and enlist the Sadducees in the Sanhedrin (for this combination see John 7:45; John 11:47, John 11:57; Matthew 21:45; Matthew 27:62, the organized court) to send “officers” (υπηρετας hupēretas) “to take him” (ινα πιασωσιν αυτον hina piasōsin auton final clause with ινα hina and first aorist active subjunctive of πιαζω piazō for which verb see John 7:30). For υπηρετας hupēretas (temple police here) see John 7:45; John 18:3, John 18:12, John 18:22; John 19:6; Acts 5:22, Acts 5:26. For the word see Matthew 5:25; Luke 1:2, “an under rower” (υπο ερετης hupo class="translit"> eretēs), any assistant.
Yet a little while (ετι χρονον μικρον eti chronon mikron). Accusative of extent of time. It was only six months to the last passover of Christ‘s ministry and he knew that the end was near.I go unto him that sent me (υπαγω προς τον πεμπσαντα με hupagō pros ton pempsanta me). See the same words in John 16:5. υπαγω Hupagō old compound (υπο αγω hupo class="normal greek">πορευομαι agō), has the notion of withdrawing (literally, go under). See John 16:7-10 for three words for going common in John (απερχομαι poreuomai go for a purpose, υπαγω aperchomai to go away, υπαγω hupagō to withdraw personally). Hupagō often in John of going to the Father or God (John 8:14, John 8:21; John 13:3, John 13:33, John 13:36; John 14:4, John 14:5, John 14:28; John 15:16; John 16:4, John 16:7, John 16:10, John 16:17). See John 6:21. It was enigmatic language to the hearers.
And shall not find me (και ουχ ευρησετε με kai ouch heurēsete me). Future active indicative of ευρισκω heuriskō Jesus had said: “Seek and ye shall find” (Matthew 7:7), but this will be too late. Now they were seeking (John 7:30) to kill Jesus, then they will seek deliverance, but too late.Where I am (οπου ειμι εγω hopou eimi egō). No conflict with John 7:33, but the essential eternal spiritual home of Christ “in absolute, eternal being and fellowship with the Father” (Vincent). Ye cannot come (υμεις ου δυναστε ελτειν humeis ou dunasthe elthein). This fellowship was beyond the comprehension of these hostile Jews. See the same idea in John 7:36 by the Jews; John 8:21 to the Jews and then to the disciples with the addition of “now” (αρτι arti John 13:33, νυν nun in John 13:36).
Among themselves (προς εαυτους pros heautous). These Jewish leaders of John 7:32 talk among themselves about what Jesus said in a spirit of contempt (this man or fellow, ουτος houtos).That (οτι hoti). Almost result like οτι hoti in Matthew 8:27. Will he go? (μη μελλει πορευεσται mē mellei poreuesthai). Negative answer expected in an ironical question, “Is he about to go?” Unto the Dispersion among the Greeks (εις την διασποραν των ελληνων eis tēn diasporan tōn Hellēnōn). Objective genitive των ελληνων tōn Hellēnōn (of the Greeks) translated here “among,” because it is the Dispersion of Jews among the Greeks. Διασπορα Diaspora is from διασπειρω diaspeirō to scatter apart (Acts 8:1, Acts 8:4). It occurs in Plutarch and is common in the lxx, in the N.T. only here, James 1:1; 1 Peter 1:1. There were millions of these scattered Jews. And teach the Greeks (και διδασκειν τους ελληνας kai didaskein tous Hellēnas). Confessing his failure to teach the Jews in Palestine, “thus ignorantly anticipating the course Christianity took; what seemed unlikely and impossible to them became actual” (Dods).
What is this word? (Τις εστιν ο λογος ουτοσ Tis estin ho logos houtos). Puzzled and uneasy over this unintelligible saying. Even Peter is distressed over it later (John 13:3).
Now on the last day (εν δε τηι εσχατηι ημεραι en de tēi eschatēi hēmerāi). The eighth day which was “an holy convocation,” kept as a Sabbath (Leviticus 23:36), apparently observed as a memorial of the entrance into Canaan, hence “the great day of the feast” (τηι μεγαληι της εορτης tēi megalēi tēs heortēs).Stood and cried (ιστηκει και εκρασεν histēkei kai ekrasen). Past perfect active of ιστημι histēmi used as imperfect and intransitive and first aorist active of κραζω krazō Picture Jesus standing (linear) and suddenly crying out (punctiliar). If any man thirst (εαν τις διπσαι ean tis dipsāi). Third class condition with εαν ean and present active subjunctive of διπσαω dipsaō “if any one is thirsty.” On each of the seven preceding days water was drawn in a golden pitcher from the pool of Siloam and carried in procession to the temple and offered by the priests as the singers chanted Isaiah 12:3: “With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation.” “It is uncertain whether the libations were made upon the eighth day. If they were not made, the significant cessation of the striking rite on this one day of the feast would give a still more fitting occasion for the words” (Westcott).
He that believeth on me (ο πιστευων εις εμε ho pisteuōn eis eme). Nominative absolute as is not uncommon.The scripture (η γραπη hē graphē). No precise passage can be quoted, though similar idea in several (Isaiah 55:1; Isaiah 58:11; Zechariah 13:1; Zechariah 14:8; Ezekiel 47:1; Joel 3:18). Chrysostom confines it to Isaiah 28:16 by punctuation (only the nominative absolute as the Scripture). Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water (ποταμοι εκ της κοιλιας αυτου ρευσουσιν υδατος ζωντος potamoi ek tēs koilias autou reusousin hudatos zōntos). Some ancient Western writers connect πινετω pinetō of John 7:37 with ο πιστευων ho pisteuōn in John 7:38. By this arrangement αυτου autou (his) with κοιλιας koilias is made to refer to Christ, not to the believer. Burney argues that κοιλια koilia is a mistranslation of the Aramaic (fountain, not belly) and that the reference is to Ezekiel 47:1. C.C. Torrey refers to Zechariah 14:8. But the Eastern writers refer αυτου autou (his) to the believer who not only quenches in Christ his own thirst, but becomes a source of new streams for others (John 4:14). It is a difficult question and Westcott finally changed his view and held αυτου autou to refer to Christ. ευσουσιν Reusousin is future active indicative of ρεω reō old verb, to flow, here only in the N.T.
Which (ου hou). Genitive by attraction of the relative ο ho (accusative singular object of λαμβανειν lambanein) to the case of του πνευματος tou pneumatos (the Spirit) the antecedent. But it is purely grammatical gender (neuter ο ho because of πνευμα pneuma) which we do not have in English. Even here one should say “whom,” not which, of the Spirit of God.Were to receive (εμελλον λαμβανειν emellon lambanein). Imperfect active of μελλω mellō with the present active infinitive λαμβανειν lambanein to receive, one of the three constructions with μελλω mellō (present, aorist, or future infinitive). Literally, “whom they were about to receive,” a clear reference to the great pentecost. For the Spirit was not yet given (ουπω γαρ ην πνευμα oupō gar ēn pneuma). No verb for “given” in the Greek. The reference is not to the existence of the Spirit, but to the dispensation of the Spirit. This same use of ειμι eimi like παρειμι pareimi (to be present) appears in Acts 19:2 of the Spirit‘s activity. John, writing at the close of the century, inserts this comment and interpretation of the language of Jesus as an allusion to the coming of the Holy Spirit at pentecost (the Promise of the Father). Because Jesus was not yet glorified (οτι Ιησους ουπω εδοχαστη hoti Iēsous oupō edoxasthē). Reason for the previous statement, the pentecostal outpouring following the death of Jesus here called “glorified” (εδοχαστη edoxasthē first aorist passive indicative of δοχαζω doxazō), used later of the death of Jesus (John 12:16), even by Jesus himself (John 12:23; John 13:31).
Some of the multitude (εκ του οχλου ek tou ochlou). Τινες Tines (some) to be supplied, a common Greek idiom.Of a truth (αλητως alēthōs). “Truly.” See John 1:47. The prophet (ο προπητης ho prophētēs). The one promised to Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15) and long expected. See note on John 1:21. Proof of the deep impression made by Jesus.
This is the Christ (ουτος εστιν ο Χριστος houtos estin ho Christos). These went further and dared to call Jesus the Messiah and not merely the prophet who might not be the Messiah. They said it openly.What (γαρ gar). These denied that Jesus was the Messiah and gave as their reason (γαρ gar for) the fact that he came from Galilee. The use of μη mē expects a negative answer.
The scripture (η γραπη hē graphē). The reference is to Micah 5:2, the very passage quoted by the chief priests and scribes in response to Herod‘s inquiry (Matthew 2:6). This ignorance of the fact that Jesus was actually born in Bethlehem belongs to the Jews, not to John the author of the Gospel.
A division (σχισμα schisma). A clear split. See Matthew 9:16 for the word from σχιζω schizō to rend. Used again in John 9:16; John 10:19.
Would have taken him (ητελον πιασαι αυτον ēthelon piāsai auton). Imperfect active of τελω thelō and first aorist active infinitive of πιαζω piazō “were wishing to seize him.” See John 7:30 for a like impulse and restraint, there επεβαλεν επ αυτον epebalen ep' auton here εβαλεν επ αυτον ebalen ep' auton (simple verb, not compound).
Why did ye not bring him? (Δια τι ουκ ηγαγετε αυτον Dia ti ouk ēgagete auton). Second aorist active indicative of αγω agō Indignant outburst of the Sanhedrin (both Sadducees and Pharisees) at the failure of the (τους tous note article here referring to John 7:32) temple police to arrest Jesus. “Apparently they were sitting in expectation of immediately questioning him” (Dods). They were stunned at this outcome.
Never man so spake (ουδεποτε ελαλησεν ουτως αντρωπος oudepote elalēsen houtōs anthrōpos). Police officers are not usually carried away by public speech. They had fallen under the power of Jesus “as the Galilean peasants had been impressed” (Bernard) in John 7:28. It was the words of Jesus that had so gripped these officers, not his works (John 15:24). It was most disconcerting to the Sanhedrin.
Are ye also led astray? (Μη και υμεις πεπλανηστε Mē kai humeis peplanēsthe). The Pharisees took the lead in this scornful sneer at the officers. The use of μη mē formally expects a negative answer as in John 4:29, but the Pharisees really believed it. See also John 6:67. The verb form is perfect passive indicative of πλαναω planaō for which see John 7:12 with perhaps an allusion to that phase of opinion.
Hath any of the rulers believed on him? (Μη τις εκ των αρχοντων επιστευσεν εις αυτον Mē tis ek tōn archontōn episteusen eis auton). Negative answer sharply expected. First aorist active indicative of πιστευω pisteuō “Did any one of the rulers believe on him?” “What right have subordinates to have a mind of their own?” (Dods). These police were employed by the temple authorities (rulers). “Power was slipping through their fingers” (Dods) and that was the secret of their hostility to Jesus.Or of the Pharisees (η εκ των Παρισαιων ē ek tōn Pharisaiōn). A wider circle and the most orthodox of all.
This multitude (ο οχλος ουτος ho ochlos houtos). The Pharisees had a scorn for the οχλος amhaaretz or “people of the earth” (cf. our “clod-hoppers”) as is seen in rabbinic literature. It was some of the ο μη γινοσκων ochlos (multitude at the feast especially from Galilee) who had shown sympathy with Jesus (John 7:12, John 7:28.).Which knoweth not the law (γινωσκω ho mē ginoskōn). Present active articular participle of μη ginōskō with αγραμματοι και ιδιωται mē usual negative of the participle in the Koiné. “No brutish man is sin-fearing, nor is one of the people of the earth pious” (Aboth, II. 6). See the amazement of the Sanhedrin at Peter and John in Acts 4:13 as “unlettered and private men” (οχλος agrammatoi kai idiōtai). No wonder the common people (επαρατοι εισιν ochlos) heard Jesus gladly (Mark 12:37). The rabbis scouted and scorned them. Are accursed (οχλος eparatoi eisin). Construction according to sense (plural verb and adjective with collective singular Επαρατοι ochlos). επαραομαι Eparatoi is old verbal adjective from eparaomai to call down curses upon, here only in the N.T.
Nicodemus (Νικοδημος Nikodēmos). Not heard from since chapter 3 when he timidly came to Jesus by night. Now he boldly protests against the injustice of condemning Jesus unheard. He appears once more (and only in John) in John 19:39 with Joseph of Arimathea as a secret disciple of Jesus. He is a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin and his present act is courageous.Saith (λεγει legei). Dramatic present active indicative as in John 2:3. Before (προτερον proteron). This is genuine, a reference to the visit in chapter 3, but νυκτος nuktos (by night) is not genuine here. Being one of them (εις ων εχ αυτων heis ōn ex autōn). As a member of the Sanhedrin he takes up the challenge in John 7:48. He is both ruler and Pharisee.
Doth our law judge a man? (μη ο νομος ημων κρινει τον αντρωπον mē ho nomos hēmōn krinei ton anthrōpon). Negative answer expected and “the man,” not “a man.” These exponents of the law (John 7:49) were really violating the law of criminal procedure (Exodus 23:1; Deuteronomy 1:16). Probably Nicodemus knew that his protest was useless, but he could at least show his colours and score the point of justice in Christ‘s behalf.Except it first hear from himself (εαν μη ακουσηι πρωτον παρ αυτου ean mē akousēi prōton par' autou). Third-class negative condition with εαν μη ean mē and first aorist active subjunctive of ακουω akouō That is common justice in all law, to hear a man‘s side of the case (“from him,” παρ αυτου par' autou). And know what he doeth (και γνωι τι ποιει kai gnōi ti poiei). Continuation of the same condition with second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκω ginōskō with indirect question and present active indicative (τι ποιει ti poiei). There was no legal answer to the point of Nicodemus.
Art thou also of Galilee? (Μη και συ εκ της Γαλιλαιας ει Mē kai su ek tēs Galilaias ei). Formally negative answer expected by μη mē but really they mean to imply that Nicodemus from local feeling or prejudice has lined himself up with this Galilean mob (οχλος ochlos) of sympathizers with Jesus and is like Jesus himself a Galilean. “These aristocrats of Jerusalem had a scornful contempt for the rural Galileans” (Bernard).That out of Galilee ariseth no prophet (οτι εκ της Γαλιλαιας προπητης ουκ εγειρεται hoti ek tēs Galilaias prophētēs ouk egeiretai). As a matter of fact Jonah, Hosea, Nahum, possibly also Elijah, Elisha, and Amos were from Galilee. It was simply the rage of the Sanhedrin against Jesus regardless of the facts. Westcott suggests that they may have reference to the future, but that is a mere excuse for them.
This verse and through John 8:12 (the passage concerning the woman taken in adultery) is certainly not a genuine part of John‘s Gospel. The oldest and best MSS. (Aleph A B C L W) do not have it. It first appears in Codex Bezae. Some MSS. put it at the close of John‘s Gospel and some place it in Luke. It is probably a true story for it is like Jesus, but it does not belong to John‘s Gospel. The Canterbury Version on which we are commenting puts the passage in brackets. Westcott and Hort place it at the end of the Gospel. With this explanation we shall proceed.They went (επορευτησαν eporeuthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of πορευομαι poreuomai used as a deponent verb without passive idea. In this context the verb has to refer to the Sanhedrin with a rather pointless contrast to Jesus.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 7". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Easter