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Bible Commentaries
Jude 1

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New TestamentRobertson's Word Pictures

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Verse 1

Servant (δουλος). Precisely as James (James 1:1), only James added κυριου (Lord).

Brother of James (αδελφος Ιακωβου). Thus Jude identifies himself. But not the "Judas of James" (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13).

To them that are called (τοισ--κλητοις). But this translation (treating κλητοις as a substantive like Romans 1:6; 1 Corinthians 1:24) is by no means certain as two participles come in between τοις and κλητοις. Κλητοις may be in the predicate position (being called), not attributive. But see 1 Peter 1:1.

Beloved in God the Father (εν θεω πατρ ηγαπημενοις). Perfect passive participle of αγαπαω, but no precise parallel to this use of εν with αγαπαω.

Kept for Jesus Christ (Ιησου Χριστω τετηρημενοις). Perfect passive participle again with dative, unless it is the instrumental, "kept by Jesus Christ," a quite possible interpretation.

Verse 2

Be multiplied (πληθυνθειη). First aorist passive optative of πληθυνω as in 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2.

Verse 3

Beloved (αγαπητο). As in 3 John 1:2.

All diligence (πασαν σπουδην). As in 2 Peter 1:5.

Of our common salvation (περ της κοινης ημων σωτηριας). See this use of κοινος (common to all) in Titus 1:4 with πιστις, while in 2 Peter 1:1 we have ισοτιμον πιστιν, which see.

I was constrained (αναγκην εσχον). "I had necessity" like Luke 14:18; Hebrews 7:27.

To contend earnestly (επαγωνιζεσθα). Late and rare (in Plutarch, inscriptions) compound, here only in N.T. A little additional (επ) striving to the already strong αγωνιζεσθα (αγων contest). Cf. 1 Timothy 6:12 αγωνιζου τον καλον αγωνα.

For the faith (τηι--πιστε). Dative of advantage. Here not in the original sense of trust, but rather of the thing believed as in verse Jude 1:20; Galatians 1:23; Galatians 3:23; Philippians 1:27.

Once for all delivered (απαξ παραδοθειση). First aorist passive participle feminine dative singular of παραδιδωμ, for which see 2 Peter 2:21. See also 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Timothy 6:20.

Verse 4

Are crept in (παρεισεδυησαν). Second aorist passive indicative of παρεισδυω (-νω), late (Hippocrates, Plutarch, etc.) compound of παρα (beside) and εις (in) and δυω to sink or plunge, so to slip in secretly as if by a side door, here only in N.T.

Set forth (προγεγραμμενο). Perfect passive participle of προγραφω, to write of beforehand, for which verb see Galatians 3:1; Romans 15:4.

Unto this condemnation (εις τουτο το κριμα). See 2 Peter 2:3 for κριμα and εκπαλα. Παλα here apparently alludes to verses Jude 1:14; Jude 1:15 (Enoch).

Ungodly men (ασεβεις). Keynote of the Epistle (Mayor), in Jude 1:15 again as in 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 3:7.

Turning (μετατιθεντες). Present active participle of μετατιθημ, to change, for which verb see Galatians 1:6. For the change of "grace" (χαριτα) into "lasciviousness (εις ασελγειαν) see 1 Peter 2:16; 1 Peter 4:3; 2 Peter 2:19; 2 Peter 3:16.

Our only Master and Lord (τον μονον δεσποτην κα κυριον ημων). For the force of the one article for one person see on 2 Peter 1:1. For δεσποτην of Christ see 2 Peter 2:1.

Denying (αρνουμενο). So 2 Peter 2:1. See also Matthew 10:33; 1 Timothy 5:8; Titus 1:16; 1 John 2:22.

Verse 5

To put you in remembrance (υπομνησα). See 2 Peter 1:12 υπομιμνησκειν (present active infinitive there, first aorist active infinitive here).

Though ye know all things once for all (ειδοτας απαξ παντα). Concessive perfect (sense of present) active participle as in 2 Peter 1:12, but without καιπερ.

The Lord (κυριος). Some MSS. add Ιησους. The use of κυριος here is usually understood to mean the Lord Jesus Christ, as Clement of Alex. (Adumbr. p. 133) explains, Exodus 23:20, by ο μυστικος εκεινος αγγελος Ιησους (that mystical angel Jesus). For the mystic reference to Christ see 1 Corinthians 10:4; 1 Corinthians 10:9; Hebrews 11:26. Some MSS. here add θεος instead of Ιησους.

Afterward (το δευτερον). Adverbial accusative, "the second time." After having saved the people out of Egypt.

Destroyed (απωλεσεν). First aorist active indicative of απολλυμ, old verb, to destroy.

Them that believed not (τους μη πιστευσαντας). First aorist active articular participle of πιστευω. The reference is to Numbers 14:27-37, when all the people rescued from Egypt perished except Caleb and Joshua. This first example by Jude is not in II Peter, but is discussed in 1 Corinthians 10:5-11; Hebrews 3:18-4.

Verse 6

And angels (αγγελους δε). The second example in Jude, the fallen angels, accusative case after τετηρηκεν (perfect active indicative of τηρεω, for which verb see 2 Peter 2:4; 2 Peter 2:7) at the end of the verse (two emphatic positions, beginning and end of the clause).

Kept not (μη τηρησαντας). First aorist active participle with negative μη, with play on "kept not" and "he hath kept."

Principality (αρχην). Literally, "beginning," "rule," (first place of power as in 1 Corinthians 15:24; Romans 8:38). In Acts 10:11 it is used for "corners" (beginnings) of the sheet. In Ephesians 6:12 the word is used for evil angels. See Deuteronomy 32:8. Both Enoch and Philo (and Milton) discuss the fallen angels.

But left (αλλα απολιποντας). Second aorist active participle of απολειπω, old verb, to leave behind (2 Timothy 4:13; 2 Timothy 4:20).

Their own proper habitation (το ιδιον οικητηριον). Old word for dwelling-place (from οικητηρ, dweller at home, from οικος), in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 5:2 (the body as the abode of the spirit).

In everlasting bonds (δεσμοις αιδιοις). Either locative (in) or instrumental (by, with). Αιδιος (from αε, always), old adjective, in N.T. only here and Romans 1:20 (of God's power and deity). It is synonymous with αιωνιος (Matthew 25:46). Mayor terms αιδιος an Aristotelian word, while αιωνιος is Platonic.

Under darkness (υπο ζοφον). See 2 Peter 2:4 for ζοφος. In Wisd. 17:2 we find δεσμιο σκοτους (prisoners of darkness).

Great (μεγαλης). Not in 2 Peter 2:9, which see for discussion.

Verse 7

Even as (ως). Just "as." The third instance (Jude passes by the deluge) in Jude, the cities of the plain.

The cities about them (α περ αυτας πολεις). These were also included, Admah and Zeboiim (Deuteronomy 29:23; Hosea 11:8). Zoar, the other city, was spared.

In like manner (τον ομοιον τροπον). Adverbial accusative (cf. ως). Like the fallen angels.

Having given themselves over to fornication (εκπορνευσασα). First aorist active participle feminine plural of εκπορνευω, late and rare compound (perfective use of εκ, outside the moral law), only here in N.T., but in LXX (Genesis 38:24; Exodus 34:15, etc.). Cf. ασελγειαν in verse Jude 1:4.

Strange flesh (σαρκος ετερας). Horrible licentiousness, not simply with women not their wives or in other nations, but even unnatural uses (Romans 1:27) for which the very word "sodomy" is used (Genesis 19:4-11). The pronoun ετερας (other, strange) is not in 2 Peter 2:10.

Are set forth (προκειντα). Present middle indicative of προκειμα, old verb, to lie before, as in Hebrews 12:1.

As an example (δειγμα). Predicate nominative of δειγμα, old word (from δεικνυμ to show), here only in N.T., sample, specimen. 2 Peter 2:6 has υποδειγμα (pattern).

Suffering (υπεχουσα). Present active participle of υπεχω, old compound, to hold under, often with δικην (right, justice, sentence 2 Thessalonians 1:9) to suffer sentence (punishment), here only in N.T.

Of eternal fire (πυρος αιωνιου). Like δεσμοις αιδιοις in verse Jude 1:7. Cf. the hell of fire (Matthew 5:22) and also Matthew 25:46. Jude has no mention of Lot.

Verse 8

Yet (μεντο). See John 4:27. In spite of these warnings.

In like manner (ομοιως). Like the cities of the plain.

These also (κα ουτο). The false teachers of verse Jude 1:4.

In their dreamings (ενυπνιαζομενο). Present middle participle of ενυπνιαζω, to dream (from ενυπνιον dream, Acts 2:17, from εν and υπνος, in sleep), in Aristotle, Hippocrates, Plutarch, papyri, LXX (Joel 2:28), here only in N.T. Cf. Colossians 2:18.

Defile (μιαινουσιν). Present active indicative of μιναινω, old verb, to stain, with sin (Titus 1:15) as here. 2 Peter 2:10 has μιασμου.

Set at nought (αθετουσιν). Present active indicative of αθετεω, to annul. Both κυριοτης (dominion) and δοξα (dignities) occur in 2 Peter 2:10, which see for discussion.

Verse 9

Michael the archangel (ο Μιχαελ ο αρχαγγελος). Michael is mentioned also in Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1; Revelation 12:7. Αρχαγγελος in N.T. occurs only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:16, but in Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:20; Daniel 12:1.

Contending with the devil (τω διαβολω διακρινομενος). Present middle participle of διακρινω, to separate, to strive with as in Acts 11:2. Dative case διαβολω.

When he disputed (οτε διελεγετο). Imperfect middle of διαλεγομα as in Mark 9:34.

Concerning the body of Moses (περ του Μωυσεως σωματος). Some refer this to Zechariah 3:1, others to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy 34:6. There is a similar reference to traditions in Acts 7:22; Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:8. But this explanation hardly meets the facts.

Durst not bring (ουκ ετολμησεν επενεγκειν). "Did not dare (first aorist active indicative of τολμαω), to bring against him" (second aorist active infinitive of επιφερω).

A railing accusation (κρισιν βλασφημιας). "Charge of blasphemy" where 2 Peter 2:11 has "βλασφημον κρισιν." Peter also has παρα κυριω (with the Lord), not in Jude.

The Lord rebuke thee (επιτιμησα σο κυριος). First aorist active optative of επιτιμαω, a wish about the future. These words occur in Zechariah 3:1-10 where the angel of the Lord replies to the charges of Satan. Clement of Alex. (Adumb. in Ep. Judae) says that Jude quoted here the Assumption of Moses, one of the apocryphal books. Origen says the same thing. Mayor thinks that the author of the Assumption of Moses took these words from Zechariah and put them in the mouth of the Archangel Michael. There is a Latin version of the Assumption. Some date it as early as B.C. 2, others after A.D. 44.

Verse 10

Whatsoever things they know not (οσα ουκ οιδασιν). Here 2 Peter 2:12 has εν οις αγνοουσιν. The rest of the sentence is smoother than 2 Peter 2:12.

Naturally (φυσικως). Here only in N.T. 2 Peter 2:12 has γεγεννημενα φυσικα. Jude has the article τα with αλογα ζωα and the present passive φθειροντα instead of the future passive φθαρησοντα.

Verse 11

Woe to them (ουα αυτοις). Interjection with the dative as is common in the Gospels (Matthew 11:21).

Went (επορευθησαν). First aorist passive (deponent) indicative of πορευομα.

In the way of Cain (τη οδω του Καιν). Locative case οδω. Cain is Jude's fourth example. Not in II Peter, but in Hebrews 11:4; 1 John 3:11. From Genesis 4:7.

Ran riotously (εξεχυθησαν). First aorist passive indicative of εκχεω, to pour out, "they were poured out," vigorous metaphor for excessive indulgence. But it is used also of God's love for us (Romans 5:5).

In the error of Balaam (τη πλανη του Βαλααμ). The fifth example in Jude. In II Peter also (2 Peter 2:15). Either locative case (in) or instrumental (by). Πλανη (in Peter also) is the common word for such wandering (Matthew 24:4, etc.).

Perished (απωλοντο). Second aorist middle (intransitive) of απολλυμ.

In the gainsaying of Korah (τη αντιλογια του Κορε). Again either locative or instrumental. The word αντιλογια is originally answering back (Hebrews 6:16), but it may be by act also (Romans 10:21) as here. This is the sixth example in Jude, not in II Peter.

Verse 12

Hidden rocks (σπιλαδες). Old word for rocks in the sea (covered by the water), as in Homer, here only in N.T. 2 Peter 2:13 has σπιλο.

Love-feasts (αγαπαις). Undoubtedly the correct text here, though A C have απαταις as in 2 Peter 2:14. For disorder at the Lord's Supper (and love-feasts?) see 1 Corinthians 11:17-34. The Gnostics made it worse, so that the love-feasts were discontinued.

When they feast with you (συνευωχουμενο). See 2 Peter 2:13 for this very word and form. Masculine gender with ουτο ο rather than with the feminine σπιλαδες. Cf. Revelation 11:4. Construction according to sense.

Shepherds that feed themselves (εαυτους ποιμαινοντες). "Shepherding themselves." Cf. Revelation 7:17 for this use of ποιμαινω. Clouds without water (νεφελα ανυδρο). Νεφελη common word for cloud (Matthew 24:30). 2 Peter 2:17 has πηγα ανυδρο (springs without water) and then ομιχλα (mists) and ελαυνομενα (driven) rather than περιφερομενα here (borne around, whirled around, present passive participle of περιφερω to bear around), a powerful picture of disappointed hopes.

Autumn trees (δενδρα φθινοπωρινα). Late adjective (Aristotle, Polybius, Strabo) from φθινω, to waste away, and οπωρα, autumn, here only in N.T. For ακαρπα (without fruit) see 2 Peter 1:8.

Twice dead (δις αποθανοντα). Second aorist active participle of αποθνησκω. Fruitless and having died. Having died and also "uprooted" (εκριζωθεντα). First aorist passive participle of εκριζοω, late compound, to root out, to pluck up by the roots, as in Matthew 13:29.

Verse 13

Wild waves (κυματα αγρια). Waves (Matthew 8:24, from κυεω, to swell) wild (from αγρος, field, wild honey Matthew 3:4) like untamed animals of the forest or the sea.

Foaming out (επαφριζοντα). Late and rare present active participle of επαφριζω, used in Moschus for the foaming waves as here. Cf. Isaiah 57:20.

Shame (αισχυνας). Plural "shames" (disgraces). Cf. Philippians 3:19.

Wandering stars (αστερες πλανητα). "Stars wanderers." Πλανητης, old word (from πλαναω), here alone in N.T. Some refer this to comets or shooting stars. See Isaiah 14:12 for an allusion to Babylon as the day-star who fell through pride.

For ever (εις αιωνα). The rest of the relative clause exactly as in 2 Peter 2:17.

Verse 14

And to these also (δε κα τουτοις). Dative case, for these false teachers as well as for his contemporaries.

Enoch the seventh from Adam (εβδομος απο Αδαμ Hενωχ). The genealogical order occurs in Genesis 5:4-20, with Enoch as seventh. He is so termed in Enoch 60:8; 93:3.

Prophesied (επροφητευσεν). First aorist active indicative of προφητευω. If the word is given its ordinary meaning as in 1 Peter 1:10, then Jude terms the Book of Enoch an inspired book. The words quoted are "a combination of passages from Enoch" (Bigg), chiefly from Enoch 1:9.

With ten thousand of his holy ones (εν αγιαις μυριασιν αυτου). "With (εν of accompaniment, Luke 14:31) his holy ten thousands" (μυριας regular word, feminine gender, for ten thousand, Acts 19:19, there an unlimited number like our myriads, Luke 12:1).

Verse 15

To execute judgment (ποιησα κρισιν). "To do justice."

To convict (ελεγξα). First aorist (effective) active infinitive like ποιησα before it.

Ungodly (ασεβεις). See verse Jude 1:4 and end of this verse.

Of ungodliness (ασεβειας). Old word as in Romans 1:18, plural in Jude 1:18 as in Romans 11:26.

Which (ων). Genitive by attraction from α (cognate accusative with ησεβησαν, old verb, to act impiously, here alone in N.T. save some MSS. in 2 Peter 2:6) to agree with the antecedent εργων (deeds).

Hard things (σκληρων). Harsh, rough things as in John 6:60.

Which (ων). Genitive by attraction from α (object of ελαλησαν, first aorist active indicative of λαλεω) to the case of the antecedent σκληρων. Four times in this verse as a sort of refrain ασεβεις (twice), ασεβειασ, ησεβησαν.

Verse 16

Murmurers (γογγυστα). Late onomatopoetic word for agent, from γογγυζω (Matthew 20:11; 1 Corinthians 10:10) in the LXX (Exodus 16:8; Numbers 11:1; Numbers 11:14-29).

Complainers (μεμψιμοιρο). Rare word (Isocrates, Aristotle, Plutarch) from μεμφομα to complain and μοιρα lot or fate. Here alone in N.T.

Lusts (επιθυμιας). As in 2 Peter 3:3.

Swelling (υπερογκα). So in 2 Peter 2:18 (big words).

Showing respect of persons (θαυμαζοντες προσωπα). Present active participle of θαυμαζω to admire, to wonder at. Nowhere else in N.T. with προσωπα, but a Hebraism (in Leviticus 19:15; Job 13:10) like λαμβανειν προσωπον (Luke 20:21) and βλεπειν προσωπον (Matthew 22:16) and προσοπωλεμπτεω (James 2:9). Cf. James 2:1.

For the sake of advantage (ωφελειας χαριν). To themselves. See also verse Jude 1:11. The covetousness of these Gnostic leaders is plainly shown in 2 Peter 2:3; 2 Peter 2:14. For χαριν as preposition with genitive see Ephesians 3:1; Ephesians 3:14.

Verse 17

Remember ye (υμεις μνησθητε). First aorist passive (deponent) imperative of μιμνησκω with genitive ρηματων (words). In 2 Peter 3:2 we have the indirect form (infinitive μνησθηνα). The rest as in II Peter, but in simpler and more exact structure and with the absence of των αγιων προφητων (the holy prophets).

Verse 18

How that (οτ). Declarative οτ as in verse Jude 1:5. See discussion of 2 Peter 3:3 for differences, no εν εμπαιγμονη here and no των ασεβειων there.

Verse 19

They who make separations (ο αποδιοριζοντες). Present active articular participle of the double compound αποδιοριζω (from απο, δια, οριζω, ορος, boundary, to make a horizon), rare word, in Aristotle for making logical distinctions, here only in N.T. Διοριζω occurs in Leviticus 20:24 and αφοριζω in Matthew 25:32, etc. See αιρεσεις in 2 Peter 2:1.

Sensual (ψυχικο). Old adjective from ψυχη as in 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 15:44; James 3:15. Opposed to πνευματικος. Not used by Peter.

Having not the Spirit (πνευμα μη εχοντες). Usual negative μη with the participle (present active of εχω). Probably πνευμα here means the Holy Spirit, as is plain in verse Jude 1:20. Cf. Romans 8:9.

Verse 20

Building up (εποικοδομουντες). Present active participle of εποικοδομεω, old compound with metaphor of a house (οικος), common in Paul (1 Corinthians 3:9-17; Colossians 2:7; Ephesians 2:20).

On your most holy faith (τη αγιωτατη υμων πιστε). For the spiritual temple see also 1 Peter 2:3-5. See πιστις (faith) in this sense (cf. Hebrews 11:1) in 2 Peter 1:5 with the list of graces added. A true superlative here αγιωτατη, not elative.

Praying in the Holy Spirit (εν πνευματ αγιω προσευχομενο). This is the way to build themselves up on their faith.

Verse 21

Keep yourselves (εαυτους τηρησατε). First aorist active imperative (of urgency) of τηρεω. In verse Jude 1:1 they are said to be kept, but note the warning in verse Jude 1:5 from the angels who did not keep their dominion. See also James 1:27. In Philippians 2:12 both sides (human responsibility and divine sovereignty are presented side by side).

Looking for (προσδεχομενο). Present middle participle of προσδεχομα, the very form in Titus 2:13. The same idea in προσδοκωντες in 2 Peter 3:14.

Verse 22

And on some (κα ους μεν). Demonstrative plural of ος μεν--ος δε (ους δε, below), not the relative ους, but by contrast (μεν, δε). So Matthew 13:8.

Have mercy (ελεατε). Present active imperative of ελεαω (rare form in Romans 9:16 also for the usual ελεεω Matthew 9:27). But A C read ελεγχετε, refute, in place of ελεατε. The text of this verse is in much confusion.

Who are in doubt (διακρινομενους). Present middle participle of διακρινω, in the accusative case agreeing with ους μεν, though K L P have the nominative. If the accusative and ελεατε is read, see James 1:6 for the idea (doubters). If ελεγχετε is read, see Jude 1:9 for the idea (disputers).

Verse 23

And some save (ους δε σωζετε). B omits ους δε.

Snatching them out of the fire (εκ πυρος αρπαζοντες). Present active participle of αρπαζω, old verb, to seize. Quotation from Amos 4:11 and Zechariah 3:3. Cf. Psalms 106:18. Firemen today literally do this rescue work. Do Christians?

And on some have mercy with fear (ους δε ελεατε εν φοβω). In fear "of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them" (Vincent). For this idea see 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philippians 2:12.

Spotted (εσπιλωμενον). Perfect passive participle of σπιλοω, late and common verb (from σπιλος, spot, 2 Peter 2:13), in N.T. only here and James 3:6.

Verse 24

From stumbling (απταιστους). Verbal from πταιω, to stumble (James 3:2; 2 Peter 1:10), sure-footed as of a horse that does not stumble (Xenophon), and so of a good man (Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus).

Before the presence of his glory (κατενωπιον της δοξης αυτου). Late compound preposition (κατα, εν, ωπς), right down before the eye of his glory as in Ephesians 1:4. Cf. Matthew 25:31-33; Colossians 1:22, where Paul has παραστησα like στησα here (first aorist active infinitive) and also αμωμους as here, but αμωμητος in 2 Peter 3:14.

In exceeding joy (εν αγαλλιασε). See Luke 1:14.

Verse 25

To the only God our Saviour (μονω θεω σωτηρ ημων). Dative in the noble doxology. See Romans 16:27, μονω σοφω θεω (to the alone wise God), where also we have δια Ιησου Χριστου, but without του κυριου ημων (our Lord) as here. Σωτηρ is used of God eight times in the N.T., six of them in the Pastoral Epistles. Δοξα (glory) to God or Christ in all the doxologies except 1 Timothy 6:16. Μεγαλοσυνη (Majesty) is a late LXX word, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1.

Before all time (προ παντος του αιωνος). Eternity behind us. See same idea in 1 Corinthians 2:7 προ των αιωνων.

Now (νυν). The present.

For ever more (εις παντας τους αιωνας). "Unto all the ages." All the future. As complete a statement of eternity as can be made in human language.

Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Jude 1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/rwp/jude-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.
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