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Bible Commentaries
Luke 9

Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the GospelsRyle's Exposiory Thougths

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Verses 1-6

THESE verses contain our Lord’s instructions to His twelve apostles, when He sent them forth the first time to preach the Gospel. The passage is one which throws much light on the work of Christian ministers in every age. No doubt the miraculous power which the apostles possessed, made their position very unlike that of any other body of men in the Church. No doubt, in many respects, they stood alone, and had no successors. Yet the words of our Lord in this place must not be confined entirely to the apostles. They contain deep wisdom for Christian teachers and preachers, for all time.

Let us observe, that the commission to the apostles contained special reference to the devil and bodily sickness. We read that Jesus gave them "authority over all devils, and to cure diseases."

We see here, as in a glass, two of the principal parts of the Christian minister’s business. We must not expect him to cast out evil spirits, but we may fairly expect him to "resist the devil and all his works," and to keep up a constant warfare against the prince of this world.—We must not expect him to work miraculous cures, but we may expect him to take a special interest in all sick people, to visit them, sympathize with them, and help them, if needful, as far as he can.—The minister who neglects the sick members of his flock is no true pastor. He must not be surprised if people say that he cares for the fleece of his sheep more than for their health. The minister who allows drunkenness, blasphemy, uncleanness, fighting, reveling, and the like, to go on among his congregation unreproved, is omitting a plain duty of his office. He is not warring against the devil. He is no true successor of the apostles.

Let us observe, secondly, that one of the principal works which the apostles were commissioned to take up was preaching. We read that our Lord "sent them to preach the kingdom of God," and that "they went through the towns preaching the Gospel."

The importance of preaching, as a means of grace, might easily be gathered from this passage, even if it stood alone. But it is but one instance, among many, of the high value which the Bible everywhere sets upon preaching. It is, in fact, God’s chosen instrument for doing good to souls. By it sinners are converted, inquirers led on, and saints built up. A preaching ministry is absolutely essential to the health and prosperity of a visible church. The pulpit is the place where the chief victories of the Gospel have always been won, and no Church has ever done much for the advancement of true religion in which the pulpit has been neglected. Would we know whether a minister is a truly apostolical man? If he is, he will give the best of his attention to his sermons. He will labor and pray to make his preaching effective, and he will tell his congregation that he looks to preaching for the chief results on souls. The minister who exalts the sacraments, or forms of the Church, above preaching, may be a zealous, earnest, conscientious, and respectable minister; but his zeal is not according to knowledge. He is not a follower of the apostles.

Let us observe, thirdly, that our Lord charges His apostles, when He sends them forth, to study simplicity of habits, and contentment with such things as they have. He bids them "take nothing for their journey, neither staves, nor scrip, neither bread nor money; neither have two coats apiece. And whatever house ye enter into, there abide, and thence depart." In part, these instructions apply only to a peculiar period. There came a day when our Lord Himself bade every one who had "no sword, to sell his garment and buy one." (Luke 22:36.) But, in part, these instructions contain a lesson for all time. The spirit of these verses is meant to be remembered by all ministers of the Gospel.

The leading idea which the words convey is, a warning against worldliness and luxurious habits. Well would it be for the world and the Church if the warning had been more carefully heeded! From no quarter has Christianity received such damage as it has from the hands of its own teachers. On no point have its teachers erred so much, and so often, as in the matter of personal worldliness and luxury of life. They have often destroyed, by their daily lives, the whole work of their lips. They have given occasion to the enemies of religion to say, that they love ease, and money, and good things, far more than souls. From such ministers may we pray daily that the Church may be delivered! They are a living stumbling-block in the way to heaven. They are helpers to the cause of the devil, and not of God. The preacher whose affections are set on money, and dress and feasting, and pleasure-seeking, has clearly mistaken his vocation. He has forgotten his Master’s instructions. He is not an apostolic man.

Let us observe, lastly, that our Lord prepares His disciples to meet with unbelief and impenitence in those to whom they preached. He speaks of those "who will not receive them" as a class which they must expect to see. He tells them how to behave, when not received, as if it was a state of things to which they must make up their mind.

All ministers of the Gospel would do well to read carefully this portion of our Lord’s instructions. All missionaries, and district visitors, and Sunday-school teachers, would do well to lay it to heart. Let them not be cast down if their work seems in vain, and their labor without profit. Let them remember that the very first preachers and teachers whom Jesus employed were sent forth with a distinct warning that not all would believe. Let them work on patiently, and sow the good seed without fainting. Duties are theirs. Events are God’s. Apostles may plant and water. The Holy Ghost alone can give spiritual life. The Lord Jesus knows what is in the heart of man. He does not despise his laborers because little of the seed they sow bears fruit. The harvest may be small. But every laborer shall be rewarded according to his work.



v1.—[His twelve disciples.] Let it be noted, that Judas Iscariot, the false apostle and traitor, was one of those twelve whom our Lord sent forth to preach and heal the sick. It must not surprise us, if we see unconverted men preachers and ministers of the Gospel. Our Lord permitted one to be in the number of His apostles, in order to show that we must expect to see the evil mingled with the good in this world. The highest ecclesiastical office and dignity afford no proof that a man has the grace of God.

[Gave them power.] Theophylact remarks, what an evidence we have here of our Lord’s divine power. He could not only work miracles Himself, but could give power to others to work them.

v2.[He sent them to preach.] Let it be carefully noted, that, speaking literally and accurately, there is no such thing as apostolical succession. The office of the apostles was isolated, peculiar and distinct, and ceased with themselves. Ministers of the churches of Christ are successors of Timothy and Titus, but not of the apostles.

v3.—[Take nothing for your journey, &c.] The words of Quesnel on this verse are worth reading. "Men will never be able to establish the kingdom of God in the hearts of people, so long as they do not appear fully persuaded themselves of those truths which they preach. And how can they appear so, if they plainly contradict them in their practice and behavior? In order to persuade others to be unconcerned for superfluities, a man must not himself appear too much concerned, even about necessaries."

[Scrip.] The word so translated, means, a little bag to carry provisions in.

v4.—[There abide, and thence depart.] The object of this injunction is evident. The apostles were to beware of appearing changeable, fickle, luxurious, and hard to please. Like men who regard all the world as an inn, and heaven as their home, they were to be content with any lodging, and any kind of entertainment.

v6.—[Preaching the Gospel.] It is a very awful thought, that one of those who did this, was Judas Iscariot. There seems no reason to suppose that he preached less faithfully or powerfully than the other apostles. Yet his heart was all the time wrong in the sight of God. It is no proof that a man is a converted man, because he preaches the Gospel! See Philippians 1:15. A man may preach Christ from false motives.

Verses 7-11

LET us mark, in this passage, the power of a bad conscience. We are told that "when Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by our Lord, he was perplexed." He said, "John have I beheaded, but who is this?" Great and powerful as he was, the tidings of our Lord’s ministry called his sins to remembrance, and disturbed him even in his royal palace. Surrounded as he was by everything which is considered to make life enjoyable, the report of another preacher of righteousness filled him with alarm. The recollection of his own wickedness in killing John the Baptist flashed on his mind. He knew he had done wrong. He felt guilty, self-condemned, and self-dissatisfied. Faithful and true is that saying of Solomon’s, "The way of transgressors is hard." (Proverbs 13:15.) Herod’s sin had found him out. The prison and the sword had silenced John the Baptist’s tongue, but they could not silence the voice of Herod’s inward man. God’s truth can neither be silenced, nor bound, nor killed.

Conscience is a most powerful part of our natural constitution. It cannot save our souls. It never leads a man to Christ. It is often blind, and ignorant, and misdirected. Yet conscience often raises a mighty testimony against sin in the sinner’s heart, and makes him feel that "it is an evil and a bitter thing" to depart from God. Young persons ought especially to remember this, and, remembering it, to take heed to their ways. Let them not flatter themselves that all is right, when their sins are past, and done, and forgotten by the world. Let them know that conscience can bring up each sin before the eyes of their minds, and make it bite like a serpent. Millions will testify at the last day that Herod’s experience was their own. Conscience called old sins from their graves, and made them walk up and down in their hearts. In the midst of seeming happiness and prosperity they were inwardly miserable and distressed. Happy are they who have found the only cure for a bad conscience! Nothing will ever heal it but the blood of Christ.

Let us mark, secondly, the importance to Christians of occasional privacy and retirement. We are told, that when the apostles returned from their first ministerial work, our Lord "took them and went aside privately into a desert place." We cannot doubt that this was done with a deep meaning. It was meant to teach the great lesson that those who do public work for the souls of others, must be careful to make time for being alone with God.

The lesson is one which many Christians would do well to remember. Occasional retirement, self-inquiry, meditation, and secret communion with God, are absolutely essential to spiritual health. The man who neglects them is in great danger of a fall. To be always preaching, teaching, speaking, writing, and working public works, is, unquestionably, a sign of zeal. But it is not always a sign of zeal according to knowledge. It often leads to untoward consequences. We must make time occasionally for sitting down and calmly looking within, and examining how matters stand between our own selves and Christ. The omission of the practice is the true account of many a backsliding which shocks the Church, and gives occasion to the world to blaspheme. Many could say with sorrow, in the words of Canticles, "They made me keeper of the vineyards, but my own vineyard have I not kept." (Song of Song of Solomon 1:6.)

Let us mark, lastly, in this passage, our Lord Jesus Christ’s readiness to receive all who come to Him. We are told, that when the multitude followed Him into the desert, whither He had retired, "he received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing." Unmannerly and uninvited as this intrusion on his privacy seems to have been, it met with no rebuff from our Lord. He was always more ready to give instruction than people were to ask it, and more willing to teach than people were to be taught.

But the incident, trifling as it may seem, exactly tallies with all that we read in the Gospels of the gentleness and condescension of Christ. We never see Him dealing with people according to their deserts. We never find Him scrutinizing the motives of His hearers, or refusing to allow them to learn of Him, because their hearts were not right in the sight of God. His ear was always ready to hear, and His hand to work, and His tongue to preach. None that came to Him were ever cast out. Whatever they might think of His doctrine, they could never say that Jesus of Nazareth was "an austere man."

Let us remember this in all our dealings with Christ about our own souls. We may draw near to Him with boldness, and open our hearts to Him with confidence. He is a Savior of infinite compassion and loving kindness. He will not break the bruised reed, nor quench the smoking flax. The secrets of our spiritual life may be such as we would not have our dearest friends know. The wounds of our consciences may be deep and sore, and require most delicate handling. But we need not fear anything, if we commit all to Jesus, the Son of God. We shall find that His kindness is unbounded. His own words shall be found abundantly true: "I am meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest to your souls." (Matthew 11:29.)

Let us remember this, finally, in our dealing with other people, if we are called upon to give them help about their souls. Let us strive to walk in the steps of Christ’s example, and, like Him, to be kind, and patient, and always willing to aid. The ignorance of young beginners in religion is sometimes very provoking. We are apt to be wearied of their instability, and fickleness, and halting between two opinions. But let us remember Jesus, and not be weary. He "received all," spake to all, and did good to all. Let us go and do likewise. As Christ deals with us, so let us deal one with another.



v7.—[He was perplexed.] The Greek word so translated, is rendered, in Luke 24:4, "much perplexed." In the only three other places where it is used in the New Testament, it is translated, "doubted," or, "was in doubt." (Acts 2:12; Acts 5:24; Acts 10:17.)

[Risen from the dead.] Let it be noted, that a resurrection from the dead is spoken of here, and in the following verses, as a thing which was commonly believed and acknowledged as true among the Jews. The notion, that the Jews, before Christ, knew nothing of a resurrection or another life, is utterly untenable.

v9.—[I beheaded...I hear.] Let it be noted that the Greek word for "I," is twice repeated in this verse. Alford thinks that the repetition "implies personal concern and alarm at the growing fame of Jesus."

v10.—[He took them and went aside privately.] Let the words of Cecil, on this subject, be carefully weighed. "If a man would seriously set himself to work, he must retire from the crowd. He must not live in a bustle. If he is always driving through the business of the day, he will be so in harness, as not to observe the road he is going."

Again, he says; "I know not how it is that some Christians can make so little of recollection and retirement. I find the spirit of the world a strong assimilating principle. I find it hurrying away minds in its wake, and sinking men among the dregs and filth of a carnal nature. Even my ministerial employment would degenerate into a mere following of my trade, and crying of my wares. I am obliged to withdraw myself regularly,, and say to my heart, ’What are you doing? Where are you?’ "

Verses 12-17

THE miracle described in these verses is more frequently related in the Gospels than any that our Lord wrought. There is no doubt a meaning in this repetition. It is intended to draw our special attention to the things which it contains.

We see, for one thing, in these verses, a striking example of our Lord Jesus Christ’s divine power. He feeds an assembly of five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes. He makes a scanty supply of victuals, which was barely sufficient for the daily wants of Himself and His disciples, satisfy the hunger of a company as large as a Roman legion. There could be no mistake about the reality and greatness of this miracle. It was done publicly, and before many witnesses. The same power which at the beginning made the world out of nothing, caused food to exist, which before had not existed. The circumstances of the whole event made deception impossible. Five thousand hungry men would not have agreed that they were "all filled," if they had not received real food. "Twelve baskets full of fragments" would never have been taken up, if real material loaves and fishes had not been miraculously multiplied. Nothing, in short, can explain the whole transaction, but the finger of God. The same hand which sent manna from heaven in the wilderness to feed Israel, was the hand which made five loaves and two fishes supply the wants of five thousand men.

The miracle before us is one among many proofs that with Christ nothing is impossible. The Savior of sinners is Almighty. He "calleth those things which be not as though they were." (Romans 4:17.) When He wills a thing, it shall be done. When He commands a thing, it shall come to pass. He can create light out of darkness, order out of disorder, strength out of weakness, joy out of sorrow, and food out of nothing at all. Forever let us bless God that it is so! We might well despair, when we see the corruption of human nature, and the desperate hardness and unbelief of man’s heart, if we did not know the power of Christ.—"Can these dry bones live? Can any man or woman be saved? Can any child, or friend of ours ever become a true Christian? Can we ourselves ever win our way through to heaven?"—Questions like these could never be answered, if Jesus was not Almighty. But thanks be to God, Jesus has all power in heaven and earth. He lives in heaven for us, able to save to the uttermost, and therefore we may hope.

We see, for another thing, in these verses, a striking emblem of Christ’s ability to supply the spiritual wants of mankind. The whole miracle is a picture. We see in it, as in a glass, some of the most important truths of Christianity. It is, in fact, a great acted parable of the glorious Gospel.

What is that multitude which surrounded our Lord in the wilderness; poor and helpless, and destitute of food? It is a figure of mankind. We are a company of poor sinners, in the midst of a wicked world, without strength, or power to save ourselves, and sorely in danger of perishing from spiritual famine.

Who is that gracious Teacher who had compassion on this starving multitude in the wilderness, and said to His disciples, "Give ye them to eat"? It is Jesus Himself, ever pitiful, ever kind, ever ready to show mercy, even to the unthankful and the evil. And He is not altered. He is just the same to-day as He was eighteen hundred years ago. High in heaven at the right hand of God, He looks down on the vast multitude of starving sinners, who cover the face of the earth. He still pities them, still cares for them, still feels for their helplessness and need. And He still says to His believing followers, "Behold this multitude, give ye them to eat."

What is that wonderful provision which Christ miraculously made for the famishing multitude before Him? It is a figure of the Gospel. Weak and contemptible as that Gospel appears to many, it contains "enough and to spare" for the souls of all mankind. Poor and despicable as the story of a crucified Savior seems to the wise and prudent, it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth. (Romans 1:16.)

What are those disciples who received the loaves and fishes from Christ’s hand, and carried them to the multitude, till all were filled? They are a figure of all faithful preachers and teachers of the Gospel. Their word is simple, and yet deeply important. They are appointed to set before men the provision that Christ has made for their souls. Of their own invention they are not commissioned to give anything. All that they convey to men, must be from Christ’s hands. So long as they faithfully discharge this office, they may confidently expect their Master’s blessing. Many, no doubt, will always refuse to eat of the food that Christ has provided. But if ministers offer the bread of life to men faithfully, the blood of those who are lost will not be required at their hands.

What are we doing ourselves? Have we discovered that this world is a wilderness, and that our souls must be fed with bread from heaven, or die eternally? Happy are they who have learned this lesson, and have tasted by experience, that Christ crucified is the true bread of life! The heart of man can never be satisfied with the things of this world. It is always empty, and hungry, and thirsty, and dissatisfied, till it comes to Christ. It is only they who hear Christ’s voice, and follow Him, and feed on Him by faith, who are "filled."



v14.—[By fifties in a company.] The word translated "company," is only used in this place in the New Testament. It signifies "a company of people reclining at meat."

Our Lord’s love of order and dislike to confusion, appear strongly in the description here given about the disposition of the multitude, before He fed them. He teaches us the importance of doing everything in an orderly and methodical way.

v17.—[Of fragments...twelve baskets.] Let our Lords disapprobation of waste be noted. If "the great Housekeeper of the world," Burkitt says, "is so particular about saving fragments, what account will they give in the day of judgment, who think nothing of wasting time, money, health, and strength in the service of sin and the world?"

The remark of Brentius on this miracle is worth notice. He says, "the whole sixth chapter of John is the true explanation of the use of this miracle. Christ is the bread of life, and he who eats of Him shall live for ever."

[Baskets.] The Greek word so translated is only used in the New Testament, in the account given by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, of this miracle. It means a wicker basket such as the Jews were remarkable for carrying with them, as remarked even by the Roman poet, Juvenal. It is worthy of notice, that in the second miracle of feeding the multitude, recorded by Matthew and Mark only, where seven baskets of fragments were taken up, the word translated "basket," is entirely different from that used here. It signifies, in that miracle, a large wicker basket, and is said by Hesychius to be a vessel for corn. At any rate, it means a very large basket, for it is the same word used where it is said that Paul was "let down in a basket from the wall." (Acts 9:25.)

Verses 18-22

LET us notice in this passage, the variety of opinions about our Lord Jesus Christ, which prevailed during His earthly ministry. We are told that some said that He was John the Baptist;—some that He was Elias;—and some that one of the old prophets was risen again. One common remark applies to all these opinions. All were agreed that our Lord’s doctrine was not like that of the Scribes and Pharisees. All saw in Him a bold witness against the evil that was in the world.

Let it never surprise us, to find the same variety of opinions about Christ and His Gospel in our own times. God’s truth disturbs the spiritual laziness of men. It obliges them to think. It makes them begin to talk, and reason, and speculate, and invent theories to account for its spread in some quarters, and its rejection in others. Thousands in every age of the Church spend their lives in this way, and never come to the point of drawing near to God. They satisfy themselves with a miserable round of gossip about this preacher’s sermons, or that writer’s opinions. They think "this man goes too far," and "that man does not go far enough." Some doctrines they approve, and others they disapprove. Some teachers they call "sound," and others they call "unsound." They cannot quite make up their own minds what is true, or what is right. Year rolls on after year, and finds them in the same state,—talking, criticizing, fault-finding, speculating, but never getting any further,—hovering like the moth round religion, but never settling down like the bee, to feed on its treasures. They never boldly lay hold of Christ. They never set themselves heartily to the great business of serving God. They never take up the cross and become thorough Christians. And at last, after all their talking, they die in their sins, unprepared to meet God.

Let us not be content with a religion of this kind. It will not save us to talk and speculate, and bandy opinions about the Gospel. The Christianity that saves, is a thing personally grasped, personally experienced, personally felt, and personally possessed. There is not the slightest excuse for stopping short in talk, opinion, and speculation. The Jews of our Lord’s time might have found out, if they had been honest inquirers, that Jesus of Nazareth was neither John the Baptist, nor Elias, nor an old prophet, but the Christ of God. The speculative Christian of our own day, might easily satisfy himself on every point which is needful to salvation, if he would really, candidly, and humbly seek the teaching of the Spirit. The words of our Lord are weighty and solemn, "If any man will do God’s will, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of God." (John 7:17.) Honest, practical obedience, is one of the keys of the gate of knowledge.

Let us notice, secondly, in this passage, the singular knowledge and faith displayed by the Apostle Peter. We read, that when our Lord said to His disciples, "Whom say ye that I am? Peter answering, said, the Christ of God."

This was a noble confession, and one of which, in these days, we can hardly realize the full value. To estimate it aright we should place ourselves in the position of our Lord’s disciples. We should call to mind that the great, and wise, and learned of their own nation, saw no beauty in their Master, and would not receive Him as the Messiah. We should recollect that they saw no royal dignity about our Lord,—no crown,—no army,—no earthly dominion. They saw nothing but a poor man, who often had no place in which to lay his head. And yet it was at this time, and under these circumstances, that Peter boldly declares his belief that Jesus is the Christ of God. Truly, this was a great faith! It was mingled, no doubt, with much of ignorance and imperfection. But such as it was, it was a faith that stood alone. He that had it was a remarkable man, and far in advance of the age in which he lived.

We should pray frequently that God would raise up more Christians of the stamp of the apostle Peter. Erring, and unstable, and ignorant of his own heart as he sometimes proved, that blessed apostle was in some respects one in ten thousand. He had faith, and zeal, and love to Christ’s cause, when almost all Israel was unbelieving and cold. We want more men of this sort. We want men who are not afraid to stand alone, and to cleave to Christ when the many are against Him. Such men, like Peter, may err sadly at times, but in the long run of life will do more good than any. Knowledge, no doubt, is an excellent thing; but knowledge without zeal and warmth will never do much for the world.

Let us notice, thirdly, in this passage, our Lord’s prediction of His own coming death. We read that He said, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day." These words, as we read them now, sound simple and plain; but there lie beneath the surface of them two truths which ought to be carefully remembered.

For one thing, our Lord’s prediction shows us that His death upon the cross was the voluntary act of His own free will. He was not delivered up to Pilate and crucified because He could not help it, and had no power to crush His enemies. His death was the result of the eternal counsels of the blessed Trinity. He had undertaken to suffer for man’s sin, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God. He had engaged to bear our sins, as our Substitute and Surety, and He bore them willingly in His own person on the tree. He saw Calvary and the cross before Him all the days of His ministry. He went up to them willingly, knowingly, and with full consent, that He might pay our debts in His own blood. His death was not the death of a mere weak son of man, who could not escape; but the death of One who was very God of very God, and had undertaken to be punished in our stead.

For another thing, our Lord’s prediction shows us the blinding effect of prejudice on men’s minds. Clear and plain as His words now seem to us, His disciples did not understand them. They heard as though they heard not. They could not understand that Messiah was to be "cut off." They could not receive the doctrine that their own Master must needs die. And hence, when His death really took place, they were amazed and confounded. Often as He had told them of it, they had never realized it as a fact.

Let us watch and pray against prejudice. Many a zealous man has been grievously misled by it, and has pierced himself through with many sorrows. Let us beware of allowing traditions, old preconceived notions, unsound interpretations, baseless theories in religion, to find root in our hearts. There is but one test of truth—"What saith the Scripture?" Before this let every prejudice go down.



v18.—[He was alone praying.] Let us not forget to notice how frequently our Lord’s habit of private prayer is mentioned in the Gospels. He sets an example to all who work for God. Much private prayer is one secret of success.

v19.—[John the Baptist...Elias...one of the old prophets.] Let it be remembered, that talk and speculation about Christ and His Gospel, are one of Satan’s great traps for ruining souls. Many a man cloaks his indolence and laziness about religion, under a pretence of the variety of opinions, and the difficulty of knowing who is right.

v20.—[The Christ of God.] This expression, it should be noted, is tantamount to saying the Messiah of God, the predicted Saviour of whom Daniel spoke. (Daniel 9:24-27.)

v21.—[Tell no man.] There is a time to be silent as well as to speak. Our Lord knew that the public proclamation of His being Messiah, would cause Him to be cut off before His time.

v22.—[Must suffer.] The Greek word translated "must" in this place, does not quite bear the sense of force and necessity, which our English word "must" conveys. It rather means, "it is becoming, it is suitable, it is necessary for certain great ends and purposes." in Luke 24:26, the same expression is rendered, "ought not Christ to have suffered?"

Verses 23-27

THESE words of our Lord Jesus Christ contain three great lessons for all Christians. They apply to all ranks and classes without exception. They are intended for every age and time, and for every branch of the visible church.

We learn, for one thing, the absolute necessity of daily self-denial. We ought every day to crucify the flesh, to overcome the world, and to resist the devil. We ought to keep under our bodies, and bring them into subjection. We ought to be on our guard, like soldiers in an enemy’s country. We ought to fight a daily battle, and war a daily warfare. The command of our Master is clear and plain: "If any man will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me."

Now what do we know of all this? Surely this is a question which ought to be asked. A little formal church-going, and a decent attendance at a place of worship, can never be the Christianity of which Christ speaks in this place. Where is our self-denial? Where is our daily carrying of the cross? Where is our following of Christ? Without a religion of this kind we shall never be saved. A crucified Savior will never be content to have a self-pleasing, self-indulging, worldly-minded people. No self-denial—no real grace! No cross—no crown! "They that are Christ’s," says Paul, "have crucified the flesh with its affections and lusts." (Galatians 5:24.) "Whosoever will save his life," says the Lord Jesus, "shall lose it; but whosoever will lose his life for My sake shall save it."

We learn, for another thing, from our Lord’s words in this passage, the unspeakable value of the soul. A question is asked, which admits of only one answer—"What is a man advantaged if he gain the whole world an lose himself, or be cast away?"

The possession of the whole world, and all that it contains, would never make a man happy. Its pleasures are false and deceptive. Its riches, rank, and honors, have no power to satisfy the heart. So long as we have not got them they glitter, and sparkle, and seem desirable. The moment we have them we find that they are empty bubbles, and cannot make us feel content. And, worst of all, when we possess this world’s good things, to the utmost bound of our desire, we cannot keep them. Death comes in and separates us from all our property forever. Naked we came upon earth, and naked we go forth, and of all our possessions we can carry nothing with us. Such is the world, which occupies the whole attention of thousands! Such is the world, for the sake of which millions are every year destroying their souls!

The loss of the soul is the heaviest loss that can befall a man. The worst and most painful of diseases—the most distressing bankruptcy of fortune—the most disastrous shipwrecks—are a mere scratch of a pin compared to the loss of a soul. All other losses are bearable, or but for a short time, but the loss of the soul is for evermore. It is to lose God, and Christ, and heaven, and glory, and happiness, to all eternity. It is to be cast away forever, helpless and hopeless in hell!

What are we doing ourselves? Are we losing our souls? Are we, by willful neglect or by open sin—by sheer carelessness and idleness, or deliberate breach of Gods law—compassing our own destruction? These questions demand an answer. The plain account of many professing Christians is this, that they are daily sinning against the sixth commandment. They are murdering their own souls!

We learn, in the last place, from our Lord’s words, the guilt and danger of being ashamed of Christ and His words. We read that He says,—"Whosoever shall be ashamed of Me and My words, of Him shall the Son of Man be ashamed when He shall come in His own glory, and in His Father’s, and of the holy angels."

There are many ways of being ashamed of Christ. We are guilty of it whenever we are afraid of letting men know that we love His doctrines, His precepts, His people, and His ordinances. We are guilty of it when ever we allow the fear of man to prevail over us, and to keep us back from letting others see that we are decided Christians. Whenever we act in this way, we are denying our Master, and committing a great sin.

The wickedness of being ashamed of Christ is very great. It is a proof of unbelief. It shows that we care more for the praise of men whom we can see, than that of God whom we cannot see. It is a proof of ingratitude. It shows that we fear confessing Him before man who was not ashamed to die for us upon the cross. Wretched indeed are they who give way to this sin. Here, in this world, they are always miserable. A bad conscience robs them of peace. In the world to come they can look for no comfort. In the day of judgment they must expect to be disowned by Christ to all eternity, if they will not confess Christ for a few years upon earth.

Let us resolve never to be ashamed of Christ. Of sin and worldliness we may well be ashamed. Of Christ and His cause we have no right to be ashamed at all. Boldness in Christ’s service always brings its own reward. The boldest Christian is always the happiest man.



v23.—[Will come.] The word "will" here, and in the expression in the following verse, "will save," must be interpreted as, "wills to," or, "is willing to." It is not a future tense, but the same Greek word that is used in John 5:40; "Ye will not come unto me that ye might have life;" which means, "ye have no will, or wish to come."

[Take up his cross.] Campbell remarks on this expression, "Every one condemned by the Romans to crucifixion, was compelled to carry the cross, on which he was to be suspended, to the place of execution. In this manner our Lord was treated."

"As this was not a Jewish but a Roman punishment, the mention of it on this occasion may justly be looked on as the first hint given by Jesus, of the death He was to suffer. If it had been usual in the country to execute criminals in this manner, the expression might have been thought proverbial for preparing for the worst."

Quesnel remarks on the whole verse. "Take particular notice of the three words, ’to them all,’ and ’daily.’ No person is excused, and no day is excepted. Of what, therefore, do those think, and to what do they aspire, who make every day a day of pleasure, luxury, and diversion? Who has a right to shake off" the yoke of the cross, but only he who designs to have a right to nothing but hell?"

v24.—[Will save his life shall lose it.] There is here, as it were, a play upon words. He that is determined to save his life,—in the sense of keeping it and all that is good in this world connected with life,—shall lose it, shall lose that which is after all the great object of our existence, his immortal soul. It is the same use of words in two different senses that we have in the expression, "let the dead bury the dead," which means, "let those who are spiritually dead, attend to such matters as the burial of the naturally dead."

v25.—[Lose himself.] Let it be noted, that our Lord speaks of this as a perfectly possible event. A man may lose or destroy himself.

v26.—[When he shall come, &c.] This means our Lord’s second coming to judge the world. Let it be noted, that there are three kinds of glory mentioned here, as accompanying the second advent of Christ, His own, the Father’s, and the glory of the angels.

v27.—[Not taste of death till they see.] These words are interpreted two ways. Some think that they mean "They shall not die till they see the Church of Christ established and settled on earth." This is a very unsatisfactory explanation. The right view appears to be that which connects the verse with the transfiguration, and regards the glorious vision of the kingdom, which the transfiguration supplied, as the fulfilment of the promise of the verse. This is the view of Jerome, Hilary, Chrysostom, Theophylact, and many more.

To apply the expression, as some do, to people "not dying until they are converted," is a very unjustifiable accommodation of the words, and a most improper use of Scripture.

Verses 28-36

THE event described in these verses, commonly called "the transfiguration," is one of the most remarkable in the history of our Lord’s earthly ministry. It is one of those passages which we should always read with peculiar thankfulness. It lifts a corner of the veil which hangs over the world to come, and throws light on some of the deepest truths of our religion.

In the first place, this passage shows us something of the glory which Christ will have at His second coming. We read that "the fashion of His countenance was altered, and His raiment was white and glistering," and that the disciples who were with Him "saw His glory."

We need not doubt that this marvelous vision was meant to encourage and strengthen our Lord’s disciples. They had just been hearing of the cross and passion, and the self-denial and sufferings to which they must submit themselves, if they would be saved. They were now cheered by a glimpse of the "glory that should follow," and the reward which all faithful servants of their Master would one day receive. They had seen their Master’s day of weakness. They now saw, for a few minutes, a pattern and specimen of His future power.

Let us take comfort in the thought, that there are good things laid up in store for all true Christians, which shall make ample amends for the afflictions of this present time. Now is the season for carrying the cross, and sharing in our Savior’s humiliation. The crown, the kingdom, the glory, are all yet to come. Christ and His people are now, like David in the cave of Adullam, despised, and lightly esteemed by the world. There seems no form or comeliness in Him, or in His service. But the hour cometh, and will soon be here, when Christ shall take to Himself His great power and reign, and put down every enemy under His feet. And then the glory which was first seen for a few minutes, by three witnesses on the Mount of Transfiguration, shall be seen by all the world, and never hidden to all eternity.

In the second place, this passage shows us the safety of all true believers who have been removed from this world. We are told that when our Lord appeared in glory, Moses and Elijah were seen with Him, standing and speaking with Him. Moses had been dead nearly fifteen hundred years. Elijah had been taken up by a whirlwind from the earth more than nine hundred years before this time. Yet here these holy men were seen once more alive, and not only alive, but in glory!

Let us take comfort in the blessed thought that there is a resurrection and a life to come. All is not over, when the last breath is drawn. There is another world beyond the grave. But, above all, let us take comfort in the thought, that until the day dawns, and the resurrection begins, the people of God are safe with Christ. There is much about their present condition, no doubt, which is deeply mysterious. Where is their local habitation? What knowledge have they of things on earth? These are questions we cannot answer. But let it suffice us to know that Jesus is taking care of them, and will bring them with Him at the last day. He showed Moses and Elijah to His disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration, and He will show us all who have fallen asleep in Him, at His second advent. Our brethren and sisters in Christ are in good keeping. They are not lost, but gone before us.

In the third place, this passage shows us that the Old Testament saints in glory take a deep interest in Christ’s atoning death. We are told that when Moses and Elijah appeared in glory with our Lord on the Mount of Transfiguration, they "talked with Him." And what was the subject of their conversation? We are not obliged to make conjectures and guesses about this. Luke tells us, "they spake of His decease, which He should accomplish at Jerusalem." They knew the meaning of that death. They knew how much depended on it. Therefore they "talked" about it.

It is a grave mistake to suppose that holy men and women under the Old Testament knew nothing about the sacrifice which Christ was to offer up for the sin of the world. Their light, no doubt, was far less clear than ours. They saw things afar off and indistinctly, which we see, as it were, close at hand. But there is not the slightest proof that any Old Testament saint ever looked to any other satisfaction for sin, but that which God promised to make by sending Messiah. From Abel downwards the whole company of old believers appear to have been ever resting on a promised sacrifice, and a blood of almighty efficacy yet to be revealed. From the beginning of the world there has never been but one foundation of hope and peace for sinners—the death of an Almighty Mediator between God and man. That foundation is the center truth of all revealed religion. It was the subject of which Moses and Elijah were seen speaking when they appeared in glory. They spoke of the atoning death of Christ.

Let us take heed that this death of Christ is the ground of all our confidence. Nothing else will give us comfort in the hour of death and the day of judgment. Our own works are all defective and imperfect. Our sins are more in number than the hairs of our heads. (Psalms 40:12.) Christ dying for our sins, and rising again for our justification, must be our only plea, if we wish to be saved. Happy is that man who has learned to cease from his own works, and to glory in nothing but the cross of Christ! If saints in glory see in Christ’s death so much beauty, that they must needs talk of it, how much more ought sinners on earth!

In the last place, the passage shows us the immense distance between Christ and all other teachers whom God has given to man. We are told that when Peter, "not knowing what he said," proposed to make three tabernacles on the mount, one for Jesus, one for Moses, and one for Elias, as if all three deserved equal honor, this proposal was at once rebuked in a remarkable way: "There came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son, hear Him." That voice was the voice of God the Father, conveying both reproof and instruction. That voice proclaimed to Peter’s ear that however great Moses and Elijah might be, there stood One before him far greater than they. They were but servants; He was the King’s Son. They were but stars; He was the Sun. They were but witnesses; He was the Truth.

Forever let that solemn word of the Father ring in our ears, and give the key-note to our religion. Let us honor ministers for their Master’s sake. Let us follow them so long as they follow Christ. But let it be our principal aim to hear Christ’s voice, and follow Him whithersoever He goeth. Let some talk, if they will, of the voice of the Church. Let others be content to say, "I hear this preacher, or that clergyman." Let us never be satisfied unless the Spirit witnesseth within us that we hear Christ Himself, and are His disciples.



v28.—[After these sayings.] This expression seems to make it plain that the words, seeing the kingdom of God," in the preceding verse, were spoken with special reference to the vision of the transfiguration.

[Peter, and James, and John.] Let it be noted that these three disciples were chosen to be witnesses on three special occasions, the raising of Jairus’ daughter, the agony in the garden, and the transfiguration.

[A mountain.] It is a common tradition that this mountain was Tabor. But the opinion of well informed modern travellers is unfavourable to the tradition.

v29.—[As he prayed.] Let it be noted, that we are specially told that it was when our Lord was "praying" at His baptism the Holy Ghost descended and the Father’s voice was heard. So also prayer ushers in the great vision of glory in this place.

Bishop Hall remarks, "Behold how Christ entered upon all His great works, with prayers in His mouth. When He was to enter into that great work of His humiliation in His passion, He went into the garden to pray. When He is to enter into this great work of His exaltation in His transfiguring, He went up into the mountain to pray. He was taken up from His knees to both. O noble example of piety and devotion to us!"

[The fashion.] This expression is only used six times in the New Testament, and in other places is translated "shape," "sight," or "appearance." (John 5:37. 2 Corinthians 5:7. 1 Thessalonians 5:22.)

[Was altered.] This is a peculiar expression. It would be more literally rendered, "other," that is, "other than it generally appeared." (See Mark 16:12.)

[Glistering.] This word is only used once in the New Testament. Parkhurst explains it as meaning, "to emit flashes of light, to shine or glister as lightning." See Nahum 3:3.

v30.—[Moses and Elias.] It is a true and common remark that Moses in this vision represented the law, and Elijah the prophets. Both agreed in acknowledging and recognizing Christ, as Him of whom the law and the prophets testified.

It is also highly probable that they were meant to be types and emblems of the saints who will appear with Christ in glory at His second advent. Moses is the-type of those who are found dead, and will be raised at the Lord’s coming. Elijah is the type of those who are found alive, and "caught up to meet the Lord in the air." 1 Thessalonians 4:17.

v31.—[His decease.] This expression is remarkable. It means literally, his "Exodus," or departure. It is used for "death" by Peter, speaking of his own death. (2 Peter 1:15.) It is also remarkable that in Acts 13:24, we have a Greek word used for our Lord’s "coming" to take the office of a Saviour, which might be translated literally His "entrance." Both expressions are singularly applicable to Him who came into the world and was made flesh, and after doing the work He came to do, left the world and went to the Father. The beginning of His ministry was an "Eisodus," or entrance; His death, an "Exodus," or departure.

[He should accomplish.] This expression would be more literally rendered, "He should fulfil." It is a very peculiar form of speech, and singularly applicable to Christ. Watson remarks, "to depart from life is the common lot: but to fulfil his decease or departure from the world, was peculiar to Christ, because His death was the grand subject of prophecy, and the event upon which the salvation of the world was suspended."

v32.—[Were heavy with sleep.] Let it be noted, that the very same disciples who here slept during a vision of glory, were also found sleeping during the agony in the garden of Gethsemane. Flesh and blood does indeed need to be changed before it can enter heaven! Our poor, weak bodies can neither watch with Christ in His time of trial, nor keep awake with Him in His glorification. Our physical constitution must be greatly altered before we could enjoy heaven.

[When they were awake, they saw.] It is evident that they awoke before the vision was over, and saw and heard much of what happened.

v33.—[It is good for us to be here.] There is doubtless much to be blamed in this expression of Peter’s;—partly because he placed Moses and Elijah on a level with his divine Master, and partly because he would fain have tarried in the mount, and kept his Master there when there was work to be done in the world. The comment of Luke, "not knowing what he said," is a gentle hint that his wish was not commendable, but blameworthy. Nevertheless we cannot but admire the outburst of Peter’s delight when he saw his Master surrounded with such glory, and with such glorified companions. It was the outburst of a truly burning heart. Archbishop Usher remarks, "When Peter saw Moses and Elias with Christ in His transfiguration, though he had but a glimpse of glory, yet he says, ’It is good for us to be here.’ But Oh! how infinitely good will it be to be in heaven. How shall we then be rapt up with glory, when we shall be for ever with the Lord!"

v35.—[Hear him.] There can be no doubt that this expression was meant to point to the prophecy of Moses in Deuteronomy, where Moses says of the prophet like unto himself, "Unto him shall ye hearken," (Deuteronomy 18:15.) and that under so great a penalty that all who refused should be "destroyed from among the people."

Calvin remarks, "We are placed under His tuition alone, and commanded from Him alone to seek the doctrine of salvation, to depend upon and listen to One—to adhere to One—in a word, as the terms import, to hearken to One only."

v36.—[Jesus was found alone.] The disappearance of Moses and Elias, together with the words, "Hear him," were doubtless meant to teach that the law of ceremonies was about to pass away, and that the true Lamb of God and true prophet was come.

Verses 37-45

THE event described in these verses took place immediately after the transfiguration. The Lord Jesus, we should remark, did not tarry long on the Mount of Olives. His communion with Moses and Elias was very short. He soon returned to His accustomed work of doing good to a sin-stricken world. In His life on earth, to receive honor and have visions of glory was the exception. To minister to others, to heal all who were oppressed by the devil, to do acts of mercy to sinners, was the rule. Happy are those Christians who have learned of Jesus to live for others more than for themselves, and who understand that it is "more blessed to give than to receive." (Acts 20:35.)

We have first, in these verses, an example of what a parent should do when he is troubled about his children. We are told of a man in sore distress about his only son. This son was possessed by an evil spirit, and grievously tormented by him, both in body and soul. In his distress the father makes application to our Lord Jesus Christ for relief. "Master," he says, "I beseech Thee look upon my son: for he is mine only child."

There are many Christian fathers and mothers at this day who are just as miserable about their children as the man of whom we are reading. The son who was once the "desire of their eyes," and in whom their lives were bound up, turns out a spendthrift, a profligate, and a companion of sinners. The daughter who was once the flower of the family, and of whom they said, "This same shall be the comfort of our old age," becomes self-willed, worldly minded, and a lover of pleasure more than a lover of God. Their hearts are well nigh broken. The iron seems to enter into their souls. The devil appears to triumph over them, and rob them of their choicest jewels. They are ready to cry, "I shall go to the grave sorrowing. What good shall my life do to me?"

Now what should a father or mother do in a case like this? They should do as the man before us did. They should go to Jesus in prayer, and cry to Him about their child. They should spread before that merciful Savior the tale of their sorrows, and entreat Him to help them. Great is the power of prayer and intercession! The child of many prayers shall seldom be cast away. God’s time of conversion may not be ours. He may think fit to prove our faith by keeping us long waiting. But so long as a child lives, and a parent prays, we have no right to despair about that child’s soul.

We have, secondly, in these verses, an example of Christ’s readiness to show mercy to young persons. We are told in the case before us, that the prayer of the afflicted parent was graciously granted. He said to him, "Bring thy son hither." And then "He rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the child, and delivered him again to his father." We have many similar cases in the Gospels. The daughter of Jairus, the nobleman’s son at Capernaum, the daughter of the Canaanitish woman, the widow’s son at Nain, are all instances of our Lord’s interest in those who are young. The young are exactly those whom the devil labors to lead captive and make His own. The young seem to have been exactly the persons whom our Lord took a special delight in helping. Three He plucked out of the very jaws of death. Two, as in the case before us, He rescued from the complete dominion of the devil.

There is a meaning in facts like these. They are not recorded without a special purpose. They are meant to encourage all who try to do good to the souls of the young. They are meant to remind us that young men and young women are special objects of interest to Christ. They supply us with an antidote to the common idea that it is useless to press religion on the attention of young people. Such an idea, let us remember, comes from the devil and not from Christ. He who cast out the evil spirit from the child before us, still lives, and is still mighty to save. Let us then work on, and try to do good to the young. Whatever the world may think, Jesus is well pleased.

We have, lastly, in these verses, an example of the spiritual ignorance which may be found even in the hearts of good men. We are told that our Lord said to His disciples, "The Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men." They had heard the same thing from His lips little more than a week before. But now, as then, the words seemed lost upon them. They heard as though they heard not. They could not realize the fact that their Master was to die. They could not realize the great truth that Christ was to be "cut off" before He was to reign, and that this cutting off was a literal death upon the cross. It is written, "They understood not this saying,"—"it was hid from them,"—"they perceived it not."

Such slowness of understanding may surprise us much at this period of the world. We are apt to forget the power of early habits of thought, and national prejudices, in the midst of which the disciples had been trained. "The throne of David," says a great divine, "did so fill their eyes that they could not see the cross." Above all, we forget the enormous difference between the position we occupy who know the history of the crucifixion and the Scriptures which it fulfilled, and the position of a believing Jew who lived before Christ died and the veil was rent in twain. Whatever we may think of it, the ignorance of the disciples should teach us two useful lessons, which we shall all do well to learn.

For one thing, let us learn that men may understand spiritual things very feebly, and yet be true children of God. The head may be very dull when the heart is right. Grace is far better than gifts, and faith than knowledge. If a man has faith and grace enough to give up all for Christ’s sake, and to take up the cross and follow Him, he shall be saved in spite of much ignorance. Christ shall own him at the last day.

Finally, let us learn to bear with ignorance in others, and to deal patiently with beginners in religion. Let us not make men offenders for a word. (Isaiah 29:21). Let us not set our brother down as having no grace, because he does not exhibit clear knowledge. Has he faith in Christ? Does he love Christ? These are the principal things. If Jesus could endure so much weakness in His disciples, we may surely do likewise.



v38.—[Cried out.] The Greek word so translated implies a crying out with a very loud voice. It is the same word that is used of our Lord’s "crying with a loud voice" on the cross; (Matthew 27:46,) and "the multitude crying out to Pilate to do as he had ever done to them." (Mark 15:8.)

[Mine only child.] Let us remember that the daughter of Jarius, whom our Saviour raised from the dead, was an only daughter, and the widow’s son at Nain an only son. These things are worth notice. Luke is the only Gospel writer who specially mentions them.

v39.—[Hardly.] Let it be noted that this word must be taken with "departed." It means "scarcely," or "with difficulty."

v40.—[They could not.] The reality of Satanic possession is shown by this fact. We read of no disease which the disciples could not cure. But here we are told of a demoniac whose case baffled them. There was a degree of Satanic possession, with which their weak faith was unable to grapple. It was evidently something quite distinct from any merely bodily ailment.

v41.—[O faithless and perverse generation.] The question has been often raised, "To whom were these words addressed? and with what purpose were they spoken?" Were they meant to apply to the disciples only, and to be a rebuke to their unbelief? This is the opinion of Origen. Were they, on the other hand, addressed to the whole multitude of the Jews, as well as to the disciples? This is the opinion of Hilary, Chrysostom, and Jerome. Did our Lord refer to the contrast between the vision of glory he had just left in the Mount of Transfiguration, in the company of Moses and Elias, and the unbelief and wickedness of the generation among whom He was sojourning? This is the opinion of Burgon.

It may however be doubted whether these words could fairly be applied to the man whose son was afflicted. He did what he could. He brought his son to the disciples. If the cure was not wrought, the fault was surely theirs more than his. In fact, when the disciples, as recorded by Matthew 17:20, asked our Lord why they could not cast out this devil, He answered them at once, "Because of your unbelief." The father on the contrary, when our Lord said to him, "If thou canst believe, all things are possible," cried out, "Lord, I believe."

The words of our Lord would therefore appear to be directed partly to His own disciples, and partly to the whole generation of the Jews among whom He lived.

v44.—[Let these sayings sink down into your ears.] The literal translation of these words would be, "Put these sayings into your ears."

Verses 46-50

THE verses we have now read contain two most important warnings. They are directed against two of the commonest evils which are to be found in the Church of Christ. He who gave them knew well what was in the heart of man. Well would it have been for the Church of Christ, if His words in this passage had received more attention!

In the first place, the Lord Jesus gives us a warning against pride and self-conceit. We are told that "there arose a reasoning among the disciples which of them should be the greatest." Wonderful as it may seem, this little company of fishermen and publicans was not beyond the plague of a self-seeking and ambitious spirit. Filled with the vain notion that our Lord’s kingdom was to appear immediately, they were ready to wrangle about their place and precedency in it. Each thought his own claim the strongest. Each thought his own deserts and right to honor most unquestionable. Each thought that whatever place was assigned to his brethren, a principal place ought to be assigned to himself. And all this happened in the company of Christ Himself, and under the noon-tide blaze of His teaching. Such is the heart of man.

There is something very instructive in this fact. It ought to sink down deeply into the heart of every Christian reader. Of all sins there is none against which we have such need to watch and pray, as pride. It is a pestilence that walketh in darkness, and a sickness that destroyeth at noon-day.—No sin is so deeply rooted in our nature. It cleaves to us like our skin. Its roots never entirely die. They are ready, at any moment, to spring up, and exhibit a most pernicious vitality.—No sin is so specious and deceitful. It can wear the garb of humility itself. It can lurk in the hearts of the ignorant, the ungifted, and the poor, as well as in the minds of the great, the learned, and the rich. It is a quaint and homely saying, but only too true, that no pope has ever received such honor as pope "self."

Let a prayer for humility and the spirit of a little child, form part of our daily supplications. Of all creatures none has so little right to be proud as man, and of all men none ought to be so humble as the Christian. Is it really true that we confess ourselves to be "miserable sinners," and daily debtors to mercy and grace? Are we the followers of Jesus, who was "meek and lowly of heart," and "made himself of no reputation" for our sakes? Then let that same mind be in us which was in Christ Jesus. Let us lay aside all high thoughts and self-conceit. In lowliness of mind, let us esteem others better than ourselves. Let us be ready, on all occasions, to take the lowest place. And let the words of our Savior ring in our ears continually, "He that is least among you all the same shall be great."

In the second place, our Lord Jesus Christ gives us a warning against a bigoted and illiberal spirit. As in the preceding verses, so here, the occasion of the warning is supplied by the conduct of His own disciples. We read that John said to Him, "Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name: and we forbade him, because he followeth not with us." Who this man was, and why he did not consort with the disciples, we do not know. But we do know that he was doing a good work in casting out devils, and that he was doing what he did in the name of Christ. And yet John says, "we forbade him."—Very striking is the reply which the Lord at once gave him: "Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us."

The conduct of John and the disciples on this occasion is a curious illustration of the oneness of human nature, in every age. Thousands, in every period of Church history, have spent their lives in copying John’s mistake. They have labored to stop every man who will not work for Christ in their way, from working for Christ at all. They have imagined, in their petty self conceit, that no man can be a soldier of Christ, unless he wears their uniform, and fights in their regiment. They have been ready to say of every Christian who does not see everything with their eyes, "Forbid him! Forbid him! for he followeth not with us."

The solemn remark of our Lord Jesus Christ, on this occasion, demands our special notice. He pronounces no opinion upon the conduct of the man of whom John speaks. He neither praises nor blames him for following an independent course, and not working with His disciples. He simply declares that he must not be forbidden, and that those who work the same kind of work that we do, should be regarded not as enemies, but allies. "He that is not against us is for us."

The principle laid down in this passage is of great importance. A right understanding of it will prove most useful to us in these latter days. The divisions and varieties of opinion which exist among Christians are undeniably very great. The schisms and separations which are continually arising about Church-government, and modes of worship, are very perplexing to tender consciences.—Shall we approve those divisions? We cannot do so. Union is strength. The disunion of Christians is one cause of the slow progress of vital Christianity.—Shall we denounce, and hold up to public reprobation, all who will not agree to work with us, and to oppose Satan in our way? It is useless to do so. Hard words never yet made men of one mind. Unity was never yet brought about by force.—What then ought we to do? We must leave alone those who do not agree with us, and wait quietly till God shall think fit to bring us together. Whatever we may think of our divisions, the words of our Lord must never be forgotten: "Forbid them not."

The plain truth is, that we are all too ready to say, "We are the men, and wisdom shall die with us." (Job 12:2.) We forget that no Church on earth has an absolute monopoly of all wisdom, and that people may be right in the main, without agreeing with us. We must learn to be thankful if sin is opposed, and the Gospel preached, and the devil’s kingdom pulled down, though the work may not be done exactly in the way we like. We must try to believe that men may be true-hearted followers of Jesus Christ, and yet for some wise reason may be kept back from seeing all things in religion just as we do. Above all, we must praise God if souls are converted, and Christ is magnified,—no matter who the preacher may be, and to what Church he may belong. Happy are those who can say with Paul, "If Christ be preached, I rejoice, yea and will rejoice," (Philippians 1:18.) and with Moses, "Enviest thou for my sake? Would God that all the LORD’s people were prophets, that all did prophesy." (Numbers 11:29.)



v46.—[A reasoning.] The word so translated is the same that is rendered "thought" in the following verse.

[Which of then, should be the greatest.] The expectation of a temporal kingdom about to be set up by the Messiah, must have been the foundation of this desire of pre-eminence.

v48.—[This child.] We must beware that we do not wrest our Lord’s language about children here and elsewhere, into the false notion that children are naturally innocent, and without sin. The simplicity, unworldliness, and dependent spirit of a little child, arising from its sense of weakness, and feebleness, and ignorance of the world’s standard of good, are the real points in which the child is to be the Christian’s pattern.

v50.—[Forbid him not.] It is curious to observe the various practical applications of the great principle contained in this passage, which men have made at various periods of the Church’s history.

Bucer directs the passage against the Anabaptists and fanatics of his own time in Germany. He argues that it justifies Christians making use of the support and countenance of kings, princes, and other great persons in the world, if they are disposed to help the Gospel, even though they are not converted to God themselves.

Scott applies the passage to religious revivals, and argues that it should teach us neither lightly to condemn nor lightly to approve them.

Our own times appear to point out plainly that we should apply the passage to the subject of our relations with other religious denominations. In the face of such a Scripture as this, Churchmen should beware how they condemn and reprobate Dissenters, and Dissenters should beware how they denounce and revile Churchmen. Both parties would do well to leave off contention, and to learn to rejoice in any good that is doing in the world, by whatsoever means it may be done. If devils are cast out, we ought to be glad, though those who cast them out follow not with us.

One qualification only should always accompany our use of this passage of Scripture. We must not allow it to make us indifferent to sound doctrine. We must not think and talk as if it mattered nothing whether men are Jews, Socinians, Papists, or Protestants, so long as they seem earnest-minded men. The persons to whom the passage specially applies, are persons who do apostolic work in the name of Jesus,—who labour to pull down the kingdom of Satan by the use of Gospel weapons. Let us beware how we ever forbid such persons, or hinder them in their work.

Verses 51-56

LET us notice in these verses, the steady determination with which our Lord Jesus Christ regarded His own crucifixion and death. We read that "when the time was come that He should be received up, He steadfastly set His face to go to Jerusalem." He knew full well what was before Him. The betrayal, the unjust trial, the mockery, the scourging, the crown of thorns, the spitting, the nails, the spear, the agony on the cross,—all, all were doubtless spread before His mind’s eye, like a picture. But He never flinched for a moment from the work that He had undertaken. His heart was set on paying the price of our redemption, and going even to the prison of the grave, as our surety. He was full of tender love towards sinners. It was the desire of His whole soul to procure for them salvation. And so, "for the joy set before Him, He endured the cross, despising the shame." (Hebrews 12:2.)

Forever let us bless God that we have such a ready and willing Savior. Forever let us remember that as He was ready to suffer, so He is always ready to save. The man that comes to Christ by faith should never doubt Christ’s willingness to receive Him. The mere fact that the Son of God willingly came into the world to die, and willingly suffered, should silence such doubts entirely. All the unwillingness is on the part of man, not of Christ. It consists in the ignorance, and pride, and unbelief, and half-heartedness of the sinner himself. But there is nothing wanting in Christ.

Let us strive and pray that the same mind may be in us which was in our blessed Master. Like Him, let us be willing to go anywhere, do anything, suffer anything when the path of duty is clear, and the voice of God calls. Let us set our faces steadfastly to our work, when our work is plainly marked out, and drink our bitter cups patiently, when they come from a Father’s hand.

Let us notice, secondly, in these verses, the extraordinary conduct of two of the apostles, James and John. We are told that a certain Samaritan village refused to show hospitality to our Lord. "They did not receive him, because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem." And then we read of a strange proposal which James and John made. "They said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven and consume them, even as Elias did?"

Here was zeal indeed, and zeal of a most plausible kind,—zeal for the honor of Christ! Here was zeal, justified and supported by a scriptural example, and that the example of no less a prophet than Elijah! But it was not a zeal according to knowledge. The two disciples, in their heat, forgot that circumstances alter cases, and that the same action which may be right and justifiable at one time, may be wrong and unjustifiable at another. They forgot that punishments should always be proportioned to offences, and that to destroy a whole village of ignorant people for a single act of discourtesy, would have been both unjust and cruel. In short, the proposal of James and John was a wrong and inconsiderate one. They meant well, but they greatly erred.

Facts like this in the Gospels are carefully recorded for our learning. Let us see to it that we mark them well, and treasure them up in our minds. It is possible to have much zeal for Christ, and yet to exhibit it in most unholy and unchristian ways. It is possible to mean well and have good intentions, and yet to make most grievous mistakes in our actions. It is possible to fancy that we have Scripture on our side, and to support our conduct by scriptural quotations, and yet to commit serious errors. It is as clear as daylight, from this and other cases related in the Bible, that it is not enough to be zealous and well-meaning. Very grave faults are frequently committed with good intentions. From no quarter perhaps has the Church received so much injury as from ignorant but well-meaning men.

We must seek to have knowledge as well as zeal. Zeal without knowledge is an army without a general, and a ship without a rudder. We must pray that we may understand how to make a right application of Scripture. The word is no doubt "a light to our feet, and a lantern to our path." But it must be the word rightly handled, and properly applied.

Let us notice, lastly, in these verses, what a solemn rebuke our Lord gives to persecution carried on under color of religion. We are told that when James and John made the strange proposal on which we have just been dwelling, "He turned and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of man is not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them." Uncourteous as the Samaritan villagers had been, their conduct was not to be resented by violence. The mission of the Son of man was to do good, when men would receive Him, but never to do harm. His kingdom was to be extended by patient continuance in well doing, and by meekness and gentleness in suffering, but never by violence and severity.

No saying of our Lord’s, perhaps, has been so totally overlooked by the Church of Christ as that which is now before us. Nothing can be imagined more contrary to the will of Christ than the religious wars and persecutions which disgrace the annals of Church history. Thousands and tens of thousands have been put to death for their religion’s sake all over the world. Thousands have been burned, or shot, or hanged, or drowned, or beheaded, in the name of the Gospel, and those who have slain them have actually believed that they were doing God service! Unhappily, they have only shown their own ignorance of the spirit of the Gospel, and the mind of Christ.

Let it be a settled principle in our minds, that whatever men’s errors may be in religion, we must never persecute them. Let us, if needful, argue with them, reason with them, and try to show them a more excellent way. But let us never take up the "carnal" weapon to promote the spread of truth. Let us never be tempted, directly or indirectly, to persecute any man, under pretense of the glory of Christ and the good of the Church. Let us rather remember, that the religion which men profess from fear of death, or dread of penalties, is worth nothing at all, and that if we swell our ranks by fear and threatening, in reality we gain no strength. "The weapons of our warfare," says Paul, "are not carnal." (2 Corinthians 10:4.) The appeals that we make must be to men’s consciences and wills. The arguments that we use must not be sword, or fire, or prison, but doctrines, and precepts, and texts. It is a quaint and homely saying, but as true in the Church as it is in the army, that "one volunteer is worth ten pressed men."



v51.—[The time that he should be received up.] The Greek word so translated is peculiar, and is only found here in the New Testament. It would be rendered morn literally, "the days of his reception up." About the meaning of the expression there is a curious difference of opinion.

Some think, with Heinsius and Hammond, that the meaning is, "the time of his death, and being lifted up upon the cross."

Others think, with Suicer and Bengel, that the meaning is, "the time of his ascension, or being taken up to heaven."

This latter sense seems far the more probable of the two, and is confirmed by the fact that the Syriac and Arabic versions both render the word, "his ascension." Besides this, the Greek verb which is several times used to describe the ascension, is the very verb from which the word before us is derived. See Mark 16:19, Acts 1:2, Acts 1:22.

v53.—[They did not receive him.] The wretched state of feeling between the Samaritans and the Jews, is painfully illustrated by the circumstances here mentioned. Charity was indeed well-nigh extinct, where such a state of things existed. Those who wish to see the origin of the estrangement between the Jews and Samaritans, should read 2 Kings 17:1-41; and Ezra 4:1-24.

v54.—[His disciples, James and John, &c.] There is something very remarkable in the spirit exhibited by these two disciples on this occasion. It shows us that it was not without good reason that our Lord called them Boanerges, or sons of thunder, when He first ordained them to be apostles. Mark 3:17. It shows us also the gradually transforming power of the grace of God in John’s character. Three times we have sins against charity recorded in the Gospels as committed by John. Once we find him and his brother asking to sit at Christ’s right and left hand in His kingdom, and to be preferred before all the other apostles. Once we find him forbidding a man to cast out devils, because he did not follow the apostles. Here again we find him showing a fierce and cruel spirit against the Samaritan villagers for not receiving our Lord. Yet this was the apostle who proved at last most remarkable for preaching love and charity. No change is too great for the Lord to work.

[Even as Elias did.] Appeals to the Old Testament, like this, have often been made by fanatical men in order to justify violent actions. The case of Oliver Cromwell and many of his followers will naturally occur to some readers.

The examples of men who were raised up to do special works in the times of the Old Testament must not be followed in all things. The man who presumes to imitate Joshua and Elijah in all their dealings with the enemies of God, must furnish proof of his call and commission to walk in their steps.

v55.—[He turned and rebuked them, &c.] Our Lord’s entire disapproval of all persecution for religion’s sake is very plainly taught in this passage. Whatever we may think of men’s doctrines or practices, we are not to persecute them.

Poole says, "Christ did not approve of the Samaritan worship, yet he did not think that the way to change their minds was to call for fire from heaven against them. It is not the will of God that we should approve of any corrupt worship, and join with those who use it. But neither is it his will that we should by fire and sword go about to suppress it, and bring men off from it."

Quesnel remarks, "It often happens that the ministers of the Church, under pretence of zeal for her interests, offend against Christian meekness. The Church knows no such thing as revenge, and her ministers ought not to know it either. Their wrath should be incensed against sin, not against the sinner. The fire of heaven is one day to come down to purify the world by destruction. At present it comes down only to sanctify it by edification."

[What manner of spirit ye are of.] The disciples were forgetting the nature of that Spirit by whom they professed, as Christ’s disciples, to be guided. They were forgetting that He was a Spirit of love and meekness and gentleness, and that all acts of a revengeful and violent character were grievous to Him. "The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness." (Galatians 5:22.) Their own Master had taught them that if any man smote them on one cheek they were to turn to him the other also. (Matthew 5:39.) But all this for the time was forgotten. A fierce temper and a sense of injured dignity make men bad reasoners, and drive good instruction out of their memories.

Bengel remarks, that we should compare with the conduct of these two disciples "the fact that when Jesus prayed on the cross, employing the very words of the twenty-second and thirty-first Psalms, he did not pray against his enemies, but for them."

It is an interesting fact, that the apostle John, at a later period in his life, came down to Samaria in a very different spirit. He came with Peter on a special mission from Jerusalem, to confer spiritual blessings on Samaritan believers. And we are told that he "preached the Gospel in many villages of the Samaritans." (Acts 8:25.)

Verses 57-62

THE passage of Scripture we have just read is a very remarkable one. It contains three short sayings of peculiar solemnity, addressed by our Lord Jesus Christ to three different persons. We know nothing of the names of those persons. We know nothing of the effect which our Lord’s words produced upon them. But we need not doubt that each was addressed in the way which his character required, and we may be sure that the passage is specially intended to promote self-inquiry.

The first of these sayings was addressed to one who offered to be a disciple unconditionally, and of his own accord. "Lord," said this man, "I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest."—That offer sounded well. It was a step in advance of many. Thousands of people heard our Lord’s sermons who never thought of saying what this man said. Yet he who made this offer was evidently speaking without thought. He had never considered what belonged to discipleship. He had never counted the cost. And hence he needed the grave reply which his offer called forth:—"Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head." He must weigh well what he was taking in hand. He must not suppose that Christ’s service was all pleasure and smooth sailing. Was he prepared for this? Was he ready to "endure hardness"? (2 Timothy 2:3.) If not, he had better withdraw his application to be a disciple.

Let us learn from our Lord’s words on this occasion, that He would have all who profess and call themselves Christians reminded that they must carry the cross. They must lay their account to be despised, and afflicted, and tried, like their Master. He would have no man enlisted on false pretenses. He would have it distinctly understood that there is a battle to be fought, and a race to be run,—a work to be done, and many hard things to be endured,—if we propose to follow Him. Salvation He is ready to bestow, without money and without price. Grace by the way, and glory in the end, shall be given to every sinner who comes to Him. But He would not have us ignorant that we shall have deadly enemies,—the world, the flesh, and the devil, and that many will hate us, slander us, and persecute us, if we become His disciples. He does not wish to discourage us, but He does wish us to know the truth.

Well would it have been for the Church if our Lord’s warning had been more frequently pondered! Many a man begins a religious life, full of warmth and zeal, and by and bye loses all his first love, and turns back again to the world. He liked the new uniform, and the bounty money, and the name of a Christian soldier.—He never considered the watching, and warring, and wounds, and conflicts, which Christian soldiers must endure. Let us never forget this lesson. It need not make us afraid to begin serving Christ, but it ought to make us begin carefully, humbly, and with much prayer for grace. If we are not ready to take part in the afflictions of Christ, we must never expect to share His glory.

The second of our Lord’s sayings is addressed to one whom He invited to follow Him. The answer He received was a very remarkable one. "Lord," said the man, "suffer me first to go and bury my father."—The thing he requested was in itself harmless. But the time at which the request was made was unseasonable. Affairs of far greater importance than even a father’s funeral demanded the man’s immediate attention. There would always be plenty of people ready and fit to take charge of a funeral. But there was at that moment a pressing want of laborers to do Christ’s work in the world. And hence the man’s request drew from our Lord the solemn reply,—"Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou and preach the kingdom of God."

Let us learn, from this saying, to beware of allowing family and social duties to interfere with our duty to Christ. Funerals, and marriages, and visits of courtesy, and the like, unquestionably are not in themselves sinful. But when they are allowed to absorb a believer’s time, and keep him back from any plain religious duty, they become a snare to his soul. That the children of the world, and the unconverted, should allow them to occupy all their time and thoughts is not wonderful. They know nothing higher, and better, and more important. "Let the dead bury their dead."—But the heirs of glory, and children of the King of kings, should be men of a different stamp. They should declare plainly, by their conduct, that the world to come is the great reality which fills their thoughts. They should not be ashamed to let men see that they have no time either to rejoice or to sorrow like others who have no hope. (1 Thessalonians 4:13.) Their Master’s work waits for them, and their Master’s work must have the chief place in their hearts. They are God’s priests in the world, and, like the priests of old, their mourning must be kept carefully within bounds, (Leviticus 21:1.) "Weeping," says an old divine, "must not hinder working," and mourning must not be allowed to run into excess.

The third of our Lord’s sayings in this passage was addressed to one who volunteered to follow Him, but marred the grace of His offer by interposing a request. "Lord," he said, "I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell which are at home at my house."—The answer he received shows plainly that the man’s heart was not yet thoroughly engaged in Christ’s service, and that he was therefore unfit to be a disciple. "Jesus said unto him, No man having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God."

We learn from this saying that it is impossible to serve Christ with a divided heart. If we are looking back to anything in this world we are not fit to be disciples. Those who look back, like Lot’s wife, want to go back. Jesus will not share His throne with any one,—no, not with our dearest relatives. He must have all our heart, or none. No doubt we are to honor father and mother, and love all around us. But when love to Christ and love to relatives come in collision, Christ must have the preference. We must be ready, like Abraham, if needs be, to come out from kindred and father’s house for Christ’s sake. We must be prepared in case of necessity, like Moses, to turn our backs even on those who have brought us up, if God calls us, and the path is plain.

Such decided conduct may entail sore trials on our affections. It may wring our hearts to go contrary to the opinions of those we love.—But such conduct may sometimes be positively necessary to our salvation, and without it, when it becomes necessary, we are unfit for the kingdom of God. The good soldier will not allow his heart to be entangled too much with his home. If he daily gives way to unmanly repinings about those he has left behind him, he will never be fit for a campaign. His present duties—the watching, the marching, the fighting,—must have the principal place in his thoughts. So must it be with all who would serve Christ. They must beware of softness spoiling their characters as Christians. They must endure hardness, as good soldiers of Jesus Christ. (2 Timothy 2:3.)

Let us leave the whole passage with many searchings of heart. The times are undoubtedly much changed since our Lord spoke these words. Not many are called to make such real sacrifices for Christ’s sake as when Christ was upon earth. But the heart of man never changes. The difficulties of salvation are still very great. The atmosphere of the world is still very unfavorable to spiritual religion. There is still need for thorough, unflinching, whole-hearted decision, if we would reach heaven. Let us aim at nothing less than this decision, Let us be willing to do anything, and suffer anything, and give up everything for Christ’s sake. It may cost us something for a few years, but great will be the reward in eternity.



v57.—[A certain man said.] Matthew tells us that this man was a scribe. This offer appears to have been made at an early period of our Lord’s earthly ministry. (Matthew 8:19.) Luke mentions it in this place, because it is his habit to relate events in groups, and not in strict chronological order. See Luke 1:3, and the note thereon.

v58.—[Foxes have holes, &c.] This expression throws strong light on the poverty and lowliness in which our Lord was pleased to pass the time of His ministry.

Let our Lord’s reply to this man’s offer be carefully noted. Both here and elsewhere we find Him putting forward prominently the cross which must be borne, if the man becomes a Christian. The conduct of those ministers and Christians who keep back the trials of Christianity from inquirers, and suppress the cross in order to swell the ranks of their own sect, or party, or congregation, is very unlike the conduct of Christ. To obtain adherents to our ranks by incorrect and partial statements, is a procedure to which no Christian should ever condescend. Better a small congregation honestly obtained, than a large one gathered by false representations.

v59.—[First to go and bury my father.] There is probably more implied in this expression than at first sight appears. It means something more than merely attending the funeral of a deceased parent.

Theophylact and Pellican think that it means, "to take care of a father until he is dead," and that it implies a wish to attend upon an aged father during all the infirmities of his latter days, until he was released by death.

Heinsius thinks that there is a reference to the many tedious and superstitious practices of the Jews in connexion with deaths and funerals, such as a seven days’ lamentation before the burial of a father, and a year’s special mourning after his funeral.

There is some probability in both these opinions.

v60.—[Let the dead bury their dead.] The first word, "dead," in this expression,, means the "spiritually dead," the second the "naturally dead." The meaning evidently is, that funerals may be safely left to those who, being without spiritual life themselves, attach importance to all ceremonies and customs belonging to this life, and are sure to attend to them.

[Go thou and preach.] It is not unlikely that this command to go and preach was delivered just before our Lord selected the seventy preachers mentioned in the next chapter. If this man had been ready he might have been one of the seventy.

v61.—[Bid...farewell.] The Greek word so translated is peculiar. In Mark 6:46, it is rendered "sent away;" in Luke 14:33, it is "forsaketh;" but in Acts 18:18, Acts 18:21, and 2 Corinthians 2:13, it is "taking leave," and "bidding farewell."

Heinsius thinks that it should be translated, "suffer me first to go and give my commands" to them at home, as if the man was about to die, or take a long journey.

It is probable, that, like the expression, "bury my father," more is implied than appears. Had the desire to bid farewell been like the simple wish of Elisha, "to kiss his father and mother," when Elijah called him, our Lord would hardly have said what He did. (1 Kings 19:20.) It is evident at any rate that our Lord saw the man’s heart was more at his home than at his work.

v62.—[Fit for the kingdom.] In this proverb the Greek word rendered, "fit," is remarkable, and only used here and Luke 14:35, and Hebrews 6:7. It means literally, "well-placed," or "well-disposed." It implies that a man wanting to go home to take leave of his friends is not rightly disposed for Gospel work, any more than a man looking behind him is rightly placed for ploughing.

Let it be noted in the whole passage, that both in the second and third cases the grand fault manifestly was the desire to do something "first," (Luke 9:59, Luke 9:61) before doing Christ’s work.

Bibliographical Information
Ryle, J. C. "Commentary on Luke 9". "Ryle's Expository Thoughts on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ryl/luke-9.html.
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