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1 Chronicles 11:13. He was with David at Pas-dammim— See 2Sa 23:9; 2 Samuel 23:39. In general, the seeming differences which are found in this book, and that of Samuel, may be reconciled from the latter.
1 Chronicles 11:15. Now three of the thirty captains— In 2 Samuel 23:13 three of the thirty chief. There were thirty-seven heads or chiefs, if we reckon all; and but seven if we reckon only those who were most honourable, and to whom also the name ראשׁ rash, head, or chief, is peculiarly attributed. The Hebrew words in Samuel rendered in the time of harvest, never have that signification throughout the Bible: the verse there should be translated, three captains went down who were over the thirty, and came to the rock to David, into the cave Adullam, &c. Kennicott.
1 Chronicles 11:17-19. David longed, and said, O that one would give me drink, &c.— The 17th verse seems to contain, not barely David's longing for the water of Bethlehem, but his passionate wish to see his native town freed from the troops of the Philistines; and should be rendered, David longed and said, who will give me to drink, &c.? The action of pouring out water before the Lord, was used with great solemnity; see 1 Samuel 7:6.; and here David seems, in consequence of that sacred custom, to have poured out the water which was thus unexpectedly brought him, 1Ch 11:16 either by way of prayer that God would forgive his having thus undesignedly hazarded the lives of three of his bravest warriors, or else as an act of thanksgiving for their safe return. The humane and generous reader's heart will suggest to him reflections sufficiently suited to this great resolution. Curtius relates something similar of Alexander the Great, who, when his army was near being destroyed by thirst, and two of his soldiers had got a cruse of water for their children, and, happening to meet with Alexander, offered it to him to drink, returned the cup, full as it was, to his soldiers, and said, "I cannot bear to drink it alone, and it is too little to be divided among all; give it the children." See Kennicott and Chandler. As it would not suit the nature of our work to enter into a minute discussion of all the variations between this list of David's worthies, and that in 2 Samuel 23:0 we beg leave to refer the critical reader to Dr. Kennicott's Dissertations, vol. 1:
1 Chronicles 11:21. Of the three he was more honourable, &c.— He was after those three, in the second place of honour, although he commanded them; nor did he attain to their glory. Houbigant.
1 Chronicles 11:42. And thirty with him— Though the author of the book of Samuel concludes with Uriah, the last of the thirty-seven, yet the author of this book adds fifteen warriors more. These fifteen are, undoubtedly, recorded because they were brave men; and we may fairly presume that they were recorded after the thirty-seven, because their bravery was not equally eminent and serviceable. As the thirty were inferior to the seven, to the captain-general, and to the three generals of the two ternaries, so were these fifteen inferior to the thirty; and, indeed, this is expressly observed of Adina, and very properly observed of him as being the first of the following number; for in this verse we read, Adina, a captain of the Reubenites, שׁלשׁים ועליו vealaiv sheloshim, which is just the reverse of what is said of Benaiah, chap. 1 Chronicles 27:6. השׁלשׁים על al hasheloshim. He was superior to the thirty, as he certainly was by being the second general of the second series. Junius and Tremellius have rendered the words vealaiv sheloshim, as the nature of the history, and their remarkable situation in the chapter, required they should be rendered, but the thirty were superior to him. To the authority of Junius and Tremellius may be added that of Arias Montanus, and the greater authority of the LXX, both in the Alexandrian and Vatican editions.
REFLECTIONS.—1st, David, on Saul's death, was soon received in Judah, and reigned in Hebron, though he was not, till seven years afterwards, acknowledged as king by the other tribes. But God's counsel must stand: the time came, when Israel bowed before him, swore allegiance, and received the reciprocal assurance of an equitable and righteous government. The obligation between prince and people is mutual; the one is as much bound to rule with justice, as the other to obey with cheerfulness. When they were gathered together on this solemn occasion, David led them against the fortress of Jebus, where he intended to fix his royal residence; and though strong by art and nature, yet, animated by the prospect of preferment, Joab entered the place. Shall the prospect of a post of honour thus engage the soldier to hazard his life; and shall we hesitate at any difficulties in our spiritual warfare, where we are assured of success, and are animated by promises of eternal glory?
2nd, The catalogue of worthies we have had before, 2 Samuel 23:0. Others are here added to them. By their assistance the kingdom was confirmed to David, and by supporting him they strengthened and advanced themselves. They who have been our helpers in any way, have a right to our grateful returns. The exploits performed by these were great and astonishing; but every believer listed under the banner of Jesus is strengthened for mightier conflicts, and enabled for more glorious atchievements; for we wrestle not with flesh and blood only, but with angels, principalities, and powers, and the rulers of the darkness of this world. It was not, however, till after enduring many dangers with their king, that they came to reign with him. Through much tribulation, and suffering hardship, as good soldiers of Jesus Christ, can we only hope to sit down with him in his kingdom.
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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 1 Chronicles 11". Coke's Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
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