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Country for coasts, A.V.; found for finding, A.V. and T.R. The upper country (τὰ ἀνωτερικὰ μέρη); the inland districts of Galatia and Phrygia, through which St. Paul journeyed on his way to Ephesus, as distinguished from the seacoast on which Ephesus stood. Disciples. They were like Apollos, believers in the Lord Jesus through the preaching of John the Baptist. It looks as if they were companions of Apollos, and had come with him from Alexandria, perhaps for some purpose of trade or Commerce.
And he said for he said, A.V. and T.R.; did ye receive for have ye received, A.V.; when for since, A.V.; nay, we did not so much as hear whether the Holy Ghost was given for we have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost, A.V. Did ye receive, etc.? The R.V. gives the sense much more accurately than the A.V., which is, "Did ye receive the Holy Ghost at the time of your baptism, when ye first believed?" Something led the apostle to suspect that they had not received the seal of the Spirit (comp. Ephesians 1:13, πιστεύσαντες ἐσφραγίσθητε), and so he asked the question. The answer, Nay, we did, not so much as hear whether the Holy Ghost was given, as in the R.V., is justified by John 7:39, where the exactly similar phrase, Οὔπω ἧν Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον, is rendered in the A.V., "The Holy Spirit was not yet given." "Esse pro adesse" (Bengel). The sense given in the A.V. does not seem probable. The answer means, "Not only have we not received the Holy Spirit, but we had not even heard that the dispensation of the Spirit was Come."
He said for he said unto them, A.V. and T.R.; into for unto (twice), A.V. Into what then were ye baptized? Nothing can mark more strongly the connection between baptism and the reception of the Holy Spirit than this question does. For it implies, "How could you be ignorant of the giving of the Holy Ghost if you were duly baptized?" (comp.Acts 2:38; Acts 2:38) The answer explains it, "We were baptized with John's baptism, to which no promise of the gift of the Holy Ghost was attached."
And Paul said for then said Paul, A.V.; John for John verily, A.V. and T.R.; Jesus for Christ Jesus, A.V. and T.R. The baptism of repentance. See Luke 3:3, etc., and for the difference between John's baptism and that of Christ, Luke 3:16. Him which should some after him.
And when for when, A.V.; into for in, A.V. Into the Name of the Lord Jesus (see Acts 8:16). So too Acts 10:48 of Cornelius and his company, "He commanded them to be baptized in the Name (ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι) of Jesus Christ" (R.V.). The formula of baptism, as commanded by the Lord Jesus himself, was, "In [or, 'into'] the Name (αἰς τὸ ὔνομα) of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost" (Matthew 28:20). But the candidate always first made a profession of his faith in Jesus Christ, as in the A.V. of Acts 8:37; and the effect of baptism was an incorporation into Christ so as to partake of his death unto sin and his life unto righteousness. It was, therefore, a true and compendious description of baptism, to speak of it as a baptism in (or into) the Name of Jesus Christ. (See the Baptismal Service in the Book of Common Prayer.) There does not seem to be any difference of meaning between ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι and εἰς τὸ ὄνομα.
Had laid his hands, etc. (see Acts 8:17 and note). We have here a distinct mark of Paul's true apostleship (see Acts 8:17, Acts 8:18). For the manifestation of the Spirit, see Acts 10:46.
They were in all about twelve men for all the men were about twelve, A.V.
Entered for went, A.V.; reasoning for disputing, A.V. (διαλεγόμενος, as Acts 19:9 and Acts 17:2,Acts 17:17; Acts 18:4, Acts 18:19, etc.); as to the things for the things, A.V. This last is a needless change, since πείθειν properly governs an accusative of the things persuaded or taught, and it is a right English use of "to persuade" to apply it to the thing inculcated. For the use of the phrase "the kingdom of God" as a compendious description of Christian doctrine, see Acts 1:3; Acts 8:12; Acts 20:25; Acts 28:23. St. Luke uses the phrase very frequently (Luke 6:20; Luke 8:10; Luke 9:27, Luke 9:60, Luke 9:62; Luke 10:11; Luke 11:20; Luke 13:20, Luke 13:28; Luke 16:16; Luke 17:20; Luke 21:31, etc.).
Some for divers, A.V.; disobedient for believed not, A.V. (ἡπείθουν, as Acts 14:2; Acts 17:5, T.R.); speaking for but spake, A.V.; the Way for that way, A.V.; reasoning for disputing, A.V.; Tyrannus for one Tyrannus, A.V. Were hardened; or, hardened themselves. Whether considered as active or middle, the hardening their minds against the reception of the truth was just as voluntary an action as that of one who shuts his eyes that he may not see the light. For the use of σκληρύνειν (Hebrew השָׁקְהִ, applied to the heart or the neck), see Romans 9:18; Hebrews 3:8, Hebrews 3:15; Hebrews 4:7—passages all founded upon the LXX. of Psalms 94:8. See also Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:19; and Ecclesiasticus 30:11, where, as here, disobedience is the consequence of being hardened. Μήποτε σκληρυνθεὶς ἀπειθήσῃ σοι, "Lest being hardened he disobey thee." The A.V., by leaving out "were" before "disobedient," and translating as if "hardened" and "disobedient" were two adjectives, destroys this consequence. Speaking evil of; κακολογοῦντες, frequent in the LXX. as the rendering of ללֵּקִ (Exodus 21:17; 1 Samuel 3:13), which is otherwise rendered by κακῶς εἴπειν," as in Leviticus 20:9. It is nearly synonymous with βλασφημαῖν. The Way (as verse 23; see Acts 9:2, note). They would speak evil of the gospel by describing it as a blasphemy against God and against Moses, as contrary to the Law, as subversive of all the customs and traditions of the Jews, and so on. He departed. Ἀποστάς is more than simply "departing;" it implies a withdrawal and separation front fellowship with them, as in 1 Timothy 6:5 (A.V.), "From such withdraw thyself;" Ecclesiastes 7:2, "Depart from the unjust" (comp.Luke 13:27). Separated the disciples. Hitherto the converted Jews at Ephesus had continued to join their unconverted brethren in the worship of the synagogue; now Paul withdrew them and separated them (ἀφώρισε, Galatians 2:10). The school of Tyrannus; σχολή, leisure; then, "the employment of leisure," as especially in philosophic discussions and the like; thirdly, the "place" were such discussions were held, a school. It is uncertain whether Tyrannus was a Gentile well known at the time (without the τινός), who kept a lecture room for philosophic discussions or lectures on rhetoric, or whether he was a Jew who held a private school or meeting in his house—a beth-midrash—as was not uncommon in largo towns where many Jews were. "Beth-midrash—The Jewish divinity school, where their doctors disputed of the more high and difficult matters of the Law" (Index to Lightfoot's Works). It was commonly the upper room in the house of a rabbi (Lightfoot, on Acts 2:13, vol. 8.363), whence "house of rabbis "was synonymous with beth-midrash, house of discussion. The name Tyrannus occurs in 2 Macc. 4:40; Josephus, 'Ant. Jud.,' 16. 10.4; 'Bell Jud.,' 1. 26.6, of an officer in Herod's bodyguard, who might be a Jew or a Greek; and a certain Tyrannus is described by Suidas as a sophist and an author, possibly the same as is here spoken of. Lightfoot, Meyer, Alford, and others think that the Tyrannus here spoken of was a Jew; Lange, Olshausen, Howson, Farrar, Lewin, etc., think he was a Greek philosopher or rhetorician. Some think that "the school of Tyrannus" was the name of the lecture-room from some former teacher.
For for by, A.V.; Lord for Lord Jesus, A.V. and T.R. Two years (see Acts 20:31, note). Both Jews and Greeks. This mention of Jews is rather in favor of Tyrannus being a Jew; but not decisive.
Insomuch for so, A.V.; unto the sick were carried away from his body for from his body were brought unto the sick, A.V.; went out for went out of them, A.V. and T.R. From his body (χρωτός); literally, the skin, but used here by St. Luke for the body, in accordance with the usage of medical writers "from Hippocrates to Galen" (Hobart). Handkerchiefs; σουδάριον, the Latin word sudarium, properly a cloth for wiping off the sweat. It is one of those words, like κουστωδία κεντυρίων σημικίνθιον, κοδράντης, etc., which exactly represent the political condition of things at the time of the writers, who were living in a country where Greek was the language of common intercourse, but where the dominion was Roman. It is found in Luke 19:20; John 11:44; John 20:7, and here. Aprons; σιμικίνθια, more properly written σημικίνθια. It is the Latin word semicinctium, a half-girdle; the Greek word is ἡμιζώνιον. According to some, it was a narrow girdle, but according to others, and with more probability, an apron covering only half, i.e. the front of the body. It only occurs here in the New Testament or elsewhere. The careful mention of these cures of the sick may also be connected with St. Luke's medical profession. As regards these unusual modes of miraculous cure, comp. Acts 5:15. It might well be the Divine purpose, in the ease of both Peter and Paul, to invest with such extraordinary power the very persons of the apostles who were to stand forth as his messengers and preach in his Name. In St. Paul this parity of miraculous energy stamped his apostleship with an authority equal to that of St. Peter.
But certain also for then certain, A.V.; strolling for vagabond, A.V.; name for call, A.V.; the evil for evil, A.V.; I for we, A.V. and T.R. Strolling (περιερχομένων); going their rounds from place to place, like strolling players or like peddlers. The words should be construed together, "strolling Jewish exorcists." That certain Jews in our Savior's time exorcised evil spirits appears from Matthew 12:27; Luke 9:49. We learn also from Josephus, 'Ant. Jud.,' Luke 8:2, Luke 8:5, that forms of exorcism, said to have been invented by King Solomon, so efficacious that the devils cast out by them could never come back, were used with great effect in his days. He adds that he himself knew of an instance in which one of his own countrymen, Eleazar by name, had cast out devils in the presence of Vespasian and his sons and officers and a number of his soldiers. The method used was this: The exorcist applied to the nose of the possessed the bezil of a ring, under which was a certain root prescribed by Solomon, and so drew out the evil spirit through the man's nostrils. The possessed then fell to the ground, and the exorcist commanded the evil spirit in the name of Solomon never to return, and then recited one of Solomon's incantations. To give full assurance to the bystanders that the evil spirit had really left the man, the exorcist placed a vessel full of water at some distance off, and then commanded the ejected spirit to overturn it, which he did. Thus far Josephus. Lightfoot, on Acts 13:1-52. (vol. 3.215), quotes the book Juchasin as speaking of certain Jews as "skilled in miracles," and the Jerusalem Talmud as speaking of their enchantments and magical tricks and charms" in the name of Jesus" (see, further, Alford on Matthew 12:27).
A chief priest for and chief of the priests, A.V.; this for so, A.V. A chief priest (ἀρχιερεύς); not, of course, in the sense of high priest, but in that wider sense of the word which comprised the chiefs of the twenty-four courses and the members of the Sanhedrim and all who had ever been high priests or who were of the kindred of the high priest (see Matthew 2:4; Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:15; Matthew 23:1-39. 45, etc.; Luke 9:22; Luke 19:47, etc.; Acts 4:23; Acts 5:24; Acts 9:14, Acts 9:21, etc.). It is probable that the Eleazar mentioned in the preceding note was a priest, both from his name and because Josephus calls him one of his ὁμοφύλων, which may mean "fellow-tribesmen." The name Sceva occurs nowhere else, nor is its meaning or etymology at all certain. Some identify it with the Latin Scaeva (Horace, 'Ep.,' 1. 17.1), "left-handed," l.q. Scaevola; or the Greek Sceuas, a proper name in Appian. Simonis gives it an Aramean etymology.
Said unto them for said, A.V. and T.R.
Mastered both of them for overcame them, A.V. and T.R.
Became for was, A.V.; both Jews and Greeks for the Jews and Greeks also, A.V.; that dwelt for dwelling, A.V.; upon for on, A.V. Fear fell upon them. Comp. Acts 5:11-14, where the same effects are ascribed to the death of Ananias and Sapphire and the signs and wonders which were wrought by the apostles at that time. This fear produced by the putting forth of God's power paralyzed for a time the enemies of the gospel, and enabled believers, as it were, to take possession of their new heritage, just as the miracles at the Red Sea and the destruction of Sihon and Og paralyzed the courage of the Canaanites and enabled the Israelites to take possession of their land (Joshua 2:9-11). With respect to the incident which caused this fear, it might at first seem inconsistent with our Lord's saying to the apostles (Luke 9:49, Luke 9:50). But the cases were very different. He who cast out devils in the name of Jesus, in the Gospel, does not seem to have had any hostility to the faith, for our Lord speaks of him as one who "is not against us." But these sons of Sceva were among the unbelieving Jews who were "hardened and disobedient;" and if their exorcisms had been permitted to succeed, they would have had power to withstand Paul, as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, and the very purpose for which miraculous power was given to St. Paul would have been frustrated. Therefore they were discomfited, and the subtle design of Satan to destroy, while seeming to magnify, the Name of Jesus was signally defeated. Comp. the somewhat similar incident at Philippi (Acts 16:16-18). Justin Martyr, in his 'Diologue with Trypho,' quoted by Alford on Matthew 12:27, speaks of the Jews as exorcising, sometimes in the name of kings (referring, doubtless, to Solomon), sometimes of just men, or of prophets, or of patriarchs. So these men took up the name of Jesus.
Many also of them that had believed for and many that believed, A.V.; confessing and declaring for and confessed and showed, A.V. Many also of them that had believed. This and the following verse speak of that class of converts who had previously been addicted to magic arts. It gives us a curious view of the extent to which magic prevailed among the Jews at this time. Nor was it less prevalent in heathen Ephesus. The magic formulae of Ephesus were famous under the name of Ἐφέσια γράμματα, and the belief in magic seems to have been universal. Hesychius gives as the names of the oldest Ephesian charms, Aski, Kataski, Lix, Petrax, Damnameneus, AEsion, which he explains as meaning severally "Darkness, Light," "the Earth," "the Year," "the Truth".
And not a few for many … also, A.V.; that practiced for which used A.V.; in the sight of all for before all men, A.V. That practiced curious arts (τῶν τὰ περίεργα πραξάντων). The adjective περίεργος applied to persons means "a busybody" (1 Timothy 5:13), one who does what it is not his business to do, and pries into matters with which he has no concern; applied to things, it means that which it is not anybody's business to attend to, that which is vain and superfluous; and then, by a further extension of meaning, that which is forbidden, and specially magic arts and occult sciences. Fifty thousand pieces of silver. There is a difference of opinion as to what coin or weight is meant. If Greek coinage, which is perhaps natural in a Greek city, fifty thousand drachmae of silver would be meant, equal to £1875, If Jewish shekels are meant, the sum would amount to £7000 ('Speaker's Commentary'). It is in favor of drachmae being meant that, with the exception of Joshua 7:21 and Judges 17:2, the LXX. always express the word "shekel" or "didrachm" after the numeral and before the word "silver." If St. Luke, therefore, had meant shekels, he would have written δίδραχμα ἀργυρίου But it was the Greek usage to omit the word δραχμή before ἀργυρίου when the reckoning was by drachmae (Meyer).
The Lord for God, A.V. If the R.T. has the true order of the words, they must be construed, To such an extent, according to the might of the Lord, did the word grow and prevail, after the analogy of Ephesians 1:19. Κατὰ κράτος, however, taken by itself, is quite usual, like κατὰ μικρόν καθ ὑπερβολήν, etc. (Alford), and is rightly rendered "mightily."
Now after for offer, A.V. Purposed in the spirit (ἔθετο ἐν τῷ πνεύματι); literally, set, fixed, or arranged it in his spirit, like the Hebrew phrase, בלֵבְ מוּשּׂ, in 1 Samuel 12:1-25, etc. Similarly of past things, Luke 1:66, ἔθεντο πάντες … ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῶν, "laid them up in their hearts "(comp.Acts 5:4). When he had passed through Macedonia, etc. Observe the constant solicitude of Paul to revisit the Churches which he had founded, so as to confirm the disciples in the faith and to consolidate his work (Acts 14:21; Acts 15:36; Acts 16:6; 1 Thessalonians 3:1-5, etc.). It marks the unrivalled tenderness of his heart toward the disciples. Observe also the insatiable appetite of the apostle for spiritual conquests, and his noble contempt for idleness. He has but just won Ephesus and Asia, and already he undertakes Macedonia and Achaia. Nor does his mind stop there, but reaches on to Jerusalem, then stretches onwards to Rome, and meditates the invasion of Spain. Truly neither Alexander, nor Caesar, nor any hero of antiquity was a match for this little Benjamite (paulus) in the magnanimity of his designs (Bengel).
And having sent for so he sent, A.V.; Timothy for Timotheus, A.V.; he for but he, A.V.; while for season, A.V. Two of them, etc. Erastus is here mentioned for the first time. If he is the same person who is mentioned in Romans 16:23; £ 2 Timothy 4:20, it is probable that he was one of St. Paul's Corinthian converts who had gone with him from Corinth to Jerusalem and Antioch, and had accompanied him through Phrygia and Galatia to Ephesus. Silos, who had been Timothy's companion on the former visit to Macedonia, seems to have left St. Paul, possibly at Jerusalem, from whence he originally came (Acts 15:22, Acts 15:32, Acts 15:34), and to have attached himself to Peter (1 Peter 5:12). Perhaps he was especially connected with the mission to Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, etc., as it appears from the passage just quoted that he was "a faithful brother unto them," A.V.; "or our faithful brother," R.V. He himself stayed, etc. This phrase is in singular harmony with 1 Corinthians 16:8, which seems clearly to have been written after Timothy's departure for Macedonia and before his arrival at Corinth, since Timothy is not mentioned either in the superscription or among the salutations (1 Corinthians 1:1; 1 Corinthians 16:19, 1 Corinthians 16:20), and his coming to Corinth is spoken of as doubtful, though probable, in 1 Corinthians 16:10. Both passages imply a prolongation of Paul's stay at Ephesus beyond his original intention. The special reason for this prolongation of his sojourn at Ephesus, and which is alluded to in 1 Car 1 Corinthians 16:9, is thought to be the Artemisian or Ephesian games, which were celebrated at Ephesus in May—and therefore just at this time—and which brought a vast concourse of Ionians to Ephesus. It was at this time, doubtless, that the principal sale of "silver shrines of Diana" took place, and therefore it was natural that Demetrius and his fellow-craftsmen should be very angry when they found their usual gains were cut short by the multitude of converts all over Proconsular Asia. We learn from 1 Corinthians 16:7 that Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus had arrived at Ephesus from Corinth. It is likely that their presence, together with that of Tychicus and Trophimus, two Asiatic converts, enabled St. Paul to dispense with the services of Time-thy and Erastus for a time. Ἔπεσχεν, understand σεαυτόν, kept himself back, i.e. stayed; χρόνον, a while, an indefinite phrase, but indicating a short time. Herodotus has ἐπίσχοντες, ἐπισχὼν ὀλίγον χρόνον, and ἐπισχὼν χρόνον (9. 49).
About that time for the same time, A.V.; concerning the Way for about that way, A.V. (see Acts 19:9).
Of for for, A.V.; little business for small gain, A.V. Shrines of Diana, or Artemis. They were silver models of the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus, and were carried as charms on journeys and placed in people's houses to ensure to them the protection of the goddess (Meyer). These gold or silver shrines contained within them an image of Artemis, as similar ones, which have been found made of terracotta, do of Cybele. Repeated mention is made in Diodorus Siculus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and elsewhere, of gold or silver shrines (ναόι), which were offered to different gods as propitiatory gifts, or carried about by the owners as charms, Business; ἐργασία, here and Acts 19:25 (see Acts 16:16, note).
Gathered for called, A.V.; bust. ness for craft, A.V., but "craft" is the better rendering. Workmen; ἐργάται, different from the τεχνῖται skilled laborers or artisans. Demetrius called together all who were in any way interested in the shrine trade. His true reason came out first.
And for moreover, A.V. We have here a wonderful testimony from an enemy to the power and efficacy of St. Paul's labors. Asia, here and in Acts 19:22, etc., means Proconsular Asia, of which Ephesus was the chief city. That they be no gods, etc. This is an incidental proof that St. Paul's success at Ephesus lay chiefly among the heathen, since we know from Acts 14:15-17; Acts 17:23, Acts 17:24, etc., that this was exactly his style of preaching to Gentiles, quite different from his method with Jews.
And not only is there danger that this our trade come into disrepute for so that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at naught, A.V.; be made of no account for should be despised, A.V.; that she should even be deposed from her magnificence for her magnificence should be destroyed, A.V. and T.R. Is there danger. There is no example in St. Luke's writings, or in the New Testament, or in the LXX., of κινδυνεύει, being taken impersonally, as it is sometimes, though rarely, in G reek authors. The subject, therefore, of this sentence is τὸ μέρος (the portion, part, or business), and Τοῦτο κινδυνεύει ἡμῖν τὸ μέρος κ.τ.λ, must be construed together, "This trade is in danger for us to come into disrepute," or, put into English, "This our trade is in danger," etc. Come into disrepute; εἰς ἀπελεγμὸν, only found here in the New Testament; literally, into refutation; hence into disrepute, or into reproach, i.e. be a ground of reproach to us who practice it. The great goddess. An epithet especially applied to the Ephesian Diana. Lewin quotes Ὀμνύω τὴν μεγαλήν Ἐφεσίων Ἄρτεμιν in the Ephesian Xenophon Τῆς μεγάλης Θεᾶς Ἀρτέμιδος, in an inscription at Ephesus; Ἄρτεμις ἡ μεγάλη θεός (Achill. Tat.). Add from Pausanias, 4,31, 8, All men hold the Ephesian Diana in the greatest honor." From her magnificence. The R.T. reads τῆς μεγαλειότητος instead of τὴν μεγαλειότητα in the T.R. But Meyer, while he accepts the R.T., construes it "and some of her magnificence," etc.; and rightly, because the genitive after καθαιρεῖν should be preceded by ἀπὸ, as Acts 13:29; Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:27 (LXX.), and the word καθαιρεῖν is also specially used of lowering the honor of any one. All Asia and the world. This is scarcely an hyperbole, the worship of the Ephesian Diana, and of her image reported to have fallen down from heaven, was so very widely diffused.
This for these sayings, A.V.; filled with wrath for full of wrath, A.V. Great is Diana, etc. A notable instance of assertion and clamor crying down reason and truth.
The city for the whole city, and the confusion for confusion, A.V. and T.R. (τῆς for ὅλη); they rushed, etc., having seized for having caught, etc., they rushed, etc., A.V. With one accord (ὁμοθυμαδὸν); see Acts 1:14; Acts 2:1; Acts 4:24, etc., and for ὥρμησαν ὁμοθυμαδὸν, see Acts 7:57. Into the theatre. The common place of resort for all great meetings. So Tacitus, 'Hist.,' 2.80 (quoted by Alford), says that at Antioch the people were wont to hold their public debates in the theatre, and that a crowded meeting was held there to forward the interests of Vespasian, then aspiring to the empire. So Josephus speaks of the people of Antioch holding a public assembly (ἐκκλησίαζοντος) in the theatre ('Bell. Jud.,' 7. 3.3). The people of the Greek city of Tarentum received the ambassadors from Rome in the theatre, "according to the Greek custom," Val. Max., 2.2, 5 (Kuinoel, on Acts 19:29). The theatre at Ephesus, of which "ruins of immense grandeur" still remain, is said to be the largest of which we have any account. Having seized (συναρπάσαντες); a favorite word with Luke(Acts 6:12; Acts 27:12; Luke 8:29); and found also in the LXX, of Proverbs 6:25; Proverbs 2:0 Macc. 3:27; 4:41; but not elsewhere in the New Testament. It is a common medical word of sudden seizures. The force of the συν is that they hurried Gaius and Aristarchus along with them to the theatre, no doubt intending there to accuse them to the people. Gaius and Aristarchus. In Acts 20:4 there is mention of a certain Gaius who was one of Paul's companions in travel, but who is described as "of Derbe." Again in 1 Corinthians 1:14 a Gaius is mentioned as one of St. Paul's converts on his first visit to Corinth, whom he baptized himself; and in Romans 16:23 (written from Corinth) we have mention of Gaius as St. Paul's host, and of the whole Church, likely, therefore, to be the same person. Then we have the Gains to whom St. John's Third Epistle is addressed, and whose hospitality to the brethren was a conspicuous feature in his character, and one tending to identify him with the Gaius of Romans 16:23. We seem, therefore, to have, in immediate connection with St, Paul, Gaius of Corinth, Gains of Macedonia, and Gaius of Derbe. But Gaius (or Caius, as it is written in Latin) was such a common name, and the Jews so often shifted their residence from one city to another, that it is not safe either to infer identity from identity of name, or diversity from diversity of description. Aristarchus, here described as of Macedonia, is more precisely spoken of in Acts 20:4 as a Thessalonian. In Acts 27:2, where we find him accompanying St. Paul from Caesarea to Rome, he is described as "a Macedonian of Thessalonica." In Colossians 4:10 he is St. Paul's "fellow-prisoner,' as voluntarily sharing his prison (Alford, on Colossians 4:10), and in Philemon 1:24 he is his fellow-laborer. His history, therefore, is that, having been converted on St Paul's visit to Thessalonica, he attached himself to him as one of his missionary staff, and continued with him through good report and evil report, through persecution, violence, imprisonment, shipwreck, and bonds, to the latest moment on which the light of Bible history shines. Blessed servant of Christ! blessed fellow-servant of his chief apostle!
Was minded to enter for would have entered, A.V. With the courage of a pure conscience, conscious of no wrong, and therefore fearing no wrong, Paul would have gone straight to the theatre, and cast in his lot with Gaius and Aristarchus; but the disciples, knowing the savage temper of the multitude, dissuaded him; and when their entreaties were backed by the magistrates, Paul thought it his duty to yield. To enter in unto the people. Εἰσελθεῖν, or προσελθεῖν εἰς ἐπὶ τὸν δῆμον, or τῷ δήμῳ are phrases implying the intention of pleading his cause before them (see Schleusner and Kuinoel, on Acts 19:30).
Certain also for certain, A.V. (the more natural order would be, and certain of the chief officers of Asia also); chief officers for chief, A.V.; being for which were, A.V.; and besought him not to for desiring him that he would not, A.V. Chief Officers of Asia. The Greek word is Asiarchs (Ἀσιάρχαι). The Asiarchs, ten in number, were officers annually chosen from all the cities of Proconsular Asia, to preside over all sacred rites, and to provide at their own expense the public games in honor of the gods and of the deity of the emperor. This necessitated their being men of high rank and great wealth, and Schleusner adds that they were priests. The name Asiarch is formed like Luciarchai, Syriarchai, Phoenicharchai, etc. We have here another striking proof of the enormous influence of Paul's preaching in Asia, that some of these very officers who were chosen to preside over the sacred rites of the gods, and to advance their honor by public games, were now on Paul's side.
In confusion for confused, A.V. (συγκεχυμένη: comp. συγχύσεως, Acts 19:29). The more part, etc. A graphic picture of an excited mob led by interested and designing agitators.
Brought for drew, A.V. and T.R.; a defense for his defense, A.V. (ἀπολογεῖσθαι). Alexander. Some think he is the same as "Alexander the coppersmith," of whose conduct St. Paul complains so bitterly (2Ti 4:14, 2 Timothy 4:15; 1 Timothy 1:20), and he may or may not be. It seems likely that, as St. Paul's offence was speaking against the gods and their temples, the Jews, who were commonly accused of being atheists, and one of whose nation Paul was, came in for their share of the popular odium. They were anxious, therefore, to excuse themselves before the people of having had any share in St. Paul's work, and put forward Alexander, no doubt a clever man and a good speaker, to make their defense. But as soon as the people knew that he was a Jew, they refused to listen to him, and drowned his voice with incessant shouts of "Great is Diana of the Ephesians." Meyer, however, thinks he was a Christian, because of the word ἀπολογεῖσθαι. The people (δῆμος, as verse 30). It was a true ἐκκλησία, though an irregular one, and the people who formed it were the δῆμος, different from the ὄχλος, the mere crowd outside.
Perceived for knew, A.V. ἐπιγιγώσκειν, to recognize; see Acts 3:10; Acts 4:13).
Quieted the multitude (τὸν ὄχλον) for appeased the people, A.V.; saith for said, A.V.; who for that, A.V.; temple-keeper for a worshipper, A.V.; Diana for goddess Dann, A.V. and T.R. The town clerk (6 γραμματεὺς); i.e. the scribe, is the city secretary. Ὁ γραμματεὺς τῆς πόλεως, Thucyd., 7.19 (Meyer); Τοῦ γραμματέως τοῦ δήμου, inscription quoted by Howson. His office, as appears from the passage in Thucydides, was to read public documents to the people. According to some, it was not a post of much dignity at Athens (Becket, on Thucyd., 7.10); but according to Kuinoel it was an office of first-rate influence in the senate in the Greek cities of Asia, seeing the scribe was the chief registrar, had the drafting of the laws, and the custody of the archives. As there were three orders of scribes, there may have been a great difference in the political rank of each. Had quieted (καταστείλας, and κατεσταλμένους, Acts 19:36). Καταστέλλω means to "arrange," "put in order," the hair, the dress, or the like; hence "to restrain," "quiet;" found only in these two places in the New Testament, but not uncommon in the Maccabees and in Josephus. In classical Greek, ὁ κατεσταλμένος is a man of calm, quiet demeanor, as opposed to ὁ τολμηρός, one who is bold and violent. In medical language, καταστέλλω is to soothe, calm, etc., and φάρμακα κατασταλτικά and ἀνασταλτικά are medicines which check the growth of diseases, ulcers, eruptions, and the like. Temple-keeper, in R.V. and margin of A.V. (νωκόρος); literally, temple-sweeper, from νεώς, a temple, and κορέω, to sweep. The word Neoceros was a peculiar title, assumed first by persons and then by such cities, in Asia especially, as had the special charge of the temple and sacred rites of any particular god. It first appears on coins of Ephesus, in the reign of Nero, and was deemed a title of great honor. One inscription speaks of ὁ νεωκόρος (Ἐφεσίων) δῆμος as making a certain dedication. But another use of the term sprang up about this time. Among the vile flatteries of those corrupt times, it became usual with cities to dedicate temples and altars to the emperors, and they received in return the title, meant to be an honor, of νεωκόρος of the emperor. Some extant coins exhibit the city of Ephesus as νεωκόρος both of Diana and the emperor. The image which fell down from Jupiter, Διοπετὲς λαβεῖν ἄγαλμα; which is described in verse 88 of the same play as "the image (ἄγαλμα) of the goddess Diana, which they say fell down from heaven (οὐρανοῦ πεσεῖν ἀπὸ) into her temple in Tauris;" and in line 1349 it is called Οὐρανοῦ πέσημα, τῆς Διὸς κόρης ἄγαλμα, "The image of the daughter of Jove which fell from heaven," brought away from Tauris by Iphigenia and Orestes into Attica. But it does not appear that there was any tradition that the identical image brought from Tauris was carried to Ephesus. There are several representations of the Ephesian Diana, or Artemis, on coins, of which one or two are given by Lewin and by Howson. The image was of rude form and execution, mummy-shaped, or like an inverted pyramid; πολυμαστὴ (rendered by St. Jerome multi-mammia, and explained as intending to represent her as the nourisher of all living things: Preface to Ephesians); made of wood variously described as ebony, cedar, and vine wood. Pliny says that, though the temple itself had been restored seven times, the image had never been altered (quoted by Kuinoel).
Gainsaid for spoken against, A.V.; rash for rashly, A.V. (προπετῶς is the adverb), quiet (κατεσταλμένους: see above, Acts 19:35, note).
Temples for churches, A.V.; ,or for nor yet, A.V.; our for your, A.V. Ye have brought, etc. Ἄγειν is especially used of "bringing before a magistrate," "leading to execution," etc.. Robbers of temples; ἱερόσυλοι found only here in the New Testament. The verb ἱεροσυλεῖν occurs in Romans 2:22. Blasphemers of our goddess. If the A.V. is right, perhaps we may see in the phrase "your goddess" an indication that the town-clerk himself was more or less persuaded by St. Paul's preaching, that "they are no gods which are made with hands," and did not care to speak of Diana as his own goddess. It appears also that St. Paul had not launched out into abuse of the heathen gods in general, or Diana in particular, but had preached the more excellent way by faith in Jesus Christ, to draw them from their idols (1 Thessalonians 1:9).
If therefore for wherefore if, A.V.; that for which, A.V.; the courts are for the law is, A.V.; proconsuls for deputies, A.V.; accuse for implead, A.V. Against any man. Mark the skill with which the town-clerk passes from the concrete to the abstract, and avoids the mention of Paul's name. The courts are open; ἀγοραῖοι (or ἀγόραιοι) ἄγονται. Some supply the word σύνοδοι, and make the sense "judicial assemblies,'' "sessions," coming round at proper fixed intervals. But the verb ἄγονται, more naturally suggests ἡμέραι, as Bengel says (ἄγειν γενέσια τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς σκηνοπηγίας: Ὀλύμπια: γενέθλιον, etc.), and then the meaning is, "The regular court-days are kept, when the proconsul attends to try causes;" there is no need to have an irregular trial. So Suidas explains it, Ἡμέρα ἐνᾗ ἡ ἀγορὰ. There are proconsuls. Bengel, with whom Meyer agrees, thinks the plural denotes the unbroken succession of proconsuls. But Lewin thinks it may mark the exact time of these transactions as being immediately after the poisoning of the Proconsul Junius Silanus by order of Agrippina, when the two procurators, Celer and AElius, exercised the proconsular power till the appointment of another proconsul, according to a law of Claudius to that effect. Others have other explanations.
Seek for inquire, A.V.; about for concerning, A.V.; settled for determined, A.V.; the regular for a lawful, A.V. If ye seek, etc (ἐπιζητεῖτε). Ἐπιζητεῖν means either "to make inquiry" or" to desire earnestly." The verb in the next clause, ἐπιλυθήσεται, it shall be "settled," or "solved," favors the first sense: "If you wish to inquire further into the spread of Paul's doctrine, and the best way of dealing with it, the question should be decided in an assembly of the δῆμος, legally convened." For περὶἑτέρων, about other matters, some manuscripts read περαιτέρω, further. The regular assembly. That summoned by a magistrate in the constitutional way. The Greek cities under the Roman government preserved their rights and liberties, and the privilege of popular assemblies. The town clerk, therefore, gave them their choice of either having the case tried before the proconsuls or having it laid before the ecclesia of the demos, if they wished it to be gone into on wider and deeper grounds.
For indeed for for, A.V.; accused for called in question, A.V.; concerning for for, A.V.; riot for uproar, A.V.; for it for whereby, A.V.; and as touching it we shall not be able to for we may, A.V. and T.R.; account for an account, A.V. We are in danger (κινδυνεύομεν: see Acts 19:27, note). To be accused concerning this day's riot. The Greek cannot well be so construed. The margin is right; ἐγκαλεῖσθαι στάσεως is "to be charged with sedition;" περὶ τῆς σήμερον is for τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας, "this day," as in Acts 20:26, τῇ σήμερον ἡμέρᾳ: only in English we should say, "on account of this day," i.e. what has been done this day. The R.T. places a stop after μηδενὸς αἰτίου ὑπάχοντοσρ As touching it. But "it" must mean "the riot," which is feminine, whereas οὖ is masculine; so that the R.T. is impossible to construe. It is much better, therefore, to adhere to the T.R., which has good manuscript authority, and to construe as the A.V. Whereby, equivalent to "on the ground of which" (Meyer). With regard to the great tumult to which the foregoing narrative relates, it is certain that St. Luke has by no means exaggerated its importance. In his Second Epistle to the Corinthians, written from Macedonia shortly after his departure from Ephesus, St. Paul speaks as one still smarting under the severity of his sufferings. In the language of trust, yet of a trust sorely tried, he speaks of the Father of mercies" who comforteth us in all our tribulation." He speaks of the sufferings of Christ as abounding in him. And then, referring directly to the trouble which came upon him in Asia, he says, "We were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life: but we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead: who delivered us from so great a death" (2 Corinthians 1:4-10). And the same tone breaks out again in 2 Corinthians 4:7-18; 2 Corinthians 6:4-10; 2Co 11:23-27; 2 Corinthians 12:9, 2 Corinthians 12:10. It is also very probable that it was on this occasion that Priscilla and Aquila saved St. Paul's life at the risk of their own, to which he alludes in Romans 16:3, Romans 16:4, written after he had reached Corinth from Macedonia, i.e. before Easter of the year 58 A.D. So that it is certain that the riot and the danger to St. Paul's life were even greater than we should have inferred from St. Luke's narrative alone. It should be added, with reference to the three years' residence at Ephesus (Acts 20:21) which this nineteenth chapter describes, that one or two important incidents which occurred are not related by St. Luke. The first is that encounter with a savage rabble to which St. Paul refers in 1 Corinthians 15:32, but of which we have no account in the Acts. It must have happened in the early part of his sojourn at Ephesus. Another is a probable visit to Corinth, inferred from 2 Corinthians 2:1; 2Co 12:14, 2 Corinthians 12:21; 2 Corinthians 13:1, 2 Corinthians 13:2; and thought to have been caused by bad accounts of the moral state of the Corinthian Church, sent to him at Ephesus. It was probably a hasty visit, and in contrast with it he says, in 1 Corinthians 16:7, with reference to his then coming visit, "I will not see you now by the way; but I trust to tarry a while with you." It is also thought that there was another letter to the Corinthians, written from Ephesus, soon after that second visit, which is now lost, but is alluded to in 1 Corinthians 5:9. The First Epistle to the Corinthians was manifestly written at this time from Ephesus (see 1 Corinthians 16:8, 1 Corinthians 16:19). Some think that the Epistle to the Galatians was also written from Ephesus, a little before the First Epistle to the Corinthians (see 1 Corinthians 16:1; Galatians 2:10); but Renan thinks it was written from Antioch, before he came to Ephesus.
The founding of a Church at Ephesus, the capital city of Proconsular Asia—a great center of Greek and Asiatic life, civil, religious, and commercial, the seat of the famous temple of Artemis, the place of concourse of all Ionia for its celebrated games—is one of those great epochs in the history of Christianity which arrest the attention and demand the consideration of the Christian reader. Not above two years (if so much) had elapsed since the Holy Ghost had expressly prohibited the preaching of the Word in Asia, for reasons which we know not; but now that prohibition is removed, and, after a preliminary movement by Apollos, we find St. Paul planting his foot firmly on the soil of Asia, and taking possession in the Name of the Lord Jesus. The banner which he then set up has never been taken down to this present hour. What the influence of the great success of St. Paul's ministry at Ephesus upon other Asiatic cities may have been, we have no means of knowing in detail; but that it was very great and widespread we learn from the tenth, twentieth, and twenty-sixth verses of this chapter. The first, second, and third chapters of the Revelation of St. John supply further important evidence, both as regards Ephesus itself and the other Churches of Asia; and so do the two Epistles of St. Paul to Timothy. From hence St. John exercised his jurisdiction over the whole of the Churches of Asia. The Epistle of Ignatius to the Church of Ephesus carries on the tradition; and we learn from later ecclesiastical history how important a position Ephesus held, being styled ἡ πρώτη καὶ μεγίστη μητρόπολις τῆς Ασίας. The third general council was held there in A.D. 431. In thus casting a hasty glance at the succeeding history of this apostolic Church, we are led to the reflection how little we know what may be the consequences of any single forward movement in the kingdom of God. The humblest servant of the Lord Jesus Christ, in a meeting with a few like-minded brethren, may be laying the foundation of institutions which will last while the Church lasts, and exercise a world-wide influence upon the destinies of mankind. A mission to a race of semi-barbarians may be the planting of a Church under whose shadow millions may hereafter walk in all the joy of Christian hope, and in all the beauty of Christian holiness. The simplest word spoken in the kingdom of God, the simplest action taken in the Name of the Lord Jesus, may be the instrument used by the power of God for advancing his own purposes of grace and salvation to untold multitudes. When Augustine had his first interview with King Ethelbert in the city of the men of Kent (Cant-wara-byrig), who could have foreseen the influence upon the Christianity and civilization of the world which that interview was destined to exercise? And so in the case of every fresh effort to preach Christ where he is not known, there is a glorious uncertainty as to the ultimate consequences of such advance. The missionaries' stammering speech telling the story of the cross to a handful of heathen may be the first step of a mighty change which shall make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water. One Heaven-born thought in the mind of a man of God, one prayer in the Holy Ghost, one faithful word of truth, may be the seed of a sacred history which shall fill, not earth only, but heaven also with enduring fruits of joy and salvation. Let St. Paul himself make the application: "Be ye steadfast, unmovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord" (1 Corinthians 15:58).
The greed of gain.
Several instructive lessons crop up from this narrative. When two people advancing from opposite directions meet in a narrow pathway, one must give way to the other. When the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ encounters the greed of gain in a human breast, either the Word, with its promises, its hopes, its commands, must stand aside that the love of money may pursue its onward course, or the worldly gain must become as dung in the eyes of the hearer of the Word. We have noble examples in such men as Moses, Elisha, Daniel, Nehemiah, Zacchaeus, Peter and the other apostles, Barnabas, Paul, and many more both in ancient and modern times, of that contempt of worldly gains in comparison with the treasures of heaven, which marks the true servant of the living God. But we have, on the other hand, many sad though instructive instances of the love of gain holding its ground and barring the entrance into the heart of love and obedience to God. It was so in the instance recorded in this section. Here was the blessed gospel of God's redeeming grace preached with extraordinary power by St. Paul, confirmed by signal miracles, attested by the conversion of multitudes, glorified by the open confession and the voluntary losses of so many professors of curious arts; it was presented with a power and a beauty to the minds of the Ephesians which seemed to be irresistible. What sweet lessons of godliness, what glorious promises of immortality, what captivating revelations of the goodness and love of God, did that gospel contain! It could set men free from sin; it could raise them to fellowship with angels; it could give them the victory over the very grave. But when Demetrius heard it he saw in it one fatal blot which obliterated all its excellences: it would destroy the trade in silver shrines. Let men once be convinced that there is one true and living God, the Lord of heaven and earth, and one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of the Father, and that to know him and love and serve him is eternal life, and there would be an end of the worship of the great goddess Diana of the Ephesians. The strangers who flocked to the pan-Ionian games would no longer crowd to the shop of Demetrius, that they might carry home with them a silver shrine; silver ornaments would no more be devoted to beautify the famous temple; the skill of the craftsmen would no longer bring them honor and respect; the faith of Jesus Christ would be the death-blow to the magnificence of Diana and to the gains of her workmen. Therefore the faith of Christ must be resisted. It must be kept out of the workmen's heart, and it must be crushed that it spread no more. The true cry was—Our gains are in danger! The pretended cry was—The honor of Diana is at stake! And this leads Us to the further remark that selfish greed seldom dares show itself without disguise. It has an instinctive consciousness of its own unworthiness as a motive of action, and even of its repulsiveness in the eyes of others. It must therefore always put on some cloak of hyprocrisy. It must simulate zeal for God or benevolence towards man. It must pretend to be seeking some end very different from the true one, or at least one to which the true end is quite subordinate. Even if it admit that "this our craft is in danger," it puts forward as the supreme danger that "her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth." And this teaches us the importance of a very close scrutiny of our own motives of action, when our worldly interests are concerned. It is astonishing how much men's judgment and their powers of discrimination are affected by considerations of interest. It is, perhaps, less common for men to act deliberately against their conviction of what is just and right than to be biased in their opinion of what is right by the disturbing force of self-interest. The man whose real aim through life is to do what is right and accept what is true, quite irrespective of any influence which his belief or his action may have upon his own temporal gains, should spare no pains to maintain a judgment quite independent of selfish considerations, and to force his conscience always to give a true verdict upon the evidence before it, unmoved by fear of loss, and unseduced by hopes of gain. Once more, the example of the Ephesian silversmiths supplies a caution, not unneeded to all Christians, against supposing that "godliness is a way of gain." A large part of the corruptions of Christianity, and of the scandalous lives of worldly minded clergy in all ages, has arisen from the attempt to make religion a source of individual gain and aggrandizement. Legacies extorted from death-bed terrors, preferment gained by unworthy means, the sale of indulgences, paid Masses for the dead, the huge treasures accumulated by divers pretences at the shrines of saints, and many other infamous devices to make religion lucrative to the professors of it, are examples of what I mean. The man of God and the chaste Church of Christ must flee these things, and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness. These are the Christian's treasures, the results of his craft, the rewards of his labors. These are the branches which grow on the stem of heavenly truth, and with these alone can he be satisfied. He covets not the wages of unrighteousness; he cares not for the silver shrines; he frames not his creed either to catch the gifts of the wealthy, or to secure the praises of the world. The practical lesson to the Christian tradesman is to beware lest the interests of his trade lead him into any antagonism with the requirements of the gospel. Certain gains may be incompatible with perfect integrity, or with a supreme regard for the honor of God, or with true love to man. Let the Christian tradesman look to it that he is always ready to sacrifice his gains to his higher Christian obligations. His willingness to do so is the test of his Christian sincerity, and it is a severe test. The voice of a thriving, growing, swelling business is a loud voice, and the fear of checking a trade and losing all is a very telling fear. The cry of a feeble business, crying for more aliment and a wider field, is a very pressing cry. Let the voice of conscience, and duty, and fealty to Christ be louder and more pressing still, so that the silver shrines may pale before the claims of the supreme Lord of all, and the treasures of the world may become as dung before the glory of the righteousness of the children of God.
HOMILIES BY W. Clarkson
Essential but insufficient; valuable but temporary.
We have here, in connection with the Christian faith and with Christian work—
I. THE ESSENTIAL BUT THE INSUFFICIENT. (Acts 19:1-5.) At Ephesus Paul met with disciples who had been baptized "unto John's baptism" (verse 3), but who had not learnt to exercise faith in Jesus Christ, nor even heard that there was a Holy Ghost (verse 2). These men were well on the way to salvation by Jesus Christ, but they were far from the goal. Repentance is essential, but it is not sufficient of itself.
1. It is essential; for without it the heart remains estranged from God, the soul unturned from self and sin, the life unrelieved of that which is false and wrong; and without it there is no sense of that spiritual need which welcomes a Divine Savior with humility and trust, which rejoices in a Divine Lord to whom full submission may be made. The Christian preacher who does not enforce repentance is fatally lacking in his duty; the Christian disciple who has not experienced it is fatally short of fulfilling the condition of acceptance with God.
2. It is not sufficient; for
(1) it leaves the soul without any pledge of Divine forgiveness;
(2) it leaves the heart without that personal union with a Divine Redeemer in which consists the very essence of spiritual and eternal life;
(3) it leaves the spirit of man without the abiding indwelling and quickening influence of the Spirit of God. Therefore let the Christian teacher make much of the distinctive doctrine of the faith he preaches, and continually testify not only "repentance towards God," but "faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ" (Acts 20:21).
II. THE VALUABLE BUT THE TEMPORARY. (Verse 6.) "When Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues," etc. It was desirable, then, that the presence and power of the Divine Spirit should be manifested by "signs and wonders." It was, at that stage of the progress of the gospel, a very valuable contribution to its triumph; it gave assurance to those on whom he came, and evidence to those who "were without." Experience soon proved (e.g. the Corinthian Church) that this order of evidence and influence was open to abuse, and that it was not of the kind that could be permanent in the Church.
1. We can plainly see that in these days it would be practically useless: it would be, to ordinary observers, indistinguishable from the jugglery and affectations of the impostor.
2. God has given us that which is better, with which we may well be content, and for the perfection of which we should strive and pray. He gives us, as the consequence of our faith and as the response to our believing prayer, quickening influences in the soul; a Divine action upon and within the spirit, of the actual working of which we are not usually conscious at the moment of operation, but the effects of which are obvious to ourselves and to others. They are these:
(1) an assurance of sonship (Romans 8:16);
(2) a desire to bear witness unto Christ, so that without any gift of tongues we shall overcome all obstacles, and speak of him and for him;
(3) a holy heart and a beautiful life (Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 5:9).—C.
The spiritual, the supernatural, and the natural.
The faithful labors of Paul in the synagogue of the Jews and the room of Tyrannus, the unusually extensive employment of the miraculous, and the discomfiture of the exorcists suggest to us—
I. THAT THE SUPERNATURAL IS TO BE SUBORDINATED TO THE SPIRITUAL. (Acts 19:8-12.) We remember how our Lord refused to gratify the unworthy craving for signs and wonders in his day: "There shall no sign be given to this generation" (Mark 8:12); repeatedly he discouraged the demand for the miraculous, because it interfered with the teaching of truth, and so with the furtherance of his spiritual work. We find Paul making comparatively little of these great "gifts;" his chronicler does not enlarge on them, but disposes of them in very few words, no doubt reproducing and reflecting thus the mind of the apostle; he himself does not make a single allusion to them in his address to the eiders at Miletus (Acts 20:1-38.); he disparages rather than magnifies their importance in his Epistles (2 Corinthians 13:1-14., 2 Corinthians 13:14.). We are led to feel that the "special miracles wrought by the hands of Paul" are of very secondary value, as compared (Acts 19:11) with his diligence in persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God" (Acts 19:8), and with his enterprise and zeal in so acting that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (Acts 19:10). We need not sigh for departed times when the gospel had some sanctions and supports which it has not now. All that is of first importance, all that is truly redemptive and Divine, abides with the Church of Christ, and will remain for ever.
1. The knowledge of the living and saving truth.
2. The love of it, and joy in it.
3. The privilege of making it known.
4. The accessibility of those heavenly influences which make it powerful and efficacious to our own hearts and to the souls of those whom we address.
II. THAT THE NATURAL CANNOT DO THE SPECIAL WORK or THE SPIRITUAL. These exorcists (Acts 19:13) had probably been so far successful that they had induced their fellow-citizens to believe that in them resided a strange power over the insane or the possessed. But when they used the name of Jesus in order to effect their object, they failed signally and disgracefully. In this respect they are types of those who attempt to do God's work without Divine weapons. Only the spiritual can do spiritual work. It is true that unspiritual men may
(1) understand much of the Divine thought;
(2) speak what they know with skill and force;
(3) assume a sacred tone and spirit, and may affect men by that assumption;
(4) maintain for years a reputation for devotion and usefulness.
But it is also true that
(1) if any spiritual result should follow, it will be through the overruling power of God,—it will not be their work, in any true sense;
(2) no considerable or permanent results will follow,—such unreal conditions will not stand the test of time;
(3) there will come exposure and humiliation, either here or hereafter. Wherefore let us honor the spiritual as that which is the one true, abiding Divine power.
(1) Welcome to our heart the first teachings and leadings of the Divine Spirit.
(2) Establish our whole life on the basis of the spiritual; live and walk "in the Spirit," as those who realize that outward shows are as nothing to the great spiritual realities.
(3) Do the work of God with spiritual weapons; not attempting to build up the kingdom of God by bodily benefits, political economies, or human philosophies. These have their place and their work, as handmaids and auxiliaries, and are by no means to be despised. But the Christian minister must make men "hear the words of the Lord Jesus," must speak of those things which distinctively "concern the kingdom of God;" he must utter specially Christian doctrine, and look for positively Divine influence.—C.
The sign of sincerity.
We are reminded by the text—
I. THAT WHEN WE ACCEPT JESUS CHRIST WE YIELD OURSELVES TO HIM. To exercise a living faith in him is to take everything from him and to give everything to him; therefore to give ourselves to him and to his service. It is to recognize and respond to his supreme claims on heart and life.
II. THAT TO GIVE OURSELVES TO CHRIST MEANS TO ABANDON ALL THAT IS HATEFUL TO HIM. HOW can we love him and not hate and shun the things which are painful and offensive in his sight?
III. THAT TO ABANDON WHAT 1.8 HATEFUL TO CHRIST IS TO PUT AWAY ALL THAT IS FALSE AND IMPURE. To live a life of imposture; to be systematically enriching ourselves at the expense of the credulity of others (as these Ephesians had been doing); to be acting falsehoods daily, or even frequently; to be introducing a large measure of vanity or folly into that which should be good and pure;—this is hateful to him who is the holy and the true One; this is unendurable by him in one who bears his name and professes to be like him and to follow him.
IV. THAT TO PUT ASIDE THAT WHICH IS PROFITABLE OR PLEASANT FOR CHRIST'S SAKE IS A SURE SIGN OF SINCERITY. The burning of these profitable "books" was the very best guarantee that could be given of the sincerity of the Ephesian converts. If we want to know how deep and true is a man's conviction, we do not ask what strong things he can say in its favor, or how eloquently he can descant upon it, or what fervor he shows on one or two occasions respecting it, but how much he is prepared to part with on its account. We ask what deep-rooted habits he will cut away, what cherished treasures he will put aside, what keen enjoyments he will forego, what money he will sacrifice, what prized but hurtful friendships he will surrender. This is the test of sincerity. A man that will do one or more of these things, "we know the proof of him."
V. THAT DELIBERATE SELF-SACRIFICE IS THE MOST APPRECIATED WITNESS WE CAN BEAR FOR CHRIST. "So mightily grew the word of God," etc. (Acts 19:20). There is no way by which we can so powerfully affect the judgment and win the sympathy of men as by sacrificing for Christ's sake that which all men prize and strive for. When the world sees all who "profess and call themselves Christians" not only engaging in devotion, and endeavoring to make converts, but also denying themselves pleasures they would otherwise enjoy, spending on others the money they would else have spent on themselves, foregoing worldly advantages which they cannot conscientiously appropriate, then it will be convinced by arguments which now are without any cogency, and will be won by persuasions which now are urged in vain.—C.
The supreme conflict.
Of all the struggles which have occurred or are now taking place in the human world, there is not one which deserves to be named in comparison with that supreme conflict which is proceeding between Divine truth and human error, between holiness and sin, between Christ and "the world." We are
I. ONE STRONG ADVERSARY WHICH HAS TO BE OVERCOME. The world will never be renovated until many strong "interests" have been bravely encountered and utterly overthrown. The gospel of Christ cannot be proclaimed in its fullness without giving occasion for many to say, here and there, now and again, "This our craft is in danger" (Acts 19:27). It is the inevitable tendency of all purifying truth, not only to eradicate evil from the hearts of men, but to bring to naught the hurtful institutions of the world. But by these men live; with these their material interests are closely bound up. Whether it be "drunkenness, slavery, or war," which have been declared to be "the three great evils which have cursed mankind." or whether it be any other harmful thing which Christ purposes to overthrow, his truth must occasionally and incidentally assail the temporal interests and prospects of men. And such is our human nature that, when it does this, it will call forth the most bitter, vehement, crafty, determined opposition. It is in this incidental way that Christ comes, "not to send peace on earth, but a sword" (Matthew 10:34). And we may learn
(1) that it is doubtful whether we are declaring the whole counsel of God, if we are provoking no hostility by our utterance;
(2) that we need not wonder that the coming of the kingdom of God is delayed when we take this envenomed hostility into account.
II. THE SUCCESS OF CHRISTIAN TRUTH, NOTWITHSTANDING. By the confession of Demetrius: "This Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people," etc. (Acts 19:26). There may have been a note of exaggeration in his speech, but it is a significant fact that these "shrines" were in much smaller request in consequence of Paul's preaching. Truth will tell, sooner or later. Against all prejudices, material interests, social habits, civil laws, military forces, it will ultimately prevail. Imperceptibly at first, but in growing numbers and accelerating force, it wins its way until it is accepted, honored, crowned.
III. THE SUBTLETY OF SIN. When the silversmiths of Ephesus find their craft in danger, they say so, plainly enough, while they confer together; but when they face the populace, they disguise their selfishness under the cloak of piety, and cry, "Great is Diana of the Ephesians" (verse 29). Sin sometimes fights without any mask at all; it shows itself in its native hideousness,—the rank, foul, selfish, shameful thing it is. But usually it seeks to conceal its ugliness by draping itself in something which is elegant and becoming. It affects piety, benevolence, patriotism; it is concerned for the comfort, the temporal necessities, or even the spiritual well-being of the world. God strikes through such miserable pretences with his penetrating eye, and it is often open to our human intelligence to recognize the hateful features beneath the graceful folds.
IV. THE WEAPONS OF DIVINE WISDOM. These are three, as suggested here.
1. Prudence. This is least in virtue and value; but it is not unimportant. The town-clerk of Ephesus is a model of the politic in behavior and address (verses 35-41); what he employed so admirably in the discharge of his secular duty, we may use advantageously in the fulfillment of our high mission. The disciples of Ephesus showed a wise prudence in not suffering Patti to enter the theatre; humanly speaking, they saved his life (verse 30). He himself prudently left the city after this great disturbance. We may be and should be politic and prudent when our caution is not cowardice nor faithlessness (John 16:8).
2. Courage. Paul was ready to go into the midst of the excited, violent, murderous multitude (verse 30). The same unfaltering courage carried him over perilous seas, into dangerous countries, among hostile peoples,-everywhere, if only he saw the Master's pointing finger or heard the cry of spiritual distress.
3. Faithfulness. It was the preaching of the cross, the telling of the old, old story of redeeming love, whatever the Jew might demand or the Gentile crave, which was the source and secret of the apostle's power.—C.
HOMILIES BY E. JOHNSON
Paul and the Baptist's disciples.
I. LESSONS FROM PAUL IN THIS RELATION. His care for souls is comprehensive, zealous, and wise.
1. "Have ye received the Holy Ghost?" Is your religion genuine? Is it profound? Is it a living consciousness of God within the soul? Or a dependence on forms, on creeds, on ideas merely? How many trained and taught as Christians must answer, "We know not yet the Holy Spirit"! the new birth, the love, "the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father"!
2. "In whom were ye then baptized?" A question also for us. What means the name "Christian" that you bear? Is the devil and all his works daily renounced? Baptism reminds us of God the Father, and of childhood to him; of God the Son, and of redemption through his blood; of God the Holy Spirit, and of the temple we ought spiritually to be. Let us ask ourselves the questions Paul asked of the disciples of the Baptist.
II. LESSONS FROM THE DISCIPLES OF JOHN THE BAPTIST.
1. They are typical, as we have seen, of many among us; and those who resemble them among us should be treated in like manner. There are those who stand upon a lower step of faith. They know that the gospel requires them to give up sin; perhaps not yet that it calls them to the perfect trust and the love that casts out fear. They confess themselves ignorant if questioned of this "higher life."
2. The testing question. A living faith, a life in conformity with the baptismal profession, a sanctified speech and life, give the only satisfactory answer.
3. The unity of all disciples under one Master. "One is your Master, and all ye are brethren" Human teachers impart their words, Christ his Spirit. Human teachers lay the foundation, give the elements; he leads on to perfection, guides to the goal. Many are the schools of philosophy, one is the Church of Jesus Christ.—J.
Work of Paul at Ephesus.
Here we have the victory of the Divine Word over the power of falsehood and evil in the minds of men. Such episodes show on a small scale what the effect of the evangelical leaven is in the world on a large scale.
I. THE POWER OF THE GOSPEL SEEN IN THE ACTIVITY OF PAUL. It becomes a two-edged sword in his hand against all the powers of darkness. Three months' continuous preaching of great evangelical truths may lay the foundation of spiritual building for the lifetime of many souls. In three relations this influence of the gospel is felt:
(1) upon the hard and unbelieving hearts (Acts 19:8-10);
(2) upon forms of sickness;
(3) upon the dark works of godless magic.
1. With reference to the first, he refused to throw pearls before swine. Or, like a faithful shepherd, he separated the untainted sheep from the rest of the flock, that they might not be injured. To attempt in act or thought to separate or excommunicate individuals from the true Church is a usurpation of Divine authority; a violent plucking of the supposed tares from the wheat. It is a different thing to go apart one's self from those believed to be in error. This is an exercise of personal liberty; the former an encroachment on the rights of others.
2. With reference to the second, it appears to have been the vital health of the inspired apostle which opposed and conquered bodily sickness. Not relics of a dead man, but clothes of a living man, were the instruments of the cure. The means are of slight importance when the Divine power is present. It was not Peter's shadow at Jerusalem (Acts 5:15), nor here at Ephesus Paul's handkerchief, which wrought the cures, but the living spiritual force in the will, that is, the faith of the worker. The Roman relic-worshipper expects life from dead things, salvation from that which in the nature of things has no healing power. Nor is the expectation of life and spiritual health from rites and ceremonies more reasonable. The service of dead works is placed in the room of the inward organ of a living faith.
3. The third mode of St. Paul's activity: the people placed in trust of God's Word had fallen into the practice of the most foolish magic arts. The impostors' mode imitate the apostle's. Not in teaching the truth nor in converting souls, but in aping the wondrous deeds of the apostle, so seeking to secure a like credit. 'Tis the way of all false teachers and spurious imitators; they can mimic the gesture, cannot catch the spirit. The counterfeit is all but the original; but an immense chasm lies in that all but! "Jesus whom Paul preaches." The faith of very many is but a faith in the faith of some one else—a dependence on hearsay, like that of these teachers. And this is weakness itself. The "seven sons of the high priest" may remind us of the old commonplace that external association with sacred things is not always favorable to piety. On the contrary, the old proverb says, "The nearer the church, the further from God." This is an extreme way of stating a patent truth. But the evil spirit defies the feeble imitator, will not yield to his spells, knows the difference between the man filled with and the man empty of God. If we advance to the combat without a call and without an inspiration, we shall incur humiliation. We cannot create an inspiration, nor call ourselves. "Paint a fire; it will not therefore burn." Mock enthusiasm will be found out. "Jesus and Paul I know; but who are ye?" Try to preach without believing your own doctrine, speak of Jesus as a Friend while the heart is averse from him; the mocking voice of the fiend will be heard within, and efforts to convince others will be as the blows of one that fighteth the air. The lie of the heart will paralyze the mightiest eloquence; but the simple truth of the conscience will be a power made manifest in weakness. The false teachers are impotent in the presence and before the attack of the passionate evil spirit; they are overpowered, and flee naked and wounded out of the house. The devil is a thankless master, and puts to shame his most zealous servants. 'Tis a condensed tragedy, this scene. A naked and a wounded soul is all that we may expect to carry from the service of falsehood.
II. THE POWER OF THE GOSPEL IN THE AWAKENED CONSCIENCE,
1. Fear fell on all. Falsehood bows before the majesty of truth. The devils give witness to Jesus. His Name is glorified by the triumph of his servants and the subjection of his foes. Silence was broken, guilty reserve vanished. Probably both converted and unconverted had sin to confess. Fear is in the soul what the earthquake and the tempest are in the physical world. It breaks up the hard crust of habit, lets the pent-up lava-floods break forth, brings purification and health in its train.
2. Confession is freely made. We have no right to force the secrets of the heart. Happy is it when they are volunteered, and when the soul brought to itself thus of its own accord "gives glory to God."
3. Practical results. We need not debate the question of the confessional." More important is it to recognize that genuine confession is followed by a renouncement of the sin. Here those who had seen the error of their superstition promptly undid it. They brought their books and burned them in public. It seems a pity that we should thus have lost valuable information. They might have renounced the teaching of the books and spared the books themselves. The records of human aberration are equally useful to us with the records of sound philosophy. Experiments that have failed will not readily be tried again. But in the fervor of a first love all is excusable. Where great corruption has prevailed, there will be presently a reaction, and extreme Puritanism will set in. Where pleasure has run to license legitimate pleasure will presently be looked upon with suspicion. The example of the Ephesians is not to be followed literally, but in spirit. Evil, like good, is everywhere present. Burn bad books, they will be read the more. Denounce "spiritualism," etc., and people's curiosity wilt be inflamed about it. Sophistry is hydra-headed: directly we seem to make little way against it. The best counsel is—Let alone what you know is injurious to you. Let the understanding be strengthened and the affections purified, and superstition will fall from the mind as an eruption disappears from the skin when the body is restored to health. "Thus mightily grew the Word of God." Live for the truth; sow it, plant it out in all minds, and let there be no room for the ill weeds to grow.—J.
The spirit of rebellion against the gospel.
The tumult at Ephesus presents a picture of certain aspects of human nature and of the contest between good and evil in the world.
I. ITS CAUSES. Most radical of all was the instinct of self-seeking. This is the dark background out of which all manner of fiendish shapes arise to contend against the light. Then it was self-seeking under the guise of religious zeal. Demetrius is the type of all those who make great professions of interest for the "truth," the "honor of God," the "cause of religion," and the like, while their real motive is personal profit, honor, or notoriety. They appear to be aiming at the highest, are really driving at the lowest object. At the same time, consistency with self gives an appearance of truth, no matter how corrupt and base the self may be. Hence selfish men often earn a credit and reputation refused to the more conscientious. For the egoist always "knows his own mind," though it be a bad mind; the conscientious man has frequent self-doubts and conflicts, the signs of which cannot be suppressed.
II. ITS MEANS AND INSTRUMENTS. The imagination of the multitude must, as usual, be acted upon. For good or for evil, great movements among the masses, are due immediately to influences upon the imagination. The preacher's power lies here, and also that of the sophist and the demagogue. The ideas connected with profit and those connected with religion have immense governing newer over the mass. We remember the commotion a few years ago among the match-makers in the east of London when it was threatened to tax their industry. So with bread-riots, land riots, and the like All the instincts of self-preservation rise against those who appear to menace the very means of existence. Religious ideas are only a degree less powerful. Society rests upon religion. We can only faintly imagine how the Athenian felt about his guardian goddess Athene, or the Ephesian about great Artemis. The Greek city was to each native as one large house or home, the very hearth of which was the altar of the god, the very foundations of which rested on reverence for that god. Here, then, were two of the mightiest instincts of human nature roused up and armed against the gospel—the self-seeking and the religious or superstitious instinct.
III. THE VICTORY OF THE TRUTH.
1. The kingdom of sense and of nature is represented by the great gods of Greece. Christianity is the kingdom of the spirit. The worship of the Greek cities was that of the beautiful; art and science were supreme. Christianity makes the moral ideal supreme.
2. The true temple is the spirit of man. And no worthy temple can be built to God unless his Spirit purify the heart, and his strength be perfected in weakness. Without the internal cultus of the heart, the external, in buildings and ritual, is vain.
3. The spiritual kingdom alone is abiding. Ephesus and its temple have long been in ruins; but against the Church of Christ the gates of hell cannot prevail.
4. The security of the faithful amidst the storm. They are concealed in a safe place till the hour of danger be over past (Acts 19:30, Acts 19:31). Help is raised up in unexpected quarters (Acts 19:35, et seq.). The storms of angry passions are subdued (Acts 19:40). The ark of the Church is guided safely through the tempest.
5. Character brought to light in troublous scenes. The chancellor at Ephesus is an example of undaunted courage, of calm prudence, of impartial justice, and of human kindness.—J.
HOMILIES BY R.A. REDFORD
Practical exemplification of Christian doctrine.
The principles involved in the case of Apollos might be lost sight of for lack of examples. He himself was so distinguished. The Church needed to be taught by a more prominent and wider illustration. The distinctions insisted on by Paul essential to Christianity. Hence the whole episode of the appearance of Apollos on the scene ordered providentially. Paul's journey through Upper Asia to Ephesus possibly hastened by his desire to watch over the spiritual work there. The gift of the Holy Ghost not a mere endowment, but a seal upon the faith as faith in Christ and his spiritual kingdom; it betokened an entire change of position and of life. The twelve disciples, probably converts of Apollos, were still occupying a Judaistic position, believing in Jesus, but only as John preached him. Their public baptism into the Name of the Lord Jesus was a public renunciation of their old standing as Jews and their acceptance of the higher platform of the spiritual kingdom. The gifts poured out on them and exercised by them was a glorious testimony to Christ in Ephesus. Learn—
I. THE SUPREMACY OF THE GOSPEL.
1. To Judaism.
2. To reformed Judaism with the new hopes revived in it by John.
3. To mere moral change and reformation of life.
II. THE PRACTICAL POWER OF A TRUE FAITH. Those that believed as Paul would have them believe became, not only spiritual men, but preachers. The faith which evangelizes is not a cold assent to truth, not a mere principle of religious reverence and order regulating the individual life, not a mere setting of Christ on the throne of the intellect as the highest Teacher, but a faith which works by love through the energy el the Spirit bestowed. They believe, and therefore speak. The test of true faith is its aggressive tendency. That which sits at home is paralyzed.—R.
(or Acts 19:20).
Triumphs of the gospel at Ephesus.
Asiatic character of the superstitions prevalent Dark. degraded mysterious Amulets and charms. Magical words. Exorcism. Not merely among the lower classes, but throughout the city. A dead man said to have spoken from the funeral pile. A wrestler with magic scroll round his body always victorious. Magic an elaborate, abstruse, difficult science, contained in learned books, studied for many years. Notice, therefore—
I. THE PECULIAR GRACIOUSNESS of the miracles wrought at Ephesus, as speaking so loudly against the prevalent superstitions.
1. As showing forth a greater power than was dreamed of amongst men.
2. As connecting the working of signs with the messages of mercy. Paul disclaimed all power of his own, and simply invited faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.
3. As rebuking and dishonoring the falsehoods and presumptions of those who were enslaving the people.
4. As revealing the benevolence and philanthropy of the gospel in distinction from the selfish and sordid practices of those who used sorcery for their own profit.
II. THE MARVELLOUS SPIRITUAL POWER PUT FORTH. The whole neighborhood ringing with the fame of the miracles and with the story of the gospel.
1. The special difficulty of effecting a change in such men. Their interests involved. Their pride wounded. Their ignorance and self-deception binding them fast.
2. The vastness of the change wrought. The burning of the books, their very means of livelihood. The value great—two thousand pounds stealing. The publicity of the act made it irrevocable.
3. The widespread influence of such a testimony, more than words, more than personal confession. It would preach the gospel to all Asia.
4. The beneficent effect on the future of the people in delivering them from the entanglement of magical superstitions, and so leaving them open to the preaching of the gospel. "Fear fell upon them all, and the Name of the Lord Jesus was magnified (of the similar event at Florence under the preaching of Savonarola).—R.
Acts 19:21, Acts 19:22
The purpose of a great heart.
I. An example of INTENSE DEVOTEDNESS.
1. Care of the Churches. Bad news from Corinth. Apostolic supervision required. Help for the poor saints at Jerusalem.
2. Love of souls. The message must be preached everywhere, even at Rome.
3. Self-sacrifice. The labors at Ephesus great. The weakness of the apostle a constant temptation to lessen his toil. The prospect both at Jerusalem and at Rome one of dark suffering, persecution, and probable death.
II. THE PURPOSE OF GOD BLENDING WITH THE PURPOSE OF MAN.
1. No self-assertion, but simply absorbing desire to be employed for God.
2. Although the course of events unforeseen, yet the issue worked out gave the apostle "the desire of his heart."
3. The separation from Ephesus, which might have been painful and injurious to the Church there, prepared for by the occurrences in the city. It was necessary that Paul should go for his own personal safety. The disciples willingly parted with him.—R.
A popular riot.
A glimpse into the darkness of the heathen world. Passions pent up let loose. The deep foundation of heathen superstition in the selfish, immoral practices of those who ministered to it. The widespreading effects of true religion in revolutionizing the habits and customs. Society must be reformed by the action of spiritual principles from within, not by merely external changes. Ignorance is the mother of disorder. The conflicts of the world are the result of the antagonism of good and evil. All wars proceed from religious roots. The true and abiding peace is the fruit of no other tree than that which God has planted. Notice—
I. ALL FALSE RELIGION RESORTS TO VIOLENCE TO PROTECT ITSELF. Idolatry was afraid of the truth. The corrupt Church has condemned itself by the use of such methods. All departure from the peaceful spirit of Christ has wrought evil results.
II. ALL BUSINESS WHICH PROFITS BY THE IGNORANCE, SUPERSTITION, AND EVIL PASSIONS OF MEN IS INCONSISTENT WITH THE GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY. The immoral traffic by which men satisfy their greed of wealth cannot be too strenuously denounced. True religion remodels society in all respects. The working men should be taught that Christianity is their best friend; not any form of it, but the pure gospel.
III. EVEN IN THE HEATHEN WORLD GOD HAD WITNESSES TO HIMSELF. In Roman law and discipline; in common sense; in that natural religion, which doubtless prompted the more cultivated men of the time to doubt the extravagances of idolatry; in the moral instincts of conscience, which could appreciate the law-abiding and peaceful efforts of the new teachers and protect them from mob violence.
IV. Comparing this scene and its revelations with the Epistle to the Ephesians, we learn how the TRUTHS OF CHRIST WERE ADAPTED TO LIFT UP MIND, HEART, AND LIFE in the heathen world, substituting a better worship, a purer theology, a more stable society, a grander future, for all that then held mankind in bondage. "Silver shrines to Artemis" being abolished, the handicraft of men is turned to build up the earthly state, that it may bless those who live in it and the God to whose Name it is consecrated.
V. Face to face with the disorderly violence of the ignorant and misguided, the rule of all Christian enterprise is to withdraw as much as possible from contention; not to meet violence with violence, but to trust implicitly to THE ABSOLUTE SUPERIORITY OF MORAL OVER PHYSICAL FORCE. "Force is no remedy." Let the potsherd strive with the potsherd. Religion should regulate politics and social life by indirect means. As far as opportunity permits, the regulation of earthly matters should be left in the hands of the secular powers. Let the town-clerk dismiss the assembly. Let not Paul mix himself up in the strife. "Cast not your pearls before swine." Jesus did not strive, nor cry, nor make his voice heard in the streets.—R.
HOMILIES BY P.C. BARKER
Baptism in the Name of the Lord Jesus, and its sequel
The exceeding economy of Scripture will prevent our supposing that these verses lie on the page of Scripture for no end, and will equally prevent our supposing they are present for no distinct and important end. Starting from quite the opposite creed, we are led to notice—
I. THAT THE STRESS OF THE PASSAGE BELONGS, NOT TO THE SUBJECT OF BAPTISM, BUT TO THE SUBJECT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. The point of departure of Paul is from the question, "Did ye receive the Holy Ghost when ye believed?" His first inquiry is not respecting the baptism of those whom he was addressing.
II. THAT THE DISPENSATION OF CHRISTIANITY IS TO BE EMPHATICALLY APPRAISED AS THE DISPENSATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. Too little stress is ever laid upon this grand fact. Too much stress cannot possibly be laid upon it. And whatever the causes of the former of these things, it may be said that the apostle, from the very first, did what in him lay to provide against a defect so disastrous in its certain tendency and work.
III. THAT BAPTISM IS THE NAME OF THE LORD JESUS, WHATEVER REFERENCE IT MAY OBVIOUSLY AND FOR OBVIOUS REASONS CARRY TO HIM, IS EQUIVALENT TO THE SIGN OF ADMISSION TO ALL THE PRIVILEGES OF THE SPIRIT, AND TO IMPLICIT SUBMISSION ON THE PART OF THOSE OF MATURE YEARS TO THE FULL RULE OF THE SPIRIT.
IV. THAT TO INVEST THIS FACT WITH THE GREATEST POSSIBLE PLAINNESS AND EMPHASIS, EVEN THE SPECIAL GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IN APOSTOLIC TIMES WERE BESTOWED AS THE SEQUEL OF BAPTISM IN THE NAME OF THE LORD JESUS.—B.
Acts 19:9, Acts 19:10
The shelter awhile of young converts.
We must be conscious, in reading this passage, of something approaching a new point of departure on the part of Paul. He was not the man hitherto to shrink from either the malice of the synagogue or the uproar of the market-hall. But there were reasons why, with so long a stay at Ephesus, the company of the disciples should be "separated, and some foreshadowing be now given, under the continued supervision of Paul, of what should come to be the form of an individual Christian Church. And we have here the nucleus of this. We are reminded of the Church of Christ, as existing in any individual place, that it should be answerable to find—
I. A HOME OF SOME SAFETY FOR DISCIPLES. Such a home should be able to show:
1. Shelter from the "hardened" world; the world that does not believe, and resolutely will not believe; the world that, being thus disposed as to itself, is also manifestly disposed to disturb the belief and peace of those who do believe, seeking to enter in to ravage "the flock" (Acts 20:29). This it was abundantly easy to do in the synagogue by every kind of dishonest quibble and disputatious debate. It should not be by any means so possible within the fold of the Church.
2. Teaching of the truth. The truth should be certain of being obtained here, and the teacher should be competent. He will teach, not by force of authority, but by persuasion of the truth. He will be listened to and esteemed because he shall prove his word, and prove it to be a word of power.
3. Sympathizing companionship. It is needed
(1) for prayer and the exercises of religion;
(2) for daily social life;
(3) for the stimulating of religious purpose and work.
II. AN OPEN DOOR OF ENTRANCE AND A WELCOME FOR THE WORLD.
1. Nothing more dishonors the place of the Church of Christ, or disowns all that is most characteristic of his Spirit, than exclusiveness.
2. The door of entrance is to be large enough to admit not only the honest seekers, not only those who already show the signs of penitence, not only those by nature humble and meek, but all who will enter—the worst, the most unpromising. These cannot, indeed, enter into the Church itself of Christ; but even to them welcome may be given to the place of the Church, that "haply they may be born" again therein. If, indeed, they enter and stay to show themselves the disturbers of disciples and the resolutely "hardened," we have here our authority how to proceed. But otherwise let them be free to enter within the walls of Zion. Let them there hear the Word and, if needs be, debate it. Let them be free to hear the prayers and join the songs of disciples; for "much people" for Christ may be amongst them. This is at least one of the ways by which the world is to be gained for Christ. It does not, indeed, exempt the Church from missionary and "aggressive" work—work which probably, in the more settled ecclesiastical state of our own country, has been lamentably overlooked. But it appears that it was the method by which, during "the space of two years, all they which dwelt in Asia heard the Word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks." When the world's turbulent streams dash by that river, full and deep and peaceful, of the city of God, the very contrast will arrest attention and arouse reflection in not a few.—B.
Acts 19:11, Acts 19:12
Under ordinary circumstances this description of miracles wrought by God by the hands of Paul might be liable to the supposition is here that it is found. And when we look a moment beneath the surface we discover ample justification for the epithet applied to these miracles. Let us observe—
I. IN WHAT THE SPECIALTY OF THESE MIRACLES CONSISTS. We are taught the answer in one verse.
1. They are wrought without the laying on of the hands of Paul, without his presence, without his voice, without (so far as appears) even any knowledge on his part of the persons or the needs of the persons who received healing. These four circumstances do incontestably entitle them to the description of "special;" the nearest approach to them being miracles of the kind that were wrought when one touched "the hem of the garment" of Jesus. But Jesus did then perceive and know that "virtue was gone out of him."
2. They are wrought with intervening signs of most unusual kind; the connecting visible links being handkerchiefs and aprons that have been in some contact with the body of the apostle, and are now carried to the sick and possessed by any one—presumably any one of their friends. The nearest approach to anything so "special" as this may, perhaps, be considered to occur in the conduct of those who brought their sick on their couches into the streets, that haply the mere "shadow of Peter might overshadow some of them" (Acts 5:15). But in these cases there was far nearer and closer connection between the miracles wrought (if such were wrought) and Peter than the connection of handkerchiefs fitfully carried by any one.
II. THE OBJECTS OF THIS SPECIALTY OF MIRACLE.
1. To arrest a lively attention.
2. To suggest really far deeper thoughtfulness in all those who had thought to think.
3. To spread far and wide blessings themselves, each one of which had a hundred tongues to speak the praise of some one.
4. To attract attention to the miracle itself and the blessing wrapt in it and to the real Worker of it, rather than to suffer attention to be distracted by an apparently too close relation of the miracle to Paul personally. It is true that many in their blindness might still think and speak of all the wonderfulness of Paul, and even of the body of Paul. But yet others would be helped to see (what with time all the world would be sure to see) that it was no more due to Paul than to the handkerchief, that the miracle was wrought, but all due to God, and all to his praise and glory.
III. THE MORE GENERAL AND PERMANENT LESSONS OF THIS SPECIALTY OF MIRACLE. For the "special miracle" helps to reveal only the more definitely and distinctly the meaning of any miracle.
1. It is for the attainment of a great moral end; to give sufficient and just ground, for instance, to believe, to trust, and to act the things which, without it, might be only believed and trusted by credulity, or not at all.
2. It is to attain this moral end, without overriding the exercise of men's own reason and heart and conscience. The just suggestions of a miracle, forcible as they ought to prove, are still only moral helps and guides.
3. The miracle is so far forth for darker days and for the more backward stages of humanity. The foundation work for much to be built upon as time should travel on; the time fittest for the miracle is the earlier time, the more childish time of the world. Then the besetting snare of the miracle would, at all events, count for less harm, and the moral good of it would be enshrined a "possession for ever."
4. The miracle is useless if permanent. Evidently the day of miracle was drawing near its end when Peter's shadow was waited for. But very near indeed to its end was it when even Scripture says, "God wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul." If their end had not been now near, one of two things must have followed. Either they must have taken their place as grateful resources for the healing of the diseased and the dispossessing of the possessed, or, in order to keep their moral virtue and effect, they must have been becoming in long vista yet more and more "special."—B.
The prompt exposure and punishment of human iniquity by an evil spirit.
Of the character of these exorcists there can be no doubt Their deceiving and iniquitous profession was one for gain, and gain only was in their hearts. With less hesitation even than Simon Magus (Acts 8:18, Acts 8:19), they propose to themselves to take their chance at least in using and abusing the "glorious and fearful Name." And they suffer for their blasphemous and profane attempt. Notice—
I. THE PRESUMPTION INVOLVED.
1. They dare to try the use of the name of Jesus without any authority. No doubt Paul was cognizant of the aprons and handkerchiefs taken from his body, and willingly authorized the proceeding. Nothing analogous, however, finds place now with the exorcists.
2. They use that Name to supersede and as an experimental substitute for the name, or odious deceptive practices, whatever they were, which they had been accustomed to use.
3. They do this for no high-minded ambitious (even if erroneous) adventure, but doubtless for the adventure of money gain alone.
4. Those who do it are Jews, and they are sons of one who was "chief of the priests," and they conspire, seven in number, to do it.
II. THE EXPOSURE.
1. It is the exposure, not of Paul (as in the case of Simon Magus it was of Peter), nor of the horror of true disciples, nor of Heaven's intervention by lightning or thunderbolt.
2. A more humiliating exposure is reserved for these. Even the evil spirit cannot bear the presumptuous and intolerably conceived iniquity. And in the keen satire of truth, which perhaps none know better to accentuate than evil spirits, this ill spirit resents the puny challenge and scathes the hollow deception by a question following upon an honest enough confession, "Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are ye?"
3. The mournfully afflicted man himself joins to make patent the exposure. No doubt already by the usurped organs of his speech it was that the ill spirit had uttered forth his trenchant rebuff, but now the record gives us to understand that the man himself (from whatever source he gained his inspiration) joined hand and limb, and suited the action to the word. The exposure surely needed no more to make it complete.
III. THE PUNISHMENT.
1. It was summary. Naked and wounded, the seven fled out of that house.
2. It was retributive. The man on whom they had experimented, and perhaps not now for the first time, had doubtless (like he of the tombs) often been "naked and wounded;" but now it is they who are in this plight.
3. It was essentially humiliating. "Seven flee before one" (Deuteronomy 28:7, Deuteronomy 28:25), and him the despised or pitied one of long time!
4. It was humiliating in its circumstances. For it was not only patent at the time, but it became notorious. "It was known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling at Ephesus." So sometimes even now iniquity reaches its height, the cup is filled to the full, the bold daring face that sin sets to heaven is overwhelmed with confusion, and the hour of judgment is arrived.
IV. THE EFFECTS. Whatever may be said too often, too inconsiderately in modern days, to the disparagement of faith in miracles and faith in prayer, and among other things faith in providence and the veritable nearness of the Divine hand, "strong to save" or "swift to smite," there is no doubt that these things were all heartily believed in by the early Church. They were also believed in by many who were not "disciples." Nor is this evidence traveling down from those who were on the spot in the alleged age and place of miracles unimportant. In the present history, just as true as anything else recorded, must this be held, when we read that the great effect was that "fear fell on them all, and that the Name of the Lord Jesus was magnified." If we are open to learn, we may receive help in the firm persuasion that there was such a thing as the possession by alien and evil spirits of the organs of the human body; that there was such a thing as miracle, special Divine interposition to the suspension of the ordinary course of things; and, dread suggestion that by whomsoever else, evil spirits are not to be overmastered by, but rather overmaster, evil men.—B.
Practical evidence of genuine repentance.
The evidence which" many of them that believed" now came and gave, of the vitality of their faith and the reality of their repentance, was conclusive. And the very thought of it is refreshing as we read it. Here follow four grand evidences of a genuine "faith in Jesus" and "repentance from dead works."
I. TO COME VOLUNTARILY AND CONFESS.
II. TO DISCLOSE, AND TO DISCLOSE VOLUNTARILY, UNDER NO PRESSURE OF TORTURE OR INDUCEMENT OF FEAR OR BRIBE.
III. TO REPUDIATE FORMER WAYS, EVEN THOUGH THEY WERE THE WAYS OF LIFE'S LENGTH, OF GETTING A LIVELIHOOD.
IV. TO PUBLICLY RENOUNCE THE VERY INSTRUMENTS BY WHICH THE FORMER LIFE AND PROFESSION WERE SUSTAINED. This renunciation was particularly satisfactory in the present instances, inasmuch as it was:
2. A renunciation of large value of capital.
3. A determined putting away from the eyes the things that had often fed temptation.
4. And an effort to put the old evil course, as far as might be possible, out of memory itself. To this hardest thing of all God would give his gracious and effectual help, for its very endeavor's sake.—B.
A typical exhibition of human nature.
This section of the history marks itself off—an episode which gave apostles and disciples, albeit in a very modified time, to rest, and made them spectators of an ample display of certain aspects of human nature. The world, ever ready to arm against the truth, and especially against Christ, the first distinct and bright embodiment of truth, is left sometimes to fight out its own battles. And the amount of smoke in which they end is sometimes, as in the present case, something wonderful. Notice—
I. THE ADMITTED ROOT OF GRIEVANCE WITH THE WORLDLY MAN. The illustration which Demetrius here affords of what is often deepest down in the heart of the world—love of money gain, faith in money gain, the illusion that money gain is the one thing needful, and by which alone men live—seems for a moment pleasantly relieved by his apparent free admission of it. Any sense of relief, however, arising from this consideration is speedily largely discounted:
1. By the fact that the ready admission of it but speaks the deeper root of the malady, and that it is a fact grown to be viewed as venial, perhaps natural, nay, very probably necessary, and therefore true to right nature.
2. By the fact that the admission, though apparently free enough, was, when it occurred, only of a semi-public character. Demetrius owns and unfolds the state of his own mind, not to the wide world, but to his own "craftsmen," whose sympathies would lie very near his own—and he knew it.
II. THE UNDERTAKING TO ENLIST A VASTLY WIDER CIRCUMFERENCE OF FEELING, BY MIXING THE PERSONAL OR AT MOST CLASS GRIEVANCE UP WITH THE RELIGIOUS SENSE OF "ALL ASIA AND THE WORLD? The opportunity was no doubt a tempting one. And though too evident to allow of its inferring any great talent on the part of Demetrius, yet he skillfully avails himself of it. Some persons will miss very tempting opportunities, which are as evident as they may be tempting. "The children of this world are," however, "wiser in their generation," as a rule, "than the children of light;" and this was one instance of it. It took most successfully.
1. It is the speedy outcry of" the whole city." And the movement spread so rapidly from the craftsmen class interest, that when the whole city is "come together" (Acts 19:32), "the more part knew not wherefore." It made little difference. They had their throats and their limbs with them, and a couple of victims, "Gains and Aristarchus" (Acts 19:29), traveling "companions of Paul."
2. Most combustible fuel was forthcoming to add to the fire, in the person of a Jew (Acts 19:34), who was probably unpopular with his own people. He was thrust into prominence by his own people (Acts 19:33), either that he might be their scapegoat and bear the brunt, or possibly because he was judged to be the most competent man. Of this view there is some evidence in his ready preparedness to address the surging multitude and to "make his defense." Anyway, for two hours more did the conflagration burn more fiercely for that one move. And it was a move which derived its force from "the burning religious question."
3. The success of the scheme of Demetrius is illustrated most significantly in what it elicited from the lips of the "town-clerk" (Acts 19:37, Acts 19:38), especially in his huge fallacy of asserting to acclamation
—the outward signs of repentance and mortification, but something was manifestly lacking for their spiritual completeness." In his anxiety to find out what was wrong, the apostle asked this searching question, "Did ye receive the Holy Ghost when ye believed?" They did not; they knew nothing about the Holy Ghost. So St. Paul lifts them on stage after stage. First to the apprehension of Christ, the Messiah and Savior, to whom John gave witness, and then to the experience of the coming and the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, as the seal of the believer. And in this we are plainly taught that there is a progression in Christian truth—that it is unfolded to us in parts and stages. And we may even cherish the inspiring assurance that "the Lord hath yet more light and truth to break forth from his Word." A sentiment is allowed to prevail that "revelation must always be perfect and complete." It is always perfect in its fitness to its times and to its purpose, but any particular revelation is only a piece and a part of the truth, and it is imperfect when it is treated as separate from the whole of which it is a part.
1. There is historical progression in Divine revelation. Broad principles, covering the general relations of God with men, were given to the early world. Each passing age was helped to fill in some part of the outline. There was a fullness of times for the manifestation of Messiah, and, step by step, truth had advanced to meet the revelation which he brought.
2. There is progression in our apprehension of the Christian truth. No man can grasp it all at once. It comes to us all bit by bit, step by step. Some of the more advanced Christian truths cannot possibly be grasped until certain other and preparatory ones are well learned; and some even of these preparatory truths cannot be really grasped until we have passed through the sanctified experiences of middle life. Take, for instance, the Fatherhood of God. A man must experimentally learn the mystery of the human fatherhood before he can really receive the full revelation of the Divine Fatherhood. As a son he may know how he feels towards the Father, but until he is a father he cannot know how the great Father feels towards him. In the matter of our salvation the Divine order of progress seems to be
(1) John and repentance;
(2) Jesus and faith;
(3) the Spirit and holiness.
I. IS THE PROGRESSION OF CHRISTIAN TRUTH, THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY GHOST IS THE HIGHEST REVELATION YET MADE. It comes last. It comes after and through the objective Christ. It is the inward witness to him who lived, labored, died, and rose," God manifest in the flesh." The spiritual operations of God in men's minds and hearts may be traced in Old Testament times. All spiritual life always is by the energy of God's Spirit. And the specialty of the working of the Holy Ghost in the new kingdom is not that he is some new Spirit, but that his agencies of motive, persuasion, and instruction are all taken from the manifested life of the Son of God. He "takes of the things of Christ, and reveals them unto us." Our Lord said of him, "He shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you."
II. THE TRUTH OF THE HOLY GHOST, BEING THE HIGHEST TRUTH, IS THE ONE WHOSE PRACTICAL INFLUENCE IS MOST ESSENTIAL TO HIGH AND HOLY LIVING. We are responsible for attaining the best that can be attained. We are not at the highest when we accept of the truth of Christ for us; that is but a low first step of spiritual apprehension. We have but taken a little step]up when we apprehend the truth of Christ with us. We only gain the wonderful experiences, and reach the highest Christian power, when we know of Christ in us. All growth in the Christian life is response to the life of the Spirit in our souls. Growth
(1) in knowledge;
(2) in graces;
(3) and in the mastery of the soul over the body.
His presences and his working in us are the spring of all our impulses to whatsoever is good and wise and true.
III. THE TRUTH OF THE SPIRIT, BRING THE HIGHEST TRUTH, IS THE ONE MOST EASILY IMPERILLED. Therefore we should be most jealous of the doctrine and the personal experience of the indwelling of the Holy Ghost. The Christian sin that is of unspeakable sadness is quenching or grieving the Spirit. The sin that hath never forgiveness is sin against the Holy Ghost. The prayer that utters forth to God a soul's innermost agony is this: "Take not thy Holy Spirit from me." The highest truths are always likely to fade first. In the individual experience, and in the Church doctrine, the truth of the Spirit will fade from its place and power long before any dimness seems to pass over the figure of the manifested human Christ. Trees mostly die from the top downward. And the first effect of wearing and weathering is to rub off those delicate touches and tints, which are the highest efforts of the artist, and give the supreme charm to his work. Impress that we may be, like these Ephesians, behind the revelation that has been made for us, or indifferent to it. Then we may pity them, but we must blame ourselves. And we must humble ourselves, and repent, if, knowing of this gentle, awful, gracious, comforting Holy Ghost, we are found neglecting his Divine inworkings. He is the last and highest revelation of God to men; then let us not "grieve the Holy Spirit of God, whereby we are sealed unto the day of redemption."—R.T.
The first Christian congregation.
St. Paul had before this taken a room near the synagogue at Corinth, but it seems that this case at Ephesus represents the first distinct effort to form a Christian congregation, with its own order and officers, as separate from the synagogue. Now St. Paul casts himself free of Judaism; the time had come for separation, and for arranging a distinctly Christian organization. The school of Tyrannus was a public hall for lecturing and discussion. Canon Farrar says, "There must have been many an anxious hour, many a bitter struggle, many an exciting debate, before the Jews finally adopted a tone, not only of decided rejection, but even of so fierce an opposition, that St. Paul was forced once more, as at Corinth, openly to secede from their communion. We do not sufficiently estimate the pain which such circumstances must have caused to him. His life was so beset with trials, that each trial, however heavy in itself, is passed over amid a multitude that were still more grievous. But we must remember that St. Paul, though a Christian, still regarded himself as a true Israelite, and he must have felt, at least as severely as a Luther or a Whitefield, this involuntary alienation from the religious communion of his childhood." We do but suggest three lines of thought; the treatment of them will depend upon the standpoint of the preacher.
I. SEPARATION AS AFFECTING THE IDEA OF THE CHURCH. Several distinct conceptions of Christ's Church on earth are found established among Christian people. Show how the idea of separation stands related to each; and how the Church, as a whole, ought to stand to any separated members.
II. SEPARATION AS AFFECTING THE FELLOWSHIP OF CHRISTIANS. Show that as fellowship depends on common Christian life and interests, we may reasonably expect it to triumph over differences in modes of worship, places of worship, and even over diversities of opinion.
III. SEPARATION AS AFFECTING THE RELATIONS OF MINISTERS TO SECTIONS. Especially point out the peril of over-estimating the point of division, and setting it in undue prominence in public teaching. A minister may preach sectional opinion rather than the "whole counsel of God."—R.T.
The call for special miracles.
It should be carefully shown that Scripture miracles are never mere wonders, or displays of mere power. They are always signs, and always wrought for the sake of some immediate or prospective moral benefit. This may be affirmed, however singular the mere form of the miracle may be. The circumstances under which God sees fit to allow his servants to work miracles need careful examination and consideration. In connection with the text we find special circumstances. St. Paul had separated the disciples, and formed a distinct Christian community. For his own sake, and for the satisfaction of the people, it was important that some attestation of the Divine approval should be given. The question had to be settled—Was the Christian community, thus separately constituted, as fully under the power of the Holy Ghost as the older Jewish Christian community had been? The speciality of the miracles is designed to intimate that, under these circumstances, a new and mightier baptism of God's Spirit came upon the apostle, so that, apart from conscious efforts of his own will, healing virtue went forth from him. It is also noticed that "This great effusion of healing power, which, it is implied by the tense of the verb wrought, continued for some time, was granted as a counterpoise to the magical and theurgic practices to which the Ephesians were addicted" (verses 13,19). In explanation of the agency of "handkerchiefs and aprons," the following notes from Eastern travelers may be helpfully suggestive:—Thomson, in 'The Land and the Book,' says, "The external instruments connected with working miracles had, in ancient times, transferred to them, in imagination, a portion of the sanctity and reverence due to him who used them, or to that Divine power which was transmitted through them. This applied not only to the staves, robes, and mantles of prophets while living, but to such things as their bones also, and even their very gravestones, when dead. It is now common to bind on or wrap round the sick some part of the robes of reputed saints, in the belief that healing virtue will be communicated from it." Morier says, "At a short distance, near the roadside, we saw the burial-place of a Persian saint, enclosed by very rude walls. Close to it grew a small bush, upon the branches of which were tied a variety of rags and remnants of garments. The Persians conceive that these rags, from their vicinity to the saint, acquire peculiar preservative virtues against sickness; and, substituting others, they take bits away, and, tying them about their persons, use them as talismans." How far God was pleased to fit in with the common sentiment of the age, in his gracious condescension, requires consideration; we may observe that such special manifestations of miraculous powers were strictly temporary, limited to the particular occasion for which they were required. We view these "special miracles" as the outward sign of three things.
I. GOD'S APPROVAL OF ST. PAUL'S ACTION IN SEPARATING THE DISCIPLES. That action had been intensely trying to the apostle himself; and a very questionable thing to the view of the synagogue folk, and of the disciples who followed the apostle. If miraculous attestations had been withheld just at this juncture, the enemies of St. Paul would have been enabled to assert the Divine disapproval of his conduct, and St. Paul would himself have been disheartened. Compare how graciously now God often gives success to his servants when they are called to take special action; giving them converts in unusual numbers, and so silencing their adversaries.
II. GOD'S ATTESTING PRESENCE WITH THE CHURCH'S LIFE AND LABOR. In those days miracles were the strong affirmation,—" God is with us." The very point of them is that they were wrought in the power of God. The very purpose of them is to bring home to men's hearts the conviction that what the miracle-worker says is from God, seeing that, so evidently, what he does is from God. Miracles are needed when men are dependent on outward and sensible proofs. Miracles are not needed when men are able to estimate moral and spiritual proofs. And, therefore, miracles are not needed now.
III. GOD'S CONDESCENSION IN PERSUADING THE EPHESIANS BY ADAPTING HIS DEALINGS TO THEIR SENTIMENTS. They were inclined to magic, and based their belief on superstitious rites. God would not admit the truth of their "black arts," but he would consider the tone and temper of mind which characterized them, and adapt his dealings so as to meet their prejudices and persuade them. So teaching us that while we must never misrepresent or prejudice God's truth, we must always seek so to know men that we may adapt our presentations of truth to them, and meet them on their more impressionable sides.—R.T.
Acts 19:18, Acts 19:19
Signs of religious sincerity.
The incidents narrated in these verses suggest the subject of the demands which men feel that a Christian profession makes upon their practical life and conduct. It appears that these disciples at Ephesus had been converted for some time before they made these sacrifices; but presently the relation of the Christian truth to their magical and superstitious sentiments was fully recognized, and they were impelled to destroy the books which had been associated with their early religious beliefs. "Ephesus was the chief seat of the black art at this time, and the popular mind was familiar with the pretension to supernatural gifts and endowments, and by its experience in sorceries and charms was in a measure hardened against the due effect of miracles." "Magicians and astrologers swarmed in her streets, and there was a brisk trade in the charms, incantations, books of divination, rules for interpreting dreams, and the like, such as have at all times made up the structure of superstition." "By actually destroying the books, they not only acknowledged the sinfulness of the practices taught therein, but also cut off at once and absolutely the possibility of relapse on their own part, or of leaving a temptation or stumbling-block in the way of others." But the books burned were private property, and did not stop the evil work of those who made and sold such books. In one form or in another the question always comes before the new converts—What are you prepared to give up for Christ's sake?
I. SINCERE AND EARNEST CHRISTIAN LIFE IS ALWAYS, IN GREATER OR LESS DEGREE, ANTAGONISTIC TO THE FORMER LIFE. A man may take up with religion as a mere matter of profession, and find that such a religion makes little or no demand for change in his general sentiments or conduct. But if a man is truly regenerate, if religion is to him a serious, searching reality, he will soon find out that it is out of harmony with much in his former life, and as he cannot give up the religion he must give up the old habits and indulgences. This applies not only to such evils as intemperance and immorality, but also to more minute forms of questionable indulgence. Earnest Christian life is found to be corrective of even our cherished ideas, our views of truth and duty; and the most moral and amiable man is made so sensitive to purity and truth by a Divine regeneration that he finds something in his former life and thought which is out of harmony with his new feeling. It appears, therefore, that our Lord's principle is much more minutely searching than we imagine it to be: "Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them." The point of this head may be represented in full detail, as it concerns the several classes of a congregation. The principle enunciated will gain force by precise application to the class evils which sincere piety resists.
II. SINCERE AND EARNEST CHRISTIAN LIFE CAN ONLY BE MAINTAINED BY SETTING LIFE, ACTION, AND RELATIONS IN RIGHT TONE. A man may feel how opposed his sentiments and his habits are to the Christian profession he makes, and yet he may do nothing towards readjusting their relations. He may try to live his old self-willed life, and at the same time try to keep his faith in Christ and his soul-allegiance to him. But the point on which we now insist is, that he cannot do this. He imperils his Christian life in the attempt. He keeps himself open to Satanic temptations. He is in the almost hopeless, and certainly dishonorable, condition of those who, in olden times, "feared the Lord and served other gods." Full consistency between life and profession is absolutely necessary. In any case of conflict between the two, the Spirit of God will help us to a victory. If, even in small matters, we fail to keep the full harmony between piety and conduct, piety loses its tone, and gradually its very life. Formalism can allow license. Piety never can.
III. EFFORTS TO ADJUST CONDUCT SO AS TO MATCH RELIGION MAY INVOLVE SERIOUS SACRIFICE. As in the case of these Ephesian Christians. They destroyed books representing a great wealth. They might have sold them; but since others might be injured by them, they destroyed them, at great personal sacrifice. Illustration may be taken from certain forms of trade, which Christians feel they can no longer carry on; or from certain pleasures, in which they feel they can no longer indulge. Impress, in conclusion, the teaching of our Lord about the foolishness of the man who would take up a Christian profession, and does not "sit down first and count the cost."—R.T.
The prevailing power of the Word.
"So mightily grew the Word of the Lord and prevailed." Compare other Scripture figures; e.g. "His Word runneth very swiftly "(Psalms 147:15). "Finally, brethren, pray for us, that the Word of the Lord may have free course, and be glorified" (2 Thessalonians 3:1).
I. THE GROWING POWER OF GOD'S WORD. Reference is to the gospel message—the tidings brought to men concerning Jesus Christ; the message brought by Jesus Christ, the message centering in, and gathering round, Jesus Christ. Put into all kinds of moulds and shapes and forms of language, the "Word of the Lord" is this: The heavenly Father has himself overcome the hindrances and separating difficulties dividing him from his children. He is become a reconciling God, and in Jesus Christ his Son he is willing to pardon; he is waiting to welcome back home every returning, repenting, believing child. The apostle thinks of this gospel message as a "living thing," and so he speaks of its "growing." Wherever there is life there is growth. If there be life in the seed, there will be growth of blade, breaking the soil, and shooting up into the light. If growth ever ceases in our bodies, death ensues. And so, if there be life in God's gospel, it will have the power of widening, spreading, and enlarging its influence. The sign of growth noticed in connection with the text is the power which Christian truth increasingly gained over the feelings and the conduct of the Ephesian disciples, leading them to a most impressive public act of self-denial. Show that the growth takes two forms.
(1) Inward growth; the gospel as the soul's new life, gaining an ever-increasing self-mastery.
(2) Outward growth; the gospel as a testimony, winning more and more adherents as it is proclaimed more fully and widely. And impress
(3) that these two modes of growth are mutually related and mutually helpful. Culture of inward spiritual life always should bear its fruit in enlarged Christian activity; and greater energy put into Christian work should always be felt to make greater demands on Christian life and feeling. Illustrate this twofold growth from the history of the early Church.
II. THE PREVAILING POWER OF THE WORD. This sets before us two points.
1. Since there is life in the Word, and that life is seen in growth, it will be sure to meet with opposition. If the apostles would only have ceased to witness for Christ, they would have suffered no persecution. If any of us will let the life in Christ fade down and die within us, the world will cease to present any opposition. The dead in trespasses and sins have no difficulties; but "they that will live godly must suffer persecution." It is a simple condition of growth, that it involves resistance; it pushes its way against opposition. And, in the case of earnest piety, this opposition becomes more than resistance—it is enmity and willful endeavor.
2. Since there is life in the Word, we may be sure that it will overcome the opposition; or, as the text says, it will "prevail"—gain the mastery. This may be illustrated from martyr-times, when Christianity has seemed to be crushed, but the life has proved stronger than all outward resistances. See especially, in recent years, the result of persecutions in Madagascar. Illustrate also from missionary spheres, in which various kinds of hindrances are presented, yet the life in the Word gains gradual mastery. Illustrate by St. Paul's sublime triumphs over all forms of opposition tact with in his missionary work. And show how the prevailing power of the Word is found in individual experience; in the gradual mastery of personal habits; and in our external relations and circumstances. Impress that faith in the "growth" and "prevailing power" of Christianity needs to be kept alive in the Church and in all our hearts; and that such a faith would prove an abiding inspiration to holier living and to nobler laboring.—R.T.
Self-interest opposing Christianity.
The introduction should concern the temple, statue, and worship of the goddess Diana; the reputation in which this goddess was held; the numbers of persons who visited her shrine; the various opportunities afforded by this fact for making money; and the fears which were created by the act of self-sacrifice in burning the magical books. "The shrines were miniature models of the temple, containing a representation of the statue of the goddess," and they were chiefly made for the visitors to take away as memorials of their visit. "There was a sacred month at Ephesus—the month of Diana—when a great religious gathering took place to celebrate the public games in honor of the goddess. It was the pleasant month of May. Trade was brisk then at Ephesus, not only from the large temporary increase of population, by the presence of provincials, and strangers from more distant parts, but from the purchases they made in the shops and markets. Among the tradesmen of Ephesus, there were none who depended more upon the business of this month than did makers and dealers in holy trinkets." "In the sacred month of the third year of St. Paul's stay in Ephesus, the makers of the ' silver shrines' found, to their consternation, that the demand for their commodity had so materially fallen off as most seriously to affect their interests. Upon this one of the leading men of their guild convened a meeting of their craft, and, in an inflammatory speech, pointed out Paul as the person who, by his preaching that there were 'no gods made with hands,' had not only produced this crisis in the trade, but had endangered their glorious temple, and imperiled that magnificence which the world admired." Kitto well says, "Here we witness a carious, but not unparalleled, union of the 'great goddess Diana' with the great god Self, whose worship still exists, though that of Diana is extinct." This brings out the point which seems to have practical interest for us, which we have suggested in our heading. Self-interest opposes
(1) vital religion;
(2) earnestness in Christ's services; and
(3) the very progress of Christianity. We observe—
I. CHRISTIANITY IS A LATE. It is a Divine inward renewal; it is a new creation; it is an impartation of Divine life; it is not, primarily, an interference with social evils, or any endeavor to set the world's wrong right. St. Paul preached the Christian truth, and bade men seek Christ for themselves, that "they might have life;" but we have no reason whatever for supposing that he attacked the shrine-makers, or even made any peril for himself by arguing against the claims of Diana. The power of Christianity still lies in the change which it works in each individual, the regeneration of the man, his possession of a new life. Christian teachers must deal afterwards with the relations between the Christian life and the family and society; but the Christian preacher comes first and declares that "God hath given unto us eternal life, and this life is in his son: he that hath the Son hath life."
II. CHRISTIANITY IS SURE TO EXERT A SOCIAL INFLUENCE. It comes to save souls; but the action of the renewed cannot fail to tell on social life, bringing in a new set of sentiments and habits, and steadfastly resisting some of the older ones. Illustrations may be found in connection with slavery. Christianity makes no plea against it, and yet, when men become Christians, they are sure to feel the evil of slavery, and are ready to resist it, as a social custom, even at a great sacrifice. So with war. At Ephesus no word need have been spoken about the superstitious use of charms and amulets; but when the Ephesians accepted Christ as their Savior, a social sentiment against these superstitions would speedily be raised. The one all-effectual counteractive to social and moral evils is strong, vigorous, noble Christian life; and just this the world so greatly needs today.
III. CHRISTIANITY, IN EXERTING ITS SOCIAL INFLUENCE, IS SURE TO BEAR HEAVILY ON SOME. It did on the shrine-makers of Ephesus; it has done on slaveholders in England and America; it does on drink-sellers, and on all whose trade is in any form immoral: it does on those who would make personal gain out of the superstitions and fears of the people; it does on those who proclaim skeptical and infidel ideas.
IV. THE INTENSEST OPPOSITION TO CHRISTIANITY IS AROUSED WHERE SELF-INTEREST IS AFFECTED. Men may feel more deeply when they are touched in their emotions, but they make more immediate and active show of their feelings when they are affected in their self-interests. And, on the ground of such self-interest, combinations of men are easily made to resist a truth or a reform. Show how this finds application in these our own milder times. Spiritual Christianity finds itself affecting men's purely worldly interests nowadays. Many a man wages a great fight with himself ere he lets his piety master his very trade; and wins a willingness to sacrifice golden opportunities of advancement and wealth, rather than lose his soul's eternal life. And there are modern illustrations of the way in which men, whose self-interest is touched, will combine to resist revival and reformation. In so many forms the principle laid down by our Lord finds ever fresh illustration: "Ye cannot serve God and mammon."
Remarking on the deceptions which lead men to combine against established order or new truth, Bode names the following:—
"1. One pretends to high aims, and is influenced by the grossest selfishness.
2. One thinks himself free to act, and is the involuntary instrument of crafty seducers.
3. One values himself as enlightened, and commits the most unreasonable acts of folly.
4. One prides himself that he contends for the right, and perpetrates the most unrighteous deeds of violence.
5. One is filled with extravagant expectations, and in the end gains nothing."—R.T.
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Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on Acts 19". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 14 / Ordinary 19