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CHRIST'S POWER TO SUPPLY AND PROTECT AND HEAL, PREFACED BY A STATEMENT OF HEROD'S RELATION TO HIM.
Herod's opinion of Jesus, and a parenthetical account of his murder of John the Baptist. Parallel passages: Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9; Luke 3:19, Luke 3:20.
At that time; season (Revised Version); Matthew 11:25, note. Herod the tetrarch; i.e. Antipas, youngest son of Herod the Great, and by one of his father's wills named his successor on the throne, but by the last will appointed only tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea. Though not legally king, he sometimes received the title by courtesy. "In point of character, Antipas was a genuine son of old Herod—sly, ambitious, and luxurious, only not so able as his father." He was deposed by Caligula, A.D. 39, when, at the instance of Herodias, he had gone to Rome to try to obtain the same title of king that had been granted to her brother Agrippa I. (Schurer, I. Mat 2:18, 36). Heard of the fame—heard the report (Revised Version); Matthew 4:24, note—of Jesus.
And said unto his servants. According to Luke, the following assertion was brought forward by some, but was, it would seem, summarily rejected by Herod (Luke 9:7, Luke 9:9); according to Mark (ἔλεγον, Westcott and Hort, text) it was common talk, and agreed to by Herod. If a reconciliation of so unimportant a verbal disagreement be sought for, it may perhaps lie in Luke representing Herod's first exclamation, and Matthew, with Mark, his settled belief. Clearly Herod did not originate it, as the summary account in our Gospel would lead us to suppose. This is John the Baptist (Matthew 3:1 and Matthew 4:12, notes). (For this opinion about our Lord, compare, besides the parallel passages referred to in the last note, also Matthew 16:14.) He (αὐτός, Matthew 1:21, note) is risen from the dead. The other dead still lie in Hades (ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν). Plumptre, on Mark, adduces a curious passage from Persius, 5:180-188, which he thinks is based on a story that when Herod celebrated another of his birthdays (cf. verse 6) in Rome, in A.D. 39, he was terrified by a Banquo-like appearance of the murdered prophet. The superstition that already suggested to Herod the resurrection of John might well act more strongly on the anniversary of the murder, and after he had connived at the death of the One who, by his miracles, showed that he possessed greater power than John. And therefore; "because he is no ordinary man, but one risen from the dead" (Meyer). Mighty works do show forth themselves in him (αἱδυνάμεις ἐνεργοῦσιν ἐν αἰ τῷ) do these powers work in him (Revised Version). "These" (αἱ, the article of reference), i.e. these which are spoken of in the report (verse 1). Αἱδυνάμεις may be
(1) specifically miracles (cf. Matthew 13:58), in which case they are regarded as potentially active in John before their completion in history; or
(2) the powers of working miracles, as perhaps in 1 Corinthians 12:28. Observe that this passage confirms the statement of John 10:41, that John performed no miracle. Observe that it is also an indirect witness to the fact of our Lord performing miracles. For Herod's utterance is not such as a forger would have imagined.
For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him. Although had simplifies the meaning to the English reader, as definitely marking what must have been the case, that John's imprisonment began some time before, yet in the Greek only the aorist is used to commence a vivid narrative. And put him in prison; "put him away in prison (ἐν φυλακῇ ἀπέθετο)." So of Micaiah by Ahab (2 Chronicles 18:26, LXX., but not Lucian's text). Probably here in allusion to the distance of Machaerus from Herod's usual residence at Tiberius. Possibly, also, a reference to John being safer there from the designs of Herodias. Anyhow, notice the stages in Herod's action—capture, binding, imprisonment in a place where he was quite out of the way. For Herodias'sake. John was imprisoned, according to the New Testament,
(1) as a punishment for his rebuke of Herod;
(2) to protect him from Herodias' vengeance.
(On the statement by Josephus, that it was for political reasons, see Matthew 3:1, note.) His brother Philip's wife. According to Josephus ('Ant.,' 18.5. 4), the first husband of Herodias was "Herod," son of Herod the Great by Mariamne the high priest's daughter, and the daughter of Herodias, Salome, married Philip the tetrarch, who was also the son of Herod the Great by Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Hence many critics (e.g. Ewald; Schurer, I. 2.22) suppose the account in Matthew and Mark to be mistaken, and due to a confusion of Herodias with her daughter. But, although it is curious that two sons of Herod the Great should have been called Philip, yet, in view of their being by different mothers, it cannot be pronounced impossible ("Antipas" and "Antipater" are not precisely identical). Besides, Herod the son of Mariamne would probably have had some other name than that of his father alone. It is noticeable that, in the same context, Josephus speaks also of Antipas by the name Herod only.
For John said unto him, It is not lawful (οὐκ ἔξεστιν, Matthew 12:2) for thee to have her. Herod Philip being still alive. Bengel remarks, "Causas matrimoniales non possunt plane abdicare theologi." Was he thinking of Luther's unfortunate advice to Philip of Hesse?
And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude (cf. Luke 20:6). Mark has, "And Herodias set herself against him, and would have put him to death; and she could not; for Herod feared John." The more detailed account in Mark is doubtless the more exact. Perhaps the facts of the case were that, in the first heat of his resentment, Herod wished to kill John, but feared the anger of the people, and that afterwards, when he him in his power and Herodias still urged his death, Herod had himself learned to respect him. Observe
(1) that it is quite impossible to suppose that either evangelist had the words of the other in front of him. The difference does not consist merely of addition or explanation;
(2) that these are exactly the kind of verbal coincidences which might be expected to be found in two oral traditions starting from a common basis. For they counted him as a prophet (ὡς προφήτην αὐτὸν εἶχον); so Matthew 21:26.
But when Herod's birthday was kept; came (Revised Version); γενεσίοις δὲ γενομένοις τοῦ Ἡρῴδου, dative of time (Winer, § 31:9), with the addition of a participle. Birthday. So "Pharaoh's birthday" (Genesis 40:20, ἡμέρα γενέσεως). Thayer's Grimm refers to "Alciphr. Epp. 3, 18, and 55; Dio Cass., 47, 18, etc.," for γενέσια being used in the same sense. The Talmudic איסיניג (see Levy, s.v.) apparently represents the same word, and (preceded by מוי) has the same meaning (cf. Schurer, I. 2:27). Possibly Jews found γενέσια an easier word to pronounce than the more classical γενέσλια. The daughter of Herodias; i.e. Salome, daughter of Herod Philip and Herodias; she afterwards married her half uncle, Philip the tetrarch (Matthew 14:3, note). She could not now be less than seventeen or eighteen years old (cf. Gutschmid, in Schurer, I. 2:28), so, in the East, could only just be still called a κοράσιον (Matthew 14:11). Mark's text (like the Greek of Codex Bezae here) speaks of her as though she herself was called Herodias, and was the daughter of Antipas and Herodias; but the issue of this union could not then have been more than two years old (Schurer, loc. cit.). Besides, the trait mentioned by Mark (Mark 6:25), that she came back with haste to the king, asking for the head of the Baptist, implies that she was more than a child. Rendel Harris suggests that the confusion is due to an early Latinization of the Greek from an ambiguous ejus. Danced. Probably with the same kind of voluptuous dance as that of the Egyptian almd described by Warburton. But that a member of the royal family should so dance before a company must have been almost unheard of. Before them; in the midst (Revised Version). Matthew only. Such a dance with men sitting round would be specially abhorrent to the Jewish mind. And pleased Herod. And of course, as St. Mark adds, "them that sat with him" (cf. verse 9).
Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask.
And she, being before instructed; being put forward (Revised Version); προβιβασθεῖσα (Acts 19:33, Received Text; Deuteronomy 6:7, LXX.). The word implies that the girl herself would not have thought of it, and perhaps that she had at first some little reluctance. But if so, it was soon over, for she came back "in haste" (Mark). Of her mother. St. Mark explains that she left the room to ask her mother. Said, Give me. This is the gift I want. Here. And evidently at once. The word excludes the possibility of the feast being in Tiberias, if John was slain at Machaerus, as the passage in Josephus states (cf. Matthew 3:1, note). There is no very great difficulty in supposing the chief men of Galilee, etc. (Mark), to have gone as far as Machaerus to pay their respects to Herod and to partake of the feast, but whether the statement in Josephus is accurate, and how, if it be so, it is to be reconciled with the preceding statement that Machaerus belonged to Aretas, are questions not easily answered (see Schurer, I. 2.26). John Baptist's head in a charger; in a charger the head of John the Baptist (Revised Version). She defines here still more closely (ὧδε ἐπὶ πίνακι), and then states her request. On the form of her demand for John's death, Chrysostom says that she wished to see his tongue lying there silent, for she did not merely long to be freed from his reproaches, but to insult and jeer him (ἐπιβῆναι καὶ ἐπιτωθάσαι κειμένᾳ). Charger. A wooden trencher.
And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake; better, and though the king was grieved, yet for the sake of his oaths (καὶ λυπηθεὶς ὁβασιλεὺς διὰ τὺος ὅρκους κ.τ.λ.). That he was grieved at John's death is a verbal contradiction to verse 5, but after some weeks' or months' delay psychologically quite possible (cf. note there). Kubel attributes the change to his conscience recoiling when his wish had a sudden chance of being accomplished; or it may be that he still fearest the multitude (cf. verse 5), and felt anxious lest he should bring about some political disturbance. Oaths; for in making the promise of verse 7 he would certainly take more than one. And them which sat with him at meat. Had he uttered the promise and the oaths in private, it would have been different, but now there were so many witnesses. Observe that these said nothing to stop him. They were no friends of the enthusiast who was now a prisoner. He commanded it to be given her.
Matthew 14:10, Matthew 14:11
And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison, and his head was brought in a charger (verse 8, note), and given (the fourth time that the word "give" has come in five verses; the head of the herald of the kingdom becomes a royal gift) to the damsel—(τῷ κορασίῳ, verse 6, note)—and she brought it to her mother. But a few minutes after she had first spoken her request (verse 8, note).
And his disciples came. "And when his disciples heard thereof, they came" (Mark). Perhaps they were not permitted to be so much with him as at an earlier period in his imprisonment (Matthew 11:2). But if the murder was in the evening, as would appear probable from the circumstances of it, they would naturally not be in the castle at the time. And took up the body; the corpse (Revised Version, τὸ πτῶμα). And buried it; him, (Revised Version, αὐτόν). It is right in Mark, but St. Matthew has preserved the more popular form of expression. And (Revised Version adds they) went and told Jesus. Matthew only. In Mark (Mark 6:30; cf. also Luke 9:10) this expression dearly belongs to the next paragraph, and is predicated of the twelve apostles on their return from their mission (Mark 6:7-12; our Matthew 10:5). It looks as though some confusion had arisen in the source before St. Matthew used it. As the words stand here they show the kindly feelings which both John and his disciples felt towards our Lord
The feeding of the five thousand. Parallel passages: Mark 6:30-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13. The miracle was deemed so characteristic of our Lord's work, in his care for men and his power to sustain them, and more especially in its being a parable of his readiness to supply spiritual food, that it was recorded not only by each of the three evangelists who used the framework, but also by the one who depended entirely upon his own materials. But though St. John's account of it is on the whole independent, yet even this has expressions which are certainly due to the influence of the source used by the synoptists, or, less probably, of one or other of our present Gospels.
The evangelist relates
(1) the occasion of the miracle
the preparation of the disciples (verses 15-18);
(3) the miracle itself (verses 19, 20);
(4) a summary statement of the numbers fed (verse 21).
When Jesus heard of it (cf. Matthew 14:12, note), he departed. (For the form of the sentence, see Matthew 4:12; Matthew 12:15.) Thence by ship; in a boat (Revised Version); Matthew 8:23. Into a desert place apart. Defined in John 6:3 as "the mountain;" in Luke 9:10 as "a city called Bethsaida." The spot appears to have been in part of the plain El-Batiha, which is at the northcast corner of the Sea of Galilee on the Gaulonitis side of the Jordan, and in which stood Bethsaida-Julias. Mark 6:45 implies that there was a second Bethsaida on the western side of the lake, which, though not alluded to by Josephus, is expressly spoken of in John 12:21, and is probably referred to in all the other passages of the New Testament where the name Bethsaida occurs. And when the people (the multitudes, Revised Version) had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities. The fact that it was near a feast time (John 6:4, the Passover, if the text be right; and cf. infra, John 6:19, note) perhaps accounts for the multitudes being so large. Some at least would be on their way up to Jerusalem.
The first half of this verse is found verbally in Mark (Mark 6:34); comp. also Matthew 9:36, note. And Jesus went forth; came forth (Revised Version); i.e. from the more retired place where he had been conversing with his disciples. And saw a great multitude. "The multitudes" of Matthew 9:13 have now become one body. And was moved with compassion toward them; and he had compassion on them (Revised Version). The true reading, ἐπ αὐτοῖς, regards the Lord's pity at, so to say, a later stage than the common reading, ἐπ αὐτούς. It was not only directed towards them, but actually resting on them. And he healed (ἐθεράπευσεν, Matthew 4:23, note) their sick (τοὺς ἀῤῥώστους αὐτῶν). Αῤῥωστος here only in Matthew, elsewhere in the New Testament in Mark 6:5,Mark 6:13 [Mark 16:18]; 1 Corinthians 11:30. As compared with ἀσθενής, it "seems to point to diseases predominantly marked by loss of bodily power ('diuturno languore teneri,' Calvin), while the more common ἀσθενής is simply used to denote sickness generally" (Bishop Ellicott, on 1 Corinthians, loc. cit.). But in our passage it is used without any such limitation (cf. Luke, "And he healed them that had need of healing"). Mark and John do not speak of miracles of healing on this occasion.
And when it was evening. But not as late as the "evening" of Matthew 14:23. It appears that the first evening was from the ninth to the twelfth hour (our 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. at the equinoxes), and the second evening was for a short time, perhaps forty minutes, after sunset (cf. Matthew 8:16, note). His (the, Revised Version) disciples came to him, saying. St. John alone has recorded our Lord's previous conversation with Philip (John 6:5-7). This is a desert place; the place is desert (Revised Version), which better marks the parallelism with the next clause. And the time is now (already, Revised Version) past (ἡὥρα ἤδη παρῆλθεν); i.e. probably the hour at which he was accustomed to dismiss his audience. For he would often have to consider their wish to get home before nightfall. Send the multitude away; the multitudes (Revised Version); for now again they are regarded separately as having to go in different directions. That they may go (go away) into the villages, and buy themselves victuals; food (Revised Version). One at least of the disciples would have a keen eye for the amount of the contents of the common purse.
But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; they have no need to go away (Revised Version). Matthew only. The Lord takes up the expression. There is no need for them to move from this place, desert though it is. Give ye them to eat. Ye; emphatic, he throws upon his disciples the duty of feeding them, and, strange though the command seemed to them (cf. 2 Kings 4:43), they carried it out.
And they say unto him, We have here (ὧδε) but five loaves (Matthew 4:3, note), and two fishes (Matthew 7:9, note). St. Matthew omits the question, "Shall we go and buy?" etc., which comes in Mark and Luke, and essentially in John (verse 5).
Matthew only. He said, Bring them hither to me (φέρετε μοι ὧδε αὐτούς). This gives the sense, but still more is implied. He takes up their ὧδε. "Yes," he says, "it is possible to feed them where we are, and especially where I am. For there is not the poverty of supply here that you think there is." Observe that for the disciples to bring them "here" was in itself an act of faith.
And he commanded the multitude; the multitudes (Revised Version). Here also the plural (Matthew 14:15), because they are thought of as grouped over the ground. To sit down; i.e. to recline as at a meal (ἀνακλιθῆναι). On the grass (ἐπὶ τοῦ χόρτου). The addition of "green" (χλωρός) in Mark suits the time of the Passover (verse 13, note), but hardly of any later feast, for the grass would have been dried up. And took the five loaves, and the two fishes. He used all the means there were. And looking up to heaven. So also Mark 7:34; John 17:1. He blessed. He may well have used the blessing that is still used over bread ("Blessed art thou, Jehovah our God, King of the world, that causest bread to come forth from the earth"); for this can be apparently traced to the second or third century A.D., and is probably much older still. (For the habit of saying grace before meals, cf. Matthew 15:36; Matthew 26:26; Rom 14:6; 1 Corinthians 10:30; 1 Timothy 4:5; see also 1 Samuel 9:13.) And brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. That the people received the bread at the hands of the disciples is not mentioned by St. John. Perhaps because his chapter dwells so much on the need of direct contact with Christ. But Christ's work through his agents, both before and after his time on earth, is an important point with the synoptists.
And they did all eat, and were filled (ἐχορτάσθησαν, Matthew 5:6, note). And they. Undefined, but seen from Matthew 16:9; John 6:12, to have been the disciples. Took up of the fragments that remained; that which remained over of the broken pieces (Revised Version); i.e. of the pieces broken by our Lord for distribution (John 6:19). Twelve baskets full. The disciples personally lost nothing by the miracle (John 6:15, note), the provision basket that each always carried was now replenished. Baskets; "cofyns" (Wickliffe); κοφίνους (cf. Luke 9:17, note; and the Talmudic saying, "He that has bread in his basket is not like him that has not bread in his basket," Talm. Bab., 'Yoma,' 74b).
And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, beside women and children. Only Matthew mentions the presence of other than men. We may assume that no great number of women and children were there; and this, considering the distance that most had been obliged to go (verse 13), is what we should expect. "Observe here the diminutive παιδίων, little children, whom their mothers either carried in their arms or led by the hand" (Meyer).
Christ's power over the elements. He walks on the water and stays the storm. St. Peter's attempt to walk on the water is successful so long as he exercises faith on Christ. Jesus receives homage as Messiah. Parallel passages: Mark 6:45-52; John 6:15-21. It is strange that the incident of St. Peter is recorded in Matthew only, and not in Mark, for it serves to emphasize what is a leading thought of the preceding narrative, even in Mark, viz. the power that believers receive by virtue of faith on Christ (verses 16, 19). With Christ in the boat, difficulties cease (verse 32); they that believe on him can triumph as he did (verses 28-31; cf. the thought of John 14:19, end). For St. John's purpose the mention of St. Peter was not necessary; since, by way of introduction to the following discourse, be desired rather to familiarize his readers with the idea of Christ's body being triumphant over earthly limitations (cf. verse 19, note).
And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples. It was not their wish to leave him, especially when the multitudes seemed likely to elect him king (John 6:15). But from the temptation to side with the multitudes our Lord desired now to shield them. Separation and physical work (Matthew 14:24) would calm their excitement, and the object lesson that their Master already ruled over wind and sea would lead them to more perfect trust in his methods. Another reason for his sending them forward may have been that they should use the failing light; and yet another, that he himself desired time for prayer. To get into a ship; a boat (ἐμβῆναι εἰς πλοῖον); cf. Matthew 8:23 (the boat, Revised Version, reading εἰς τὸ πλοῖον). And to go before him (προάγειν αὐτόν: Matthew 2:9; Matthew 21:9). For he would follow. He fulfilled his promise much more literally than they anticipated. Unto the other side. "Unto Bethsaida" (Mark); "unto Capernaum" (John). Probably they landed at the western Bethsaida (Matthew 8:13, note), in Gennesaret (Matthew 8:34), and went on to Capernaum, where our Lord again addressed the people (John 6:24-26). While he sent—till he should send (Revised Version); ἕως οὗ ἀπολύσῃ, Matthew 13:33—the multitudes away. Why should this take up time? Why did he not dismiss them then and there? Possibly they were too eager to carry out their own plans on his behalf to attend to only one expression of his wish.
And when he had sent the multitudes away. Matthew speaks merely of the dismissal as such (ἀπολύσας τοὺς ὄχλους); Mark refers to his parting words (ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς, i.e. probably to the multitude). He went up into a mountain—the mountain (Revised Version); Matthew 5:1, note—apart. Κατ ἰδίαν is to be joined with the preceding, and not to the following words (cf. Matthew 5:13; Matthew 17:19). And when the evening was come (Matthew 5:15, note), he was there alone. For some eight hours, if it was spring or autumn (Matthew 5:25).
But the ship; boat (Revised Version); Matthew 14:22. Was now; rather, already, when the following incident happened. In the midst of the sea. So also the text of the Revised Version, but its margin, "was many furlongs distant from the land." Westcott and Hort prefer the latter, with Codex B and the Old Syriac. It somewhat resembles John 6:19. Tossed; distressed (Revised Version). For βασανιζόμενον suggests not physical motion, but pain and anguish, the idea being transferred in figure to the boat. In Mark it is applied more strictly to the disciples. With waves; by the waves (Revised Version). The agents of the torture (ὑπὸ τῶν κυμάτων). For the wind was contrary. Yet he came not at once, for he would teach us to bear troubles bravely (cf. Chrysostom).
And in the fourth watch of the night. Therefore some nine hours after sunset (Matthew 14:23, note). They had been battling for hours, and had only gone about three miles and a half (John 6:19). Jesus went; came (Revised Version); ἦλθε, not ἀπῆλθε, with Received Text. Unto them, walking on the sea (ἐπὶ τὴν θάλθασσαν); contrast Matthew 14:26 (ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης). Here there is more thought of motion (cf. Matthew 14:29), but in the next verse the advance is almost forgotten, and the fact of Christ being on the water is all-important; "they saw him on the sea, walking."
And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit—an apparition (Revised Version, φάντασμά ἐστιν)—and they cried out for fear.
But straightway Jesus spake unto them (ἐλάλησεν, not ἔκραξεν). He was evidently near them. Saying, Be of good cheer (θαρσεῖτε, Matthew 9:2); it is I; be not afraid. Encouragement, self-manifestation, recall from present terror. But the absence of θαρσεῖτε in John 6:20 suggests that it is, perhaps, a duplicate rendering of the Aramaic for μὴ φοβεῖσθε. For the LXX. commonly translates "fear ye not" by θαρσεῖτε (e.g. Exodus 14:13; Exodus 20:20). One or two second-rate manuscripts omit θαρσεῖτε in Mark, but this may be only due to a reminiscence of John. It is also omitted in Tatian's 'Diatessaron' (edit. Hemphill).
St. Peter's venture. Matthew only.
And; δέ, slightly adversative, because St. Peter's words were so contrary to what might have been expected. Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou (εἰ σὺ εἷ). No doubt is implied (Matthew 4:3, note). Bid me (κέλευσόν με); jube me (Vulgate). He will only come at Christ's command. In this lies the difference—and it is a decisive difference—from the second temptation (Matthew 4:6). Come unto thee on the water. Not "bid me walk on the water;" for he does not want to perform a miracle, but to come to Jesus. His request is not due to the hope of making a show, but to impulsive love. Observe, too, that he seems to have realized that the Lord would enable his followers to do as he himself did (cf. Chrysostom). On the water; the waters (Revised Version); rough though they were. Had we any ether account of this incident, it would be interesting to see if it contained these words. They read very like an explanatory addition by the narrator.
And he said, Come. Our Lord takes him at his word, and gives the command. It is not merely a permission. Observe that our Lord never blames him for having made the request. His venture of faith would have been altogether successful had his faith continued. And when Peter was come down out of the ship. The Revised Version has more simply, And Peter went down from the boat, and. He walked on the water. For the narrator was chiefly interested in his walking there (contrast Matthew 14:28). To go to Jesus; rather, and came to Jesus. The true text states what did, in fact, happen, notwithstanding Peter's lack of faith (cf. Matthew 14:31).
But when he saw the wind boysterous (ἰσχυρόν is clearly a gloss, and therefore omitted by the Revised Version). He was afraid; and beginning to sink. The natural tendency to sink, which he had had all the time, was counteracted before by his faith, which enabled him to receive Christ's power. But now that his doubt made him incapable of receiving this, he sank (cf. Meyer). He cried (ἔκραξεν), saying, Lord, save me (Matthew 8:25). Aphraates quotes an apocryphal saying of our Lord's, "Doubt not; lest ye are engulfed in the world, as Simon; for he doubled, and began to sink in the sea."
And immediately. Without any waste of time, just as in Matthew 14:27. Jesus stretched forth his hand. So that St. Peter had come up to him (Matthew 14:29). And caught him; and took hold of him (Revised Version, ἐπελάβετο αὐτοῦ: cf. Hebrews 2:16; Hebrews 8:9). And said; saith (Revised Version). The writer passes to more vivid narration. Unto him, O thou of little faith (ὀλιγόπιστε); Matthew 6:30, note. But in Matthew 17:20 (Westcott and Hort) the substantive is used of faith in a more active sense. Wherefore (εἰς τί); "המל, literally rendered" (Dr. Guillemard). Didst thou doubt? (ἐδίστασας). In the New Testament, Matthew 28:17 only. Christ saves first, and rebukes afterwards. Perhaps the need for help was more immediate than in Matthew 8:26, or possibly the fervency of St. Peter's love deserved gentler treatment.
And when they were come—gone up (Revised Version)—into the ship, the wind ceased. Apparently not before, so that Peter may still have walked a little further on the water in the midst of the storm, but upheld by the Lord's hand.
Matthew only. Then—and (Revised Version, δέ)—they that were in the ship; boat (Revised Version). If there were others than the disciples in the boat, as is probable, these also would be included; but the disciples would naturally take the lead (cf. the notes on Matthew 8:23, Matthew 8:27). Came and. The Revised Version omits these two words, with the manuscripts. They are due to the analogy of Matthew 8:2; Matthew 9:18. Worshipped him (Matthew 4:9, note). In Matthew 8:27 we read of wonder; here, of homage. Saying, Of a truth (ἀληθῶς); cf. Matthew 5:18, s.v. "verily." The word seems to imply that the suggestion did not enter their minds now for the first time. Two had, perhaps, heard the words spoken at the baptism (Matthew 3:17), and most of them, if not all, the utterance by the demons in Matthew 8:29. Yet these utterances in reality far surpassed what they even nosy imagined (vide infra). Thou art the Son of God (Θεοῦ υἱὸς εἶ). Although the phrase is not of the definite form found in Matthew 26:63 and Matthew 16:16, where it is used with express reference to the Messiahship of Jesus (cf. for the intermediate form, Matthew 27:40 with 43), yet it is impossible to take it here as merely referring to a moral relation between Jesus and God. In Matthew 27:54 this might be sufficient (Luke has "righteous''); but here there is no question of coming up to a standard of moral uprightness, but rather of manifestation of power, and this is connected with Messiah. His authority over the elements leads to the homage of those who witness its exercise, and forces from them the expression that he is the promised Representative of God on earth (Psalms 2:7; cf. Matthew 2:15, note). Observe, however, that not even so is it a profession of faith in his absolute Divinity. (Kubel's note on this subject in Matthew 8:29 is very good.)
On landing at Gennesaret numbers come to him and are healed. Parallel passage: Mark 6:53-56, which is fuller.
And when they were gone over—had crossed over (Revised Version); διαπεράσαντες Matthew 9:1—they came into the land of Gennesaret—to the land, unto Gennesaret (Revised Version, with the true text). The plain El-Ruwer, part of the northwest side of the lake, and some three miles long by one broad, extending, roughly, from Chorazin (perhaps Khan Minyeh; but comp. Matthew 11:21, note) to Magdala. (For its fertility, see Josephus, 'Wars,' 3.10.8.)
And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round about (cf. Matthew 3:5). Matthew alone states definitely that this zeal was shown by the inhabitants of the Plain of Gennesaret. Mark's words (Mark 6:55) are vaguer. And brought unto him all that were diseased; sick (Revised Version); cf. Matthew 4:24; Matthew 8:16.
And besought; and they besought (Revised Version); i.e. the sick, for probably the change of person takes place here and not at" that they might touch." Him that they might only touch the hem of his garment (Matthew 9:20, Matthew 9:21, notes): and as many as touched were made perfectly whole (διεσώθησαν); were made whole (Revised Version). For διά here is probably not intensive, but rather gives the thought of being brought out safe through the danger. In the LXX. διασώζεσθαι is a common rendering of טלמן, "escape."
The death of John the Baptist.
I. HEROD THE TETRARCH.
1. He heard of the fame of Jesus. Herod Antipas was a weak, cruel, voluptuous tyrant; he resembled his father in his vices, not in his capacity and energy of character. He heard of Christ's miracles; it seems strange if, as the words appear to imply, he now heard of Christ for the first time. For Christ had long been preaching in Galilee; about a year, perhaps more. Great multitudes had flocked to hear him; his mighty works had excited a far spread interest and wonder. Herod may have been absent from Galilee during much of the time, possibly at the distant fortress of Machaerus, where John the Baptist, was imprisoned. But his life was spent in ostentatious display and sensual excesses. He would take no interest in a religious movement unless his fears were aroused by the popular excitement which it caused. His courtiers would not listen themselves to the preaching of Jesus; or if any did, such as the nobleman whose son was healed by the Lord at Capernaum, or Chuza, Herod's steward (possibly identical with that nobleman), whose wife Joanna ministered to our Lord, they would not relate to the hardhearted selfish tyrant teaching so uncongenial to his character. The miracles, it is true, would excite more interest; they would stir up his curiosity. Some account of them reached him at last. Thus the ruler of Galilee was perhaps one of the last men in the province to hear of the Saviour. The great in this world are not always great in the kingdom of heaven. The tumult of political cares and the glitter of earthly pomp often prevent them from hearing the fame of Jesus. His blessed work goes on among the lowly. Souls are healed, the eyes of the blind are opened. The good news does not, reach those who dwell in kings' houses. Thank God, it is not always so; there are men high in rank who are also living near to Christ.
2. His superstitious fears. Herod is thought to have been a Sadducee. Probably he had no real religious convictions. But inconsistencies are common in human nature; the unbelieving are not unfrequently superstitious. Herod was haunted by a guilty conscience. The spectres of those whom he had foully murdered troubled his dreams. Christ's mighty works excited his attention. No ordinary man, he knew, could do such things. It must be some one more than mortal; some one in whom the powers of the unseen world were active and energetic. And conscience whispered, and an awful shudder thrilled through the despot's soul, "It is John—John, whom I beheaded." Better to be the most miserable prisoner perishing in the gloomy dungeons of Machaerus than that tyrant, whom the world called happy, terror-stricken in his gilded palace.
3. He desired to see Christ. The Lord would not come; he departed into a desert place. "I will come and heal him," he said, when the centurion sent for him. He would not go to Herod. For what were Herod's motives? Partly mere curiosity; partly that awful power of conscience which seems sometimes to draw the criminal to the scene of his crime or the murdered body of his victim; partly, perhaps, malice and fear; he would have slain the Lord as he had slain the prophet. The Lord Christ doth not manifest himself to those who seek him from motives such as these. Herod saw him at last. The sight did him no good; it increased his condemnation. He set Christ at nought, and shared with Pilate the guilt of his death.
II. THE IMPRISIONMENT OF JOHN.
1. The sin of Herod. He had married Herodias. That wicked woman had ensnared him with her deceitful beauty. She was not contented with the quiet life of her husband Philip; she sought rank, wealth, magnificence. Antipas was the greatest prince of the family. She lured him to his ruin. She heeded not sin and shame and scandal, so that she might compass her wicked purpose. Now she was the tetrarch's queen, but her soul was stained with the double guilt of incest and adultery. What is beauty of person when it hides a black and loathsome soul? Herod was weak and self-indulgent. He fell into the snares of Herodias. He took her from her husband. The stronger will of that wicked woman led him on from sin to sin; she became a second Jezebel to a second Ahab.
2. The rebuke of John. John had had considerable influence with Herod. "Herod feared John," St. Mark tells us, "knowing that he was a just man and a holy, and observed him [or rather, 'kept him in safety']; and when he heard him, he did many things [or rather, 'he was much perplexed'], and heard him gladly." Herod had paid some attention to John; partly, perhaps, from political reasons, for John had been for some time a great power in the land; partly from curiosity and some sort of languid interest in John's mission and character. He was struck, too, with the intense earnestness of his preaching; he felt the power of his commanding personality. Worldly men sometimes take a sort of interest in religious matters. Statesmen are forced to do so from the widespread influence of religious motives. Men are attracted by a strong character or great spiritual eloquence. But this external interest in religion may coexist with irreligious habits and a hatred of religious restraints. John the Baptist knew this. He did not care to retain Herod's favour at the cost of condoning his sin. He wanted Herod's soul; his spiritual good, not his patronage. So he rebuked him boldly for his sin: "It is not lawful for thee to have her." John possessed in a high degree that holy courage which is so often necessary in dealing with souls. It is easy to speak to the humble and the timid of their faults; but when the sinner is great and powerful, stern, perhaps, and masterful, it needs a brave man then to set his sin before him, and to urge him to repentance. John did so plainly. The guilty pair must be separated. Nothing else could avail Herod; no affectation of religion, no costly gifts, no patronage of John's cause. He could not be saved in his sin—that was impossible; he must at any cost tear himself from it.
3. Herod's answer. He cast John into prison. Wicked men will do the like now as far as lies in their power; they will do all they can to injure the faithful Christian who reproves them for their souls' good. So it was with Herod. John might reprove the Pharisees and Sadducees, the publicans and soldiers; but when he came to reprove Herod himself, then he shut up John in prison. It was a hard lot for one like John, accustomed to the free open life of the desert, to be penned up in some wretched dungeon. Herod would have put him to death at once; his own anger prompted him, Herodias urged him in her unfeminine malice. But he feared the people; and, as St. Mark tells us, he feared and respected John himself. Herod feared John, he feared the people; he did not fear God. John feared God, and that holy fear raised him above all other fears; he feared nothing else, but only God. Oh for that brave and holy faith to keep the fear of God in our hearts, and in that fear always to obey him! Worldly men are restrained from crime by some lower motive; it was selfish fear that kept Herod for a time from the awful guilt of murder.
III. THE BIRTHDAY FEAST.
1. The dance of Salome. There were high festivities at Machaerus to celebrate Herod's birthday or perhaps his accession to the crown. He had gathered a great company round him—his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee. We may be sure that his guests were entertained with all the costly luxury of the time. Even the Roman Persius had heard of the sumptuousness of these Herodian banquets (5:180). But there was one show which could not have been expected. Salome, Herod's own niece, the great-granddaughter of Mariamne, the descendant of the long line of Asmonaean princes, so utterly forgot the delicacy of a Hebrew maiden and the decorum of a princess as to dance alone in the midst of Herod's nobles when excited with feasting and heated with wine. Vashti, the Persian queen, had forfeited the crown rather than even appear at such a banquet. Salome, it seems, came unbidden, and in all the bright beauty of her early youth danced before the assembled guests. It was unbecoming, indecent. But the guests were delighted; and, strange to say, Herod too was pleased, though it was his own niece, and now his stepdaughter, who was thus transgressing the accepted rules of society. Feasting and wine often lead to sin. A simple life is safest for a Christian.
2. Herod's rash oath. In his excitement and folly he promised her with an oath whatever she would ask. He invoked the holy Name of God at this wild, dissolute feast. He swore to what he knew not. Wine and luxury help the devil in his work of slaying souls. The plot had been laid. The princess was instructed by her wicked mother. The malice of hell lurked under the girlish beauty of Salome. That fatal oath was to bring the most awful guilt upon the soul of Herod. For Salome claimed his promise. "I will that thou forthwith give me in a charger the head of John the Baptist." She would have it immediately. The tetrarch was weak and vacillating; she would hold him to his wicked oath. She would have it there and then on a charger—on one of the great dishes, perhaps of silver or gold, which had been used at that gorgeous banquet; a thing ghastly and horrible exceedingly. The king was sorry. He had hated John; once he wished to kill him. But not now. He feared the people; his old reverence for John returned; he shrank from the fearful deed. But he had sworn; all his courtiers had heard him. He had not cared for the shame of his niece; but he thought it shame that a prince should break his word, should be false to his oath. He thought much more of those half-drunken guests who sat around than he thought of God. For, had he thought of God's honour, his conscience would have told him that to break such an oath was far less insulting to the honour of God than to keep it. It was sinful exceedingly to swear as Herod had done, and so to expose himself to the snare of the devil. But it was beyond all comparison more wicked to keep that wicked oath than to break it. Herod's grief did not save him; it was only the sorrow of the world; not godly sorrow, not repentance.
3. The martyrdom. The wicked woman gave him no time for thought; she forced him to send an executioner immediately. John was beheaded in the prison. It was a noble death, the death of a hero, the death of a high saint of God. Salome might bear the bleeding head upon the golden charger—a strange burden for a young and beautiful princess; Herodias might exult over it in her gratified malice. The holy martyr's soul was safe in the Paradise of God. Herod might wear his blood stained diadem; John had received the crown of glory that fadeth not away. He has left behind him a glorious example. Let us ask God to give us his grace that we may truly repent according to the Baptist's teaching; and after his example constantly speak the truth, boldly rebuke vice, and patiently suffer for the truth's sake.
4. The burial. The disciples of John cared for his decent burial. Herod, conscience-stricken, perhaps, already, did not hinder them. They laid his body in the grave, and then went and told Jesus. It was as he would have wished. He himself while living had sent his own followers to Christ. "Behold the Lamb of God!" he said to them; and now that he was dead, to whom should his disciples go but to the Lord whom he had honoured, before whose face he had been sent? We should go to Christ in all our troubles; we should tell him. He will listen; he will give us his loving sympathy. He will be a Father to the fatherless, and a Husband to the widow. In our great and in our little troubles, in the bitter sorrow of bereavement, in the petty vexations of daily life, let us tell Jesus. If we come to him in faith and love, we shall never come in vain.
1. Christians are sometimes called to rebuke vice; let them do it fearlessly when it is their duty.
2. Much feasting often leads to sin; the Christian must be temperate in all things.
3. Rash oaths are full of guilt; take not God's holy Name in vain.
4. One sin leads to another; hate the beginnings of sin.
5. Bring all your troubles to Christ; he will help you to bear them.
The feeding effective thousand.
I. THE LORD'S DEPARTURE FROM GALILEE.
1. He went by ship into a desert place. His apostles had returned from their mission (Luke 9:10); they needed rest, "for there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat." He had also heard of Herod's superstitious fears, and that he was desirous to see him. The Lord would not meet the tyrant; he departed out of his tetrarchy. He crossed the lake to a place near Bethsaida Julius, in the dominions of Herod Philip. His hour was not yet come; he would not expose himself to the cruelty of Antipas, nor would he satisfy his curiosity.
2. The people followed him. It seems to have been long before Herod heard of the fame of Jesus. The humble inhabitants of Galilee heard of all his movements; they followed him on foot out of the cities. The poor Galilaeans were better instructed than the wealthy, wicked prince. They followed Christ whithersoever he went; so should we. They went with him into the desert, trusting in him; so should we always trust. While he is with us, we are safe.
3. His compassion.
(1) He went forth, perhaps from the ship. He found, not the quiet which the apostles needed so much, but a great multitude. They had looked for retirement, and they found crowds of people; they had looked for rest, and they found more work awaiting them.
(2) His forgetfulness of self. He had compassion on the multitude. Wearied as he was, he healed their sick. The Lord is an Example to us here as always. We are apt to repine if work is thrust upon us when we need rest. We must learn of Christ; we must imitate his compassion for the needy and suffering, and take, as he did, every opportunity of doing good to the souls or bodies of our neighbours. He began to teach them many things, the other evangelists tell us; he spake unto them of the kingdom of God.
II. THE MIRACLE.
1. The conversation with the apostles. The multitude was great; the place was desert; the hour was late; there were no ordinary means of providing for their wants. The disciples were burdened with a deep sense of responsibility. The Lord had himself, earlier in the afternoon, put the question to Philip, "Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?" (John 6:5). Then the difficulty was only suggested; it was not removed; it became more pressing as the day wore on. Later in the evening the disciples came to Christ, not to ask advice, but to give it; it was late, they said, too late already. "Send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals." There was something of presumption, perhaps, in this advice; certainly there was a want of faith. They did not understand the Lord's majesty, his power, his love. We too often wish to dictate to Almighty God what we think he should do for us. It is best to trust ourselves absolutely to his providence, he doeth all things well. He himself knoweth what he will do. "They need not depart," the Lord replied. It can never be necessary for any needs of ours to depart from Christ. In the greatest tumult of business, in the utmost poverty, in the most imminent danger, faithful souls will not depart; they will draw nearer to the Lord, as temptations thicken round them. He who has learned to know and love the Lord Jesus will cling closest to him in want, in peril, in distress. "Give ye them to eat," he added. There is an emphasis on the pronoun. It was good that they should feel their helplessness. They had but five loaves and two small fishes. It was nothing for that great multitude. How often we feel our ability, our strength, our means, utterly inadequate to fulfil the work which the Lord has given us to do! If we offer them to him in simple trustfulness, he will multiply them. "Bring them hither to me," he said. He asks us for what we can give him, what is in our power. Let us bring our offerings in faith, he will accept them, if only we bring that offering which he most desires—our hearts, ourselves, if we give him that, then those little offerings which we thought unworthy of his acceptance shall be honoured, and will, it may be, by his grace become the means of working great results.
2. The feast in the wilderness. He bade them sit down in companies. He would have order, not confusion. They must sit in their ranks; they must not press rudely round him; they must not try to anticipate one another; they must so sit that the apostles could move freely among them; each must wait till his turn came. Mark how, even in these smaller matters of courtesy and order, the Lord gives us an example for the regulation of our daily life. He looked up to heaven, teaching us to recognize the great truth that it is our Father in heaven who gives us day by day our daily bread, and that we should always look to him in every time of need. Then he blessed; he blessed God, the Giver of all; he blessed the food. As God in the beginning blessed his creatures, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply," so now God the Son, by whom all things were made, blessed this little store of food, that through the power of that Divine blessing it might be multiplied to the satisfaction of the hunger of that great multitude. He gave thanks, St. John tells us. Our food is blessed to our use. It is sanctified by the word of God and prayer when it is received with thanksgiving. We learn of Christ to ask a blessing on our food. To eat bread with unwashen hands, the Pharisees said, was against the tradition of the elders; to eat without asking a blessing is against the example of the Lord Jesus Christ. Let us follow that example, recognizing at every meal the bounty of our heavenly Father; let us look up to heaven, as Christ did, and make the grace before and after meat a real act of worship. "Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God." Then the Lord brake the bread, as he brake it a year afterwards at the institution of the Holy Eucharist; as he brake it on the resurrection day, when be was made known to the two at Emmaus in the breaking of bread. He gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. And lo! "they did all eat, and were filled." It was a mighty miracle, beyond our comprehension, but no wonder to him who filleth all things living with plenteousness. "He was in the world, and the world was made by him." It was only to be expected that the presence of the Son of God should be marked by wonderful works. His presence in the form of man was of all wonders the greatest—a mystery of almighty power, a mystery of ineffable love.
3. The twelve baskets full. The Lord had provided largely for his guests. There was enough and to spare. That which remained over and above was more than the five loaves and the two fishes, the little store which they had at first. He bade his disciples, "Gather up the fragments which remain, that nothing be lost." He is an Example at once of generous bounty and of carefulness. He would have nothing wasted. The Christian should guard against waste, that he may have to give to the needy.
4. The number. There were five thousand men, beside women and children. The men were arranged in companies of fifty; they were easily numbered. The women and children seem to have sat apart. Probably there were not many. The multitude seems to have been gathered together for the Passover (John 6:4), which only men were commanded to attend; though religious women, like the virgin Mary, went sometimes with their husbands. The Lord cared for all alike—men, women, and children. So should his servants do.
5. Lessons of the miracle. Herod feasted in his palace with his nobles, Christ in the wilderness with his disciples; Herod's feast was costly and luxurious, Christ's very simple. The sumptuous banquet of Herod ended in guilt and murder. It was a godless feast, profaned by wicked oaths. The Christian should never be present at any festivities, any amusements, on which he cannot ask the blessing of God. The simplest food, when Christ is present, when we feel that it is he who gives and he who blesses, satisfies the Christian's wants. The presence of Christ gives peace and blessedness in the wilderness. Without Christ the gorgeous palace is a desert. Christ can prepare a table in the wilderness; he can provide for his people wherever they are. The multitude had followed him into this desert place. He had compassion on them; he would not send them away fasting. So he hath compassion now on all who seek first the kingdom of God; he knows that we have need of food and raiment; he will give them. Let us trust in him. but let us pray with the deepest earnestness not for the meat which perisheth, but for that which endureth unto everlasting life. He who on that day fed the five thousand with earthly food, feeds now the ten thousand times ten thousand of his saints with the bread which came down from heaven. He himself is the spiritual Food of believers. "He that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst." They need nothing more whom he feedeth with that heavenly food. All the cravings of their souls are stilled; all the yearnings of their hearts are satisfied with his gracious presence who is the Bread of life. Let us feed on him in the daily life of faith; let us ask him to feed us with the spiritual food of his own most precious body and blood in the holy sacrament which he himself ordained.
1. Try, like Christ, to forget self and to care for others.
2. Trust him always; he will multiply the five loaves if we are following him.
3. Feast with Christ, not with Herod; with Christians in a Christian home, not with the wicked in unholy revelry.
The walking on the sea.
I. JESUS LEFT ALONE.
1. He sends the disciples across the lake. He "constrained his disciples to get into a ship." It is a strong word. He compelled, he forced them; evidently they were very unwilling to leave him. St. John's narrative throws a light upon this. The miracle had produced a great impression; it was in accordance with the hopes of the Jews; it was what they looked for in the expected Messiah. It must be he, the multitude thought; he is come indeed. This great Wonder worker is surely the Christ of God. They were right; but their conception of the work of the Christ was not the true one. He was to reign at Jerusalem, they thought; to set them free from the tyranny of Herod, from the detested Roman yoke. They wanted to "take him by force, to make him a King" (John 6:15). The Lord was not blinded by popular excitement. He was a King indeed, but his kingdom was not of this world. His kingdom was to come, but in the way appointed by God; and that was the way of the cross. He would not attempt to seize it prematurely, whether at the prompting of the evil one (Matthew 4:8, Matthew 4:9) or at the clamour of the multitude. The apostles shared the enthusiasm of the crowd. They had been prominent in the distribution of the miraculous food; doubtless the people magnified them. They were great men now; they hoped to sit near to the Lord, on his right hand and on his left, in his kingdom. They had a right above all other men, they may well have thought, to be with their Master in this day of triumph, as they had been faithful to him in his tribulations. They were very unwilling to leave him. But he forced them to go. This excitement was not good either for the multitude or for the disciples. Ambition is an evil thing, especially the ambition of reaching the high places of the Church. The best of men have their faults; the apostles had theirs. Christ forced them to leave him for a time when their hearts were set on earthly triumphs. Religion loses all its beauty when men try to make it a means for self-exaltation.
2. He dismisses the multitude. He could do it more easily and quietly now that the apostles were gone. They were probably the most enthusiastic. They had to be forced; the others were dismissed. Doubtless that enthusiasm was mainly honest zeal for their Master's glory; though selfish motives, such as those just mentioned, were perhaps unconsciously mingled with it. But even that honest enthusiasm was mistaken. It could do only harm; it would excite the suspicions of Herod ("that fox," Luke 13:32), and the hostility of the Roman governor. Christ's hour was not yet come. He would not anticipate the time appointed in the counsels of God. He sent the multitude away. Their disappointment, we may be sure, was great. The apostles, perhaps, were more than disappointed; perhaps they were vexed and even angry; he had to force them to leave him. How often it is so now! Success, popularity, excites us. We hope for great things; perhaps our hopes for spiritual victories include (though we scarcely know it) hopes for our own advancement. Then we are disappointed. He teaches us the holy lesson of patience. We must wait for him, for his time. The Lord reigneth; but it doth not always please him to manifest his power when we expect and wish it.
3. He retires to a mountain for prayer. He had retired to a mountain; he had prayed there all night long, before he called his apostles. Now he does the like. This great Popularity did not dazzle him. He knew that that excited multitude did not understand his mission or his purpose. He himself would the very next day turn that popularity into suspicion or even active opposition. He would offer them the bread of life, and they would not receive it; many of his disciples would go back and walk no more with him. It was a crisis in his earthly life. He retired to collect his thoughts, to hold communion in solitude with his heavenly Father. It is what we should do in times of excitement and difficulty. The hours spent in earnest prayer are the best spent hours of our lives; they give strength, calmness, perseverance. The Lord prayed long. When the evening was come, he was there alone; he prayed on into the late night. A few hours before he had more than five thousand zealous adherents round him. Now they had left him; he himself had sent them away. He was alone, with only God. He was preparing himself, we may reverently believe, for the struggle which lay before him—the controversies, the desertions, the bitter opposition. He was holding communion with the Father. He never sought counsel of men; for in some sense he was always alone. His Divine nature isolated him, not from human sympathy and love—that was precious even to him (Matthew 26:40)—but from human advice, human help. He could receive strength only from heaven (Luke 22:43).
II. THE MIRACLE.
1. The disciples. They were in peril now, and the Lord was not with them in the ship, as he had been once before. There was a great wind; the ship was tossed with waves; they were in distress, toiling in rowing. But the Lord saw them in their danger; he saw them from the lonely mountain where he was kneeling in prayer; he saw and came. So he sees us now from heaven, where he ever liveth to make intercession for us. He sees all our trials; and he comes, as then he came, to help and to save. He sent them from him when they would have made him a King; he comes to them now they need his help.
2. They see him coming. It was dark—three or four in the morning; they were struggling still with wind and wave. They see suddenly an august Form moving over the surface of the water, coming towards them, seeming as though it would pass by. It was a strange sight in the darkness of that tempestuous night. It increased their terror. It must be an apparition, they thought. It boded ill. Danger, death, was at hand. They cried out for fear. Then in that moment of agony there came a well known voice, sweet and clear, amid the din of the storm, "Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid." So the good Lord cheers his people now, in sickness, sorrow, in the hour of death. "It is I," he saith. He comes to his people in the hour of need. He sees them in their distress from afar off, from the heaven where he is making intercession for them. He comes, manifesting himself in all his love and mercy to those who cry to him in fear and peril. He cometh; it seems sometimes as though he would pass by and leave us in our anguish. But it is only a trial of our faith, to make us feel our need of him—that without him we can do nothing. Faithful, earnest prayer always brings him to our side. When he is with us, we can fear no more. "It is I; be not afraid." He is not afraid who hath the blessed presence of the Saviour. Wind and wave may roar; but when the Lord moves over the tossing billows there is peace and hope for the fearful trembling soul even in the immediate nearness of the king of terrors. "It is I; be not afraid." May we hear that gracious word, rosy we feel that gracious presence, in the hour of our death!
3. Peter. Peter, ever impulsive, ever impetuous, was not willing to wait for the coming of the Lord; he would go to him, and that upon the water. So ardent souls think to do great things and expose themselves sometimes to great perils, over-estimating their own faith, under-estimating the danger, thinking perhaps too much of self, too little of others. "Bid me come unto thee," Peter said, as if he had a special interest in the Lord above his brother apostles, as if he indeed loved him more than these (John 21:15). He would not come, indeed he dared not, without the Lord's bidding; but he asked for that bidding, instead of waiting, as the Christian should wait, to hear his Master's will. Balaam, with baser motives, sought permission to expose himself to danger; he obtained his request, and it ended in his ruin. Peter was saved, but "scarcely" (1 Peter 4:18; perhaps his narrow escape was in his thoughts when he wrote those words), by the Lord's direct interposition. Christ himself, when tempted to do the like, taught us the course of duty. "It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God." But the Lord said, "Come." He said it, we may be sure, in love, to teach Peter his own weakness and the danger of presumption. Peter came, and he too walked upon the water. While he was strong in faith, looking unto Jesus, he felt the truth of that blessed promise, "When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee." But his faith failed. He ceased to look with the steadfast gaze of trustfulness upon the face of Christ. "He saw the wind boisterous." It had been so from the beginning. He would not have seen it had his eyes been still fixed upon the Saviour. And now he was afraid—he who but a moment before had been so daring. His very skill in swimming (John 21:7) failed him in his extremity. Earthly resources will not help us when our faith gives way; and faith will give way when men look at their troubles, not at their Lord. He felt himself sinking. His friends were near, his brother disciples; but they could not help him in that great peril. In deep distress, in the hour of mortal anguish, One, only One, can help. "Out of the deep have I cried unto thee, O Lord. Lord, hear my voice." Peter still believed in Christ's love and power. His faith had not the calm strength which he had attributed to it, but it was true and real; it was like the faith of the poor father at the Mount of the Transfiguration: "Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief." He looked again to Christ; "Lord, save me!" he cried. It is the prayer of humility and penitence and serf-abasement. The trial had done him good. The danger had shown him his weakness. The old self-confidence was gone; it returned afterwards, and was dispelled forever by the deep repentance which followed a yet graver, a far more humiliating failure. Now he felt his weakness. His first request was unbecoming, not such as a sinner should make; his second was a true prayer, such a prayer as we all should lift up out of the depths of our heart to our loving Saviour. Such a prayer is never made in vain. "Immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?" The Lord waited not one moment. The needed change was wrought; Peter felt his helplessness. The Lord stretched forth his hand. So doth he now. We feel, when we come to him with strong crying and fervent prayer, that gracious hand holding us up, lifting us out of distress and terror, drawing us closer to himself. "O thou of little faith," he said, in gentle sweet reproof. Peter's faith never wholly failed him; but it was mingled with doubt. That doubt, that divided mind, divided between faith and fear, might have been his ruin had not the Lord in his great mercy saved him. Let us learn never to doubt the love of our dear Lord. If only he is with us, let us think, not too much of our difficulties and distresses, but of his grace and power. "Lord, increase our faith," be that our constant prayer.
4. The adoration of the disciples. They came into the ship, the Lord and the thankful, penitent apostle. Immediately the wind ceased. Immediately, St. John tells us, the ship was at the land whither they went. Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him. They did not forget to offer the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving for his great mercies vouchsafed unto them. "Of a truth thou art the Son of God," they said. It was the first time, except the cases of John the Baptist and Nathanael (John 1:34 and John 1:49), that men had given this title to the Lord. It followed a night of exceeding great terror. Our trials are blessed if they bring us near to Christ, if they help us to realize his love and power, if they bring us to our knees in awe and love and adoration.
III. THE RETURN TO THE LAND OF GENNESARET.
1. The sick brought to him. He was recognized at once; all knew him as the Healer, the Wonder-worker. The men of the place went out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased. That care for the afflicted, that eagerness to bring them to the Saviour, is an example to us; let us go and do likewise.
2. They were healed. They believed in him; their faith was like that of the woman who followed him when he was on his way to heal the daughter of Jairus—a faith deep and strong, if not altogether the faith of the instructed Christian. They did not, however, come behind him, as she did; they asked his permission to touch the hem of his garment, and all who touched were made perfectly whole. So it is now. He cleanseth from all unrighteousness those who come to him touching him with the touch of faith.
1. Let us learn of the Lord not to desire popular applause, not to seek the high places of the world.
2. Let us learn in all times of difficulty and anxiety to seek for peace and guidance in fervent, persevering prayer.
3. Let us trust in him; he will help us in our troubles. "It is I," he saith; "be not afraid."
4. Let us shrink from presumption; we are safe when we distrust ourselves, when we trust only in Christ.
5. Let us always look unto Jesus; in temptation, in sorrow, in agony, let us look steadfastly to him. He will stretch forth his hand; he will not let us sink.
HOMILIES BY W.F. ADENEY
Matthew 14:1, Matthew 14:2
Men's minds were much perplexed about the wonderful life of the new Prophet, and various theories were started to explain it. Here we have the king's hypothesis. This has something in common with the other suggestions, and also a peculiar aptness in regard to Herod himself.
I. IT IS NOT EASY TO ACCOUNT FOR JESUS CHRIST. The very variety of the theories shows that the problem was not solved at a glance. It was evident to his contemporaries that our Lord was no ordinary man. And yet these people saw little more than his outer life. The teaching of his apostles and the revelation of Christ in his Church have brought out far greater marvels in his nature. It we accept him and his claims, his Divine nature and mission will explain all. But if we reject him we have still to account for him. And just here is the great difficulty for all unbelievers. It is not enough for them to urge certain objections against the Christian position. Christ remains the wonder of all history. How could the carpenter of Nazareth live and teach and work and revolutionize the world as Jesus did if he was only a village artisan?
II. MEN VAINLY TRY TO EXPLAIN THE NEW BY THE OLD. Herod thinks of the one great man whom he has known. Others recall the historic figures of Hebrew prophecy (Matthew 16:14). In all this there is no idea that God is surpassing antiquity; that he is making a new start with a greater revelation and glory than anything yet witnessed on earth. It was difficult to understand Jesus Christ—in part, because he was not a repetition of antiquity. So long as there was no idea of a new work of God, the New Testament gospel could not be entertained. The same mistake was made later and in another way by those Jewish Christians who wished to limit Christianity by tying it to the ordinances of the old Law; and the old mistake is repeated today by those who think that Christ must be explained by what we know of the ordinary workings of human lives and characters.
III. THE GUILTY CONSCIENCE INVENTS ITS OWN TORMENTOR. Herod's hypothesis is the creation of his conscience. The stain of blood is on his soul, and it colours all his thoughts. He is a murderer, and he is haunted by suspicions of the return of his victim. He cannot silence the voice of the faithful prophet. Although he has shut him up in a dungeon, although at the instigation of his wicked wife he has lawlessly murdered him, he cannot forget him, cannot elude his warning voice. There is no escape from the guilt and consequences of sin, except by the narrow door of repentance. A king may be a slave to the terrors of his own evil conscience.
IV. THE REJECTION OF CHRISTIAN TRUTH IS OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY THE ACCEPTANCE OF A FOOLISH SUPERSTITION. Herod could not bring himself to accept the claim of Christ; yet he was willing to believe in a most extraordinary alternative. In early ages multitudes who rejected the Christian gospel yielded to the spell of ridiculous charlatans in the profession of magic. Today we see the negation of the gospel accompanied by a ready belief in what is called "spiritualism." There is no superstition so abject as the superstition of scepticism. It is the greatest mistake to suppose that the unbeliever is always walking in the white light of reason. Christian faith is the true way of escape from unchristian superstition. To believe in Christ as the Son of God who has risen from the dead is the best security for intellectual sanity in religion.—W.F.A.
The murder of John the Baptist.
This is introduced quite incidentally to account for the superstitious terror of Herod; but the story is so graphic that we seem to be carried into the midst of the scene of dissipation and crime. It is a hideous picture, and its chief lessons are of warning, and yet its gloom is not utterly unrelieved, for the portrait of the Baptist stands out in grand contrast to its vicious surroundings.
I. THE PROPHET'S FIDELITY. John the Baptist was a prophet of repentance. His was a difficult task, because he aimed at making it effective. It is easy to denounce sin in the general; no one will be affected. It is safe to accuse the weak of their wickedness; they cannot retaliate on their censor. Therefore the temptation is to take one or the other of these courses; but the first is useless, and the second mean and cowardly.
1. John denounced particular sins. He did so with the various classes who came to his baptism. The animus of Herodias' hatred springs from the fact that his shaft went home to one great and shameful act of wickedness.
2. John fearlessly accused the great. He was not stern with the miserable outcast, and meek with the sinner in high places. Pharisees could rail at the weeping penitent and be silent about the sin of the harlot-queen. John preached to the court; but he was no court preacher. The faithful prophet must denounce the sins of princes as well as those of peasants.
II. THE PRINCESS'S SHAME. In the flush and splendour of her youth, the highest-born maiden of the land lowers herself to perform a disgraceful dance under the gloating gaze of a company of half-drunken men of pleasure. The sin of the guilty mother is already bearing bitter fruit in the shame of her ill-trained daughter. We are appalled at the contrast between the lofty character of the faithful prophet and the miserable state of the princess on whose young soul the bloom of innocence is so early destroyed. The ruin of natural modesty prepares for a more horrible evil—callousness in brutal crime. Thus the loss of the pure simplicity of maidenhood leads to the hardened heart of unwomanly cruelty. None are so cruel as the dissolute.
III. THE QUEEN'S VINDICTIVENESS. It was the king's sin that John denounced, for that was the first evil; and the prophet was a man, and one who dared to bring a vile deed home to its true author. But naturally the queen feels the sting of the reproach most keenly. Then, instead of admitting its justice and humbling herself, she turns on the preacher like an infuriated tigress. Her very ferocity shows that her conscience has been wounded. When people will not repent at the word of a faithful admonitor, they flame out in a rage against him as though he were their mortal enemy. If they did but see the truth they would own him as their best friend.
IV. THE KING'S WICKED WEAKNESS. Herod himself had some respect for the prophet. He even kept him, as he might have kept an actor or a singer, to amuse his idle hours; or perhaps be was somewhat drawn to the serious teaching of John. Yet he weakly yielded to the bloodthirsty demand of the daughter of Herodias. He was moved by two considerations.
1. His oath. But it was a gross error to suppose that his oath could be made to demand compliance with the savage request made to him under it, for the most awful oath cannot bind a man to do wrong.
2. His fear. He dreaded to be thought weak by his guests. In this he revealed the very weakness he wanted to avoid. There is no cowardice so despicable as that which does wrong from fear of ridicule.—W.F.A.
Jesus feeding the multitude.
On the death of John the Baptist Jesus retired to the eastern side of the lake, oppressed with grief and longing for a time of seclusion. But it was one of his trials that he was forbidden the rest of privacy when he most craved it. The crowds followed him with such enthusiasm that they quite forgot to provide themselves with needful food, and therefore when the evening was come they were out among the lonely mountains faint and hurry. Jesus had not brought about this awkward situation. But he could not see distress without desiring to remove it. Thus there was an adequate occasion for the wonderful feeding of the thousands.
I. JESUS HAS COMPASSION ON BODILY DISTRESS. He had manifested this compassion earlier by healing the sick who were brought out to him in this remote region; and now the sight of the weary multitude touched his heart, as it became apparent to him that the evening shadows would find them far from home and without the means of providing themselves with their evening meal
1. The motive of Christ was compassion. This was the motive of his life work and of his atoning death. He came into the world because he took pity on the world's misery. The same motive moved him in particular actions. This is the grand Christian motive. The passion of pity is a peculiarly Christ-like feeling that seems to be rising among us in the present day.
2. The trouble was bodily distress—hunger. Then it is a Christ-like thing to feed the hungry. We are not to neglect men's bodies in caring for their souls.
II. JESUS HELPS THROUGH EARTHLY MEANS. He utilized the existing provisions. He did not create food out of nothing, but he wrought with the loaves and fishes already in hand. They were few, but he did not despise them, for they were invaluable in affording a foundation for his miracle. Christ now uses the instruments of human work. We have to contribute our share, and if we selfishly or despairingly refuse to do so we have no right to look for his blessing.
III. JESUS PRODUCES WONDERFUL PROVISIONS. We do not know how the miracle was wrought; we cannot even conceive of it. But we do not know how God makes the corn to grow in the fields. Nature only seems to us less wonderful than miracle because we are familiar with her external aspect and her visible processes. But behind all nature, as behind every miracle, there is the unfathomable mystery of life and being which God only understands. It is enough for us that our Lord is not thwarted, that there is nothing to which he sets his band in which he fails. He is powerful as well as pitiful. We bemoan the distress we cannot aid. When Christ is moved with compassion he helps effectively.
IV. JESUS SATISFIES THE HUNGRY. He gave no princely banquet, but mere loaves and fishes—the common barley loaves of the poor, the familiar fishes of the lake. His object was not to pamper jaded appetites—that was not needed in the keen mountain air; he simply fed the hungry. Moreover, he gave what he received, and of the same kind. He will bless our work according to its character and quality. He gives the increase, but it is according to the seed we sow—"after its kind."
Surely this miracle is more than a miracle; it is a sacrament, a sacred symbol, as our Lord shows in the discourse that follows in St. John's account (John 6:1-71.). Christ is the real Bread of life, feeding hungry souls.—W.F.A.
Walking on the sea.
The wonderful feeding of the thousands produced a great effect, rousing the multitude to enthusiasm, so that the people actually tried to three on an insurrection in support of the kingship of Jesus, and so that he had to dismiss them with haste, sending his disciples across the sea, and retiring to the mountains for prayer. Then it was that the sudden squall fell on the lake, and the need of his disciples called him to their aid.
I. JESUS IN PRAYER.
1. He was much in prayer. No doubt he thus obtained spiritual refreshment after the toils and vexations of the day. Here he found the joy of communion with his Father without distracting influences. To Jesus prayer was a necessity; it was also a joy. He could not have treated it as a formal duty. If Christ could not live without prayer, is it possible for the Christian to be healthy in the neglect of it?
2. He prayed in solitude. He hated the showy prayers of the religious people of his day, ostentatiously offered up in the marketplace, primly uttered in the synagogue. He hungered to be alone with God. He found God among the mountains.
3. He prayed at critical moments. E.g. at the grave of Lazarus, in Gethsemane. Now there was great danger of an insurrection which would wreck his plans. To him, too, the third temptation may have returned, and he may have sought strength to overcome it. Prayer is most valuable in the soul's hardest struggles with temptation.
II. THE DISCIPLES IN TROUBLE. Away from their Master they were overtaken by a tempest. It would seem that they were rowing up north in order to take Jesus on board at a spot further along the eastern shore. Therefore it was for his sake that they were facing the contrary wind, for had they turned directly homewards they would have been able to run before the gale. Trouble may come upon the servants of Christ in their very efforts to keep near him and to serve him.
III. THE COMING OF CHRIST. In that wild, dark night, while the wind lashed the sea to fury, it must have howled with fearful blasts among the rocks of the wilderness where Jesus stood alone in his prayer, and then he must have recognized the danger this would mean to his disciples. He was never selfish in his devotions. It was his habit to permit the interruption of his most sacred hours of retirement by some cry of distress, some appeal for help. So he came down to his disciples on the sea. It must have been an act of faith on his part to venture on the black, boiling waters. But faith was working through love. The sea must be risked in an unheard of miracle to save his friends out on its waste of waters. It is not surprising that the disciples could not believe their eyes, and mistook their Saviour for a spectre. Sometimes his deliverances are quite as unexpected, and almost too good to be believed. It is difficult for our faith to keep pace with his far-reaching grace.
IV. ST. PETER'S ADVENTURE. This singular sequel is quite true to the character of the apostle. His impetuosity, his enthusiasm for Christ, his failure to measure his own weakness, are all in accordance with what we know of "the prince of the apostles." But perhaps in the incident we may detect a touch of humour. There was no necessity for the apostle to walk on the water. Yet Christ indulged his whim and permitted it to be a means of revealing Peter's weakness, and of introducing one source of strength. Foolish, needless, and even ridiculous adventures may be turned to good ends. We learn to know Christ even by means of the follies of which we are heartily ashamed.—W.F.A.
HOMILIES BY P.C. BARKER
Matthew 14:1, Matthew 14:2, Matthew 14:3-5, Matthew 14:6-12
The ruin of reckless rashness.
Note, in introduction, that in an historic point of view this stretch of verses, numbering twelve in our Gospel and seventeen in St. Mark's Gospel, is remarkable for the way in which it gives the information with which it is charged. The same way is identically followed in the parallel of St. Mark; and one not dissimilar in its leading feature in that of St. Luke. As regards the two former, the narrative, starting from tile fact that Herod is startled by the growing notoriety and repute of Jesus, continues (until, indeed, it finds its end) by glances at two several retrospective passages of the history (an ill history) made by him. These two retrospective glimpses concern Herod's first and second dealings with John the Baptist—how, first, he was tempted to put him in prison, and yielded to the temptation; and how, secondly, he was snared on by his own sin, in first, second, and third degree, till he put him to death by beheading him. Notice this career in its simplest steps of sin.
I. A MARRIAGE ALLIANCE INCESTUOUS, ADULTEROUS, AND AT THE EXPENSE OF A HALF BROTHER.
II. A GOOD MAN IMPRISONED FOR HOLY TESTIMONY AGAINST THIS, MADE IN THE UNDENIED DISCHARGE OF HIS DUTY AS A PROPHET OF RELIGION.
III. BY THAT IMPRISONMENT, NOT ONLY CRUEL PRESENT INJUSTICE DONE TO THE VICTIM, BUT THE WAY PAVED FOR THE PERPETRATION OF YET WORSE CRUELTY AND INIQUITY.
IV. UNDER THE STIMULUS OF DEBAUCHERY, A BOASTFUL AND RECKLESS PROMISE MADE.
V. UNDER THE BLINDEDNESS OF DEBAUCHERY, A SNARE LAID, WHICH TOO EFFECTUALLY FITTED IN WITH RISKS ALREADY SELF-HAZARDED AND SELF-CHALLENGED.
VI. THE SNARE ENTERED WITH VAINLY HEARD, VAINLY UTTERED REMONSTRANCES OF CONSCIENCE.
VII. IN THAT SNARE A TERRIBLE FALL; AND IRRETRIEVABLE HARM BOTH DONE AND TAKEN.
VIII. LATER ON, CONSCIENCE CALLING ON A VERY FAITHFUL ALLY CALLED MEMORY, STARTLED AND GALVANIZED INTO LIFE BY CIRCUMSTANCES AND EVENTS THAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN, AND EVEN EASILY MIGHT HAVE BEEN, ALL MATTER OF INTEREST AND JOY—CREATORS AND STRENGTHENERS OF PEACE INSTEAD OF DISTURBERS AND DESTROYERS OF IT.—B.
.—The sacrament miracle. Distinguish this miracle of the feeding the five thousand, so glorious in all its incidents, and with its full fourfold narration, from that of the feeding the four thousand, recorded by Matthew (Matthew 15:32-39) and Mark (Mark 8:1-9) only. Lead to the consideration of this miracle by dwelling briefly on—
I. THE MOTIVES OF THIS MIRACLE, There was one leading motive—a kind human compassion, a condescending memory of the bodily want of the multitude of people, and a gentle consideration of the same. We may imagine that the mixture of "women and children" among the repeatedly mentioned "five thousand men" will have added to the feeling of thoughtful pity in Christ. But beside this predominating incentive, it may well be that this occasion proffered itself, considering certain peculiar characteristics of the miracle (for which see next head), as a most fit occasion for such a miracle, as would be adapted to utilize itself, in the most direct moral service, like an acted discourse, for instance. It was a wide spoken discourse indeed for thousands upon thousands, who never heard so plainly as when they were now thus fed; nor were open to blame, in anything like all cases, for its being able to be thus said. This multitude scattered again from this sacred spot to their homes over wide stretches of their country, what sermons they would take with them, and what memories would again and again warm up in their hearts! And yet again, the occasion was one of special import for the small circle of disciples. Philip, for one, was "proved," and we need not doubt that all the other disciples were both proved and reproved, when they learned the truth to very reality of that word, "They need not depart; give ye them to eat." And forthwith, after the commission, were furnished with the means to execute it, and did execute it, and distributed that true shadow of a sacrament, to say the least of it, from the very fingers of the Lord of all sacraments.
II. THE MIRACLE ITSELF. There is a sense in which every miracle is not merely a wonder of Power, but an inscrutable wonder of power. We cannot pass from the limited finite power, over the border into the unlimited, without confessing that, though we gaze at or gaze into the unbridged abyss, it is an abyss, and we can nothing else than only gaze! But the character of some miracles lends itself to help our imagination, to guide and give strength to our weak power of thought. And we say within ourselves that a fever stayed by a word, palsy and paralysis cured, a blind eye, a deaf ear, a dumb tongue re-energized, and even water converted into wine, are wonders of power more easy to track than that a solitary loaf of bread find another at its side by an absolute fresh act of creation in a moment and by a word. This once seen through, the multiplication may seem to follow more easily on the level of some other miracles. But this is not to be "once seen through." Notice, again, of this miracle, that it was neither one of the absolute necessity of the heart of mercy allied with the hand of might, nor one of such very secondary character of kindness and goodness (it is said with all perfect reverence) as when for the purposes of a marriage feast water was made wine. Christ divinely and humanly pitied the fainting hunger of the men who had long lingered around him, and of their women and children; but when he made the water into wine we cannot say it was similar pity. Again, we are not told at what point the miraculous multiplication of the bread took effect—under the "blessing," and at the "breaking" of the five loaves and two fishes in the hands of Christ, or as the disciples distributed, or as the people ate. Though we are not told it, this is one of the untold things that we can scarcely find difficulty in supplying; and this without charge, or any self-charge even, of presumptuousness. We need not suppose unnecessary wonders, such as that the little original store and stock of material could be handled by those who distributed, when parted into several thousand minute portions. Even this would point to the increase as taking place in the blessing and under the manual acts of Christ. Again, we are not told of any expression either of surprise or of any other kind upon this subject, as made by any of the multitude either at the time or subsequently, or by any disciple, such as might give us a suggestion, or throw light upon it. Again, we are not told what time it took, or what sort of difficulty, if any, the disciples encountered in their work of distributing to some hundred companies of those set down, in parties of fifty each. That the large multitude were thus arranged speaks design of itself, and we can see the disciples threading their way with their distributing baskets, by aid of the passages, and, so to say, the aisles left. There were some eight hundred to be ministered to by each of the twelve disciples. Nor have we any statement as to how and where the "women and children" got their portions; the suggestion of our verses 19-21, nevertheless, would leave us in no practical doubt that they were grouped in the companies of the fifties and hundreds. With all these things untold, the miracle itself stands confessed in its simplest grandeur, in its irrefragable evidence, and for its welcome satisfyingness—some through it to acknowledge "that Prophet that should come into the world;" some to show tomorrow that they were thankless for the moral feast, even if they had eagerly partaken of the literal one; but some also, we cannot doubt it, and we know not how many, to remember it for days and years to come, and to speak of it far and wide with grateful heart and tongue.
III. THE MULTIFORM PARABLE THAT IS INCORPORATE WITH THIS MIRACLE.
1. It is a parable of Christ feeding the wide world.
2. It is a parable of Christ feeding that world by the human instrumentality of his servants, his disciples, his apostles, those some certain called from the mass, and called by him, and "sent forth" by him.
3. It is a parable of what effect Christ's "blessing" can have and shall have on his own appointments, his own appointed provision, his own appointed "means of grace," his own appointed methods of distribution, and his own ordering of his Church and its ministers.
4. To devout, thoughtful, reverent faith, surely it constitutes itself, it welcomely forces itself, into a parable of a sacrament—the sacrament in "one kind" for the fulness of time was not yet come—the sacrament of the food of the blessed body of the Lord himself! How many a time has the individual, humble, and praying believer lighted on what should seem some small morsel of Divine truth, and of the Divine Word, and as he meditated, how it opened, how it refreshed his fainting state, how it filled his eye, and feasted his highest powers of feeling and of imagination! And how many a time have the true ministers of Christ, the bishops and pastors of the flock of God, begun to think and begun to speak upon what seemed a word, a sentence, a verse, but it has increased under meditation, under prayer, under the familiar, common, sometimes despised "preaching" of Christ's last charge and commission, and under the realization of the priceless "blessing" of his last promise, while multitudes have listened, been divinely fed, learned to love and to adore and to live a new life, and the human feeder and the fed all been satisfied!—B.
A contention of sense and faith.
The last miracle was one the teaching of which was certainly good for all, alike for the disciples and the multitude; and of the two for obvious and natural reasons, perhaps more so for the former than for the latter. But, letting alone the teaching force of it, that foregoing miracle had for its practical object the benefit of the five thousand with women and children, allaying their hunger and bringing home to their hearts—of what ever character those hearts—some sense of and some persuasion of the thoughtful consideration of the Lord. For the small number of the twelve disciples there was never any great difficulty—probably never any at all—in supplying "all their need." But the present miracle was one for the disciples themselves. It was good alike for their body and soul. It may, perhaps, be said to have been in higher kind also, even as limb and life are ever of more import than the satisfying of hunger, though this may be intense. Though we are not at all bound to find herein the reason of its following so distinctly in each account upon the other, yet the link of thought may be helpful. And far is it from being out of analogy with the truth, that he who so cares for the vast flocks scattered, needy, distracted with fear, or callous with indifference, shows no small proportion of that care in also caring for the shepherds and bishops and pastors of the flock, whom he has set, and whom he ever still is setting, over them. It certainly is so in the history now before us. Notice here—
I. AN INSTANCE OF CHRIST SENDING HIS SERVANTS TO TRY THEIR WAY BEFORE HIM TO FEEL AND TO TEST THEIR OWN QUANTUM OF STRENGTH AND RESOURCES; AND OF HOW, THEN, IN SUCH CASES HE IS WITH THEM, AND OVERTAKES THEM TO THE VERY MOMENT OF THEIR REAL NEED. Distinguish with emphasis such cases from those in which forwardness and self-confidence and unsafe zeal lead the way. And notice what room there is in the dispensation of the Spirit for full account to be taken of this principle. How needful it is, how desirable it is, for us often to feel that there is One who trusts us to go onward awhile, and apparently as though by ourselves, but whose eye and whose love are none the less ever near to us! And notice, further, that these are not for a moment to be counted artificial devices of the vast and infinitely wise superintending Providence, even though for wise and high ends. There were reasons why the disciples were sent onward before Christ.
II. AS INSTANCE OF A CERTAIN APPARENT CONSPIRACY AND ACCUMULATION OF THE DIFFICULTIES OF NATURE CONTENDED WITH, BY THE INCREASE OF CONSCIOUS HUMAN EFFORT AND TOIL; AND YET WITHOUT AVAIL, OR WITH VERY LITTLE AVAIL. Darkness, wind, and stormy waves were all "contrary" to the disciples; but they rowed where sails would not serve; and they toiled; and yet there came the hour when the most that they could say for themselves and their effort was that they did not retreat, that they could just hold their way. But this was much to be able to say.
III. AN INSTANCE OF THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF HELP BEING JUDGED TO BE EITHER AN EMPTY FORM, OR A FORM, IF NOT EMPTY, CHARGED WITH SOME SPECIES OF ADDITIONAL FEARFULNESS. Remark that the version, "a spirit," is not most correct to the word used, or probably to the real description of the alarm excited in the minds of the disciples. Nor can any justification be adduced from the passage of any scriptural warrant for belief in certain superstitions. It may be said to be Scripture, on the other hand, which defines spirit, and determines the reality of spirits, and does not deny, indeed, that spirits may take "phantom" appearances, but in this place certainly does not state it. The word is not the same as that used, e.g. in Acts 12:15, nor does it point in the same direction.
IV. AN INSTANCE OF THE BOUNDLESS GENTLENESS OF THE PITY, "LIKE AS A FATHER'S," WITH WHICH THE LORD DISPELS HIS SERVANTS' FEAR, AND REPLACES IT WITH ALL THE EXULTATION OF AN UNEXPECTED EXPERIENCE OF COMFORT AND REPOSE.
V. AN INSTANCE OF A GLORIOUS EPISODE OF FAITH, AND THE FAITH THAT SIGHTS IMITATION AND LIKENESS. Faith is the very father of great thought and great enterprise for some; for others it is patient endurance of the storms, and the vanquisher of fears, and exquisite rest from anxiety. But in its noblest attempts, it knows no measure and owns no limit, while it keeps its firm look on its Lord. It partakes of the omnipotence of its unseen object.
VI. AN INSTANCE OF AN INGLORIOUS LAPSE OF FAITH. The cause of this very plainly marked here—the eye turned away from its great object, and confused by the difficulties of sense.
VII. AN INSTANCE OF A VERITABLE SCRIPTURE PHOTOGRAPH OF THE CHURCH OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST IN THE TUMULT, THE DARKNESS, THE STORM OF THE WORLD—BUT SAFE; CHRIST NEAR IT, THE EYE OF CHRIST ON IT, CHRIST HIMSELF IN IT, AND ITSELF AT LAST WITH HIM IN THE HAVEN.—B.
HOMILIES BY MARCUS DODS
Herod Antipas is a character not quite easy to understand, but possibly on that account all the more worth understanding. Weak men are always difficult to understand, no principle you can calculate on guiding their conduct. Herod was not a bloody man like his father, but, like Ahab, his irresolution was used by the resolution of his wife. Before his doubly unlawful marriage much hope might have been entertained for him, with men like the apostles among his peasantry, not without good influences in his own palace and family, and even himself showing an interest in the spiritual movements of his time. But this miserable woman spoilt his life. What could he do in compliance with John's requirements when he understood her fierce, unscrupulous, vindictive temper so well as to feel quite helpless in her hands? What we learn from this act of Herod's is:
1. That wherever a person forms connection with one less scrupulous than himself, he puts himself at a great disadvantage for living righteously. This pressure becomes extreme when the connection is so close as that of marriage. And many a marriage of this kind involves the parties in difficulties as trying if not as tragic as those which now involved Herod.
2. Again, we see the tendency of sin to spread and injure many. The sensualist often lays the flattering unction to his soul that, however vile his sin may be, he at least injures only himself. When Herod laid aside his self-respect and allowed his passions to be inflamed by the dancing of a wanton, he was not conscious of injuring any one. But before the sun was set his coarse profligacy had suddenly thrust itself into the most sacred life, and carried ruin with it. And in a thousand ways do sins of the flesh, which we flatter ourselves shall hurt nobody but ourselves, make us much wickeder than we wish, and carry us to consequences disastrous to others as well as to ourselves.
3. It is in our Lord's treatment of Herod that we see the full result of this passage in his history. When brought before his judgment seat he would not vouchsafe a word to his judge. By his treatment of John, Herod had forfeited his right to judge our Lord. Any interest he now professed in Jesus was false. He played round the margin of higher things, and flattered himself he would one day take the plunge; but this trifling only hardened his heart, and had made him incapable of understanding the gravity and importance of the matters that were brought before him. This is no unusual experience. Many men deal so shiftily with conscience, and constantly make enjoyment their real end in life, that there is left in them no capacity for earnest spiritual thought and feeling. Had Herod saved John's life and braved the anger of Herodias, he would probably have saved the life of Jesus also. But since that first opportunity of playing the man, he had steadily fallen, till he not only sacrificed a greater than John, but was unconscious of the enormity of his guilt. To such a man what could our Lord have to say? Here we may discern the reason why many men who seem to be inquirers after truth are left in darkness. They omit the preliminaries. Like Herod, who said nothing about John's death, they neglect to do the obvious duties that daily call them. They do not act on the light they have, and therefore they get no more. By trifling with former convictions and dealing insincerely with conscience, they reach that molt appalling of human conditions, in which they cannot receive help even from him who is the Way, the Truth, and the Life.
Turning now to the heroic figure in this tragedy, we are struck first with the completeness given to John's character both by his rebuke of Herod and by his death. All Jews were more or less scandalized by the conduct of the king; but, so far as history informs us, none were honest enough or bold enough to tell him how his conduct stood related to the Law. (Compare conduct of courtiers of Henry VIII. when asked if his divorce were lawful.) Such freedom from fear and favour as John's is rarely attained, and attained only by those whom the truth makes free—by those who are themselves living so true a life that all personal interests are eclipsed by the steady shining of the truth. That must shine whatever else goes out. We may be tempted to ask—What good did John do by his boldness? He did not make Herod repent, and he only made things look more hopeless for the righteous. And so with ourselves, the good we attempt is not done, and we ourselves are permanently injured. Were it not better for us to turn forever away from those unattainable heights which only heroes can climb? But:
1. John could not have helped rebuking Herod. He was sent to turn people to repentance. Herod invited him, and he must speak.
2. Are we sure John's conduct was fruitless? It is by admiration of such heroic acts that men are practically brought within sight of a spiritual world, in presence of which all earthly glory and gain seem poor and tarnished. It is through such acts that we are enabled to believe in the righteousness of God. Righteousness becomes a new thing when it assumes a visible form upon earth, and condemns our unrighteousness with irresistible force. Lastly, it is true direct success did not attend John's efforts; and if we are to act righteously and courageously, we must not do so in expectation that such conduct will always bring us in this life outward comfort and personal safety. But let no one think of his own life as so commonplace, so padded round with social safeguards and comforts, that no act of heroism can ever be required of him. Acts requiring true moral courage and absolute self-sacrifice are called forevery day, and your day and opportunity will no doubt also come. And out of very feeble and commonplace material heroes are made by John's fundamental quality, fidelity to Christ. It is knowledge of Christ and sympathy with him, loyalty to him and genuine love for him, which carry the soul forward to greater things than otherwise it could dare.—D.
Peter walking on the sea.
This time was a crisis in the life of our Lord. Thousands of people had followed him into a secluded part of the country, and insisted that he should proclaim himself King. It would have been a lesson to leaders of men to have seen how he induced the huge mob quietly to disperse. But the strain was tremendous. He had to control not merely the clamouring, infatuated thousands, but himself also. What more seductive to the human spirit than the being carried by acclamation to the place of highest influence, entrusted with power to work out one's own ideas of what is for the welfare of men? Feeling, therefore, the difficulty of the conflict, he gave himself, as soon as the victory was gained, to prayer. He spent the night calming, steadying, fortifying his spirit by fellowship with the Father. Thus prepared, he went to seek his disciples. Why did our Lord adopt at this time so extremely unusual a mode of action. He never did singular things, although he had power to do anything. His power was infinite, so were his sobriety of mind and self-control. His motive probably was the desire to rescue his disciples from difficulties into which he himself had brought them. For consider their probable state of mind. They had first met with the deep disappointment of hearing our Lord distinctly decline a crown; they had been made conscious that, so far from helping their Master, they were sometimes encumbrances to him. But, worst of all, they had been compelled, against their own will and judgment, to embark. They seemed to have very good reason for murmuring at their Master, and yet here on their own lake, in their own boat, they do his bidding. And they had their reward. They kept on as he had told them, and therefore they were overtaken by his presence and help. The disciples, then, could not fail to be impressed chiefly with Christ's mindfulness of them. His appearance showed them that no interests of his own, however distracting, could make him oblivious of them and their necessities; it showed them also that nothing could prevent him from bringing them the aid they required. Is it not likely that a great part of his prayer through the night was occupied with them and their individual temptations to deny him and go with the multitude? And it were well if we could attain to the knowledge they now acquired regarding Christ's mindfulness. We seem at times to be so entirely delivered over to unsympathetic and almost unintelligent agents and influences, that it seems impossible the help of one so spiritual can penetrate to us or avail us aught; but he can make himself understood by the dullest forces of nature, and can find his way to us through the wildest turmoil. The men who had taken the wild fury of wind and sea as a part of the day's work, and had without any quickening of pulse faced the dangers they were professionally familiar with, are appalled at once and together by the single Figure that approaches them without menace or noise. They saw in it a whole world of unconceived possibilities, and coming at that hour when already they were hard pressed, they concluded it came as the herald of doom. God's way of helping us is often so different from the one we have planned, that when it comes we murmur instead of being grateful. The transport of reaction finds expression, as usual, through Peter. We need not try to account for the extraordinary request he now made, further than by saying that it was due to the sudden joy of meeting the Friend in whom was all safety, after a night of such tension and toil and disturbance of thought. And the Lord approved Peter's impulse, else he would not have bid him come, and eventually does not rebuke him for attempting the thing, but for not succeeding. Impulse has its fit place, only it needs to be strongly backed. There are things now that need to be done, but which will seem as impossible as walking on the sea except to the eye of warm feeling. This unreasoning impulse of Peter's, too, penetrated more deeply into the nature of miracle than a good deal of our would be wisdom penetrates. For it saw no reason why the miracle should not be evinced in Peter's person as well as in Jesus'. And our Lord, by ascribing Peter's failure solely to lack of faith, implies that any one with faith enough could walk on the sea just as he himself did, He himself did it by faith. But did our Lord mean that if only a man believed he could walk on the water, this would give him power to do so? Certainly not. Faith is needed, but a legitimate occasion is also needed. It is harmony, identification with God and his will, that give power to work miracle. The miracles of our Lord are, therefore, a great promise to human nature; in the Person of Jesus it was shown what that nature is capable of when in its right and normal relation to God. But the results of faith did not last one moment beyond the faith itself. Peter's fear for one moment excluded faith; the waves shut him off from God, and at once he sank. We do not by once believing receive the Spirit in retention as our own; the Spirit proceedeth from the Father and the Son, and only while connected with the Son does the Spirit flow from him to us. We fail and sink as soon as we separate ourselves and begin to live by ourselves and for ourselves. We are strong with a strength far beyond our own when we live in God, with his will at heart and intending to work as his hand in the world. But that is the perfect human condition, habitually realized by our Lord alone. There is a lower condition consistent with salvation—the condition in which Peter, conscious of his weakness and seeing his danger, cries, "Lord, save me!" Is there any part of your life, any matter of thought or conduct in regard to which you feel that you are sinking, and must shortly be overwhelmed altogether? then consider the prompt, willing, efficient help that answers the cry. The lasting result of this incident on the disciples was their deepened conviction of our Lord's Divinity. How are we to arrive at that conviction; to feel that our proper attitude is one of worship, and that in his presence we are secure against all calamity; that for rest of mind and spirit, for education of conscience, for fulness of help in all for which we are insufficient, we need go no further than him? I do not suppose that this one miracle would have convinced that boat's crew; but their minds had been gradually accumulating material for understanding him, and this incident was but a more brilliant light set in front of that material, and which gave the right reading of it. The same material, or nearly the same, is available for us. Let us be patient, sincere, and hopeful. These men who were with him from day to day did not all at once reach the joy of recognizing in the Friend they had learned to love their God and Saviour; but their experience of his love, his truth, his wisdom, his power, gradually separated him in their thoughts from all others and gave him the highest place.—D.
HOMILIES BY J.A. MACDONALD
The morals of a tragedy.
Here we have a tragedy in which the principal actors are, on the one side Jesus and John the Baptist, and on the other Herod, Herodias, and Salome. We propose to bring out some of its lessons. Learn, then—
I. THAT THE HAUGHTIEST DESPOT IS HIMSELF RULED BY THE MEANEST THINGS.
1. What is meaner than vile passion?
(1) Capricious lust ruled the destinies of Herod. The king is ruled by the beast. The beast excites the murderer. The man is bedevilled.
(2) "He that ruleth his heart is greater than he that taketh a city." Brute force may take the city. Brute force may imprison the saint. Moral force rules the heart. It vanquishes sin. It vanquishes Satan.
2. What is meaner than the pander of vile passion?
(1) This Herodias was. A despicable woman, who could abandon her living husband to consort with his brother.
(2) The tetrarch was the creature of that wretch. He consented to her stipulation that he should divorce his lawful wife. He became a murderer to please her.
(3) How much lower can the despot sink? Let those who would be honourable eschew despotism. Be admonished by the "dog in office;" by the "beggar on horseback."
II. THAT THE DIVERSIONS OF THE WORLD ARE COMMON OCCASIONS OF SIN.
(1) This in the abstract is innocent. There are religious festivals.
(2) Excesses have to be avoided (see Proverbs 23:31-33).
(3) The folly of the fool comes out of his merry heart.
"There cannot be a better glass, wherein to discern the face our hearts, than our pleasures; such as they are, such are we" (Bishop Hall; see Proverbs 10:23; Hosea 7:5).
(1) This may evince a holy excitement, as when David danced before the ark. His dancing would be the hilarious stepping of a soul full of holy triumph.
(2) The dancing of Salome was of another kind. The dancing of the ballroom is a pernicious invention to excite criminal passion. It has often led to the sacrifice of chastity, and to murder afterwards to conceal shame.
(3) Christian mothers who send their daughters to the dancing school should remember the mother of Salome (cf. 2 Chronicles 22:3).
(1) The company of the good is from the Lord. It was none the less edifying to the disciples of John because a prison was the place of meeting.
(2) The company of the wicked is from the devil. It is none the less demoralizing when the meeting place is in a palace.
(3) Tyrants will have flatterers for their courtiers. They hate reprovers. John's words were rough like his raiment (see 1 Kings 22:8; Proverbs 9:8; Proverbs 15:10-12). The prisoner is not bidden to the feast.
(4) Unlike the princes of Jehoiakim (see Jeremiah 36:25), the guests of Antipas had not the spirit to protest against the oaths or the murder, and so they became accomplices in both. To their notions of honour the Baptist's head must be sacrificed.
III. THAT A PARTIAL SURRENDER TO TRUTH IS NO SECURITY AGAINST CORRUPTION.
1. Herod for some time spared John's life.
(1) In the first flush of his resentment for John's reproof, he was minded to put John to death. In this, too, he was encouraged by Herodias. But he was restrained by his fear of the multitude, "because they counted John as a prophet."
(2) The fear of man is to the wicked a greater restraint than the fear of God. Men fear to be hanged for what they fear not to be damned (see Ecclesiastes 7:17). The fear of man restrains; the fear of God constrains.
2. He even listened to John's sermons.
(1) The consequence was that he had a new motive for sparing John's life, which was still coveted by Herodias. He now "feared John, knowing. that he was a righteous man and a holy, and kept him safe."
(2) He heard John with a conviction which "much perplexed him; and he heard him gladly" Wicked men are not insensible to the beauty and power of great principles. Many such listen gladly to faithful gospel preaching.
(3) He went further; "he did many things" at the instance of John.
3. But he did not forsake all his sins.
(1) He retained Herodias. How many things in the way of reformation will men do while they hold to the sin that easily besets them!
(2) He detained the Baptist in prison. There he lay for eighteen months—a term equal to that of his public ministry. Thus was the tyrant responsible for the crime the public ministry of that great re. an might have prevented.
(3) The sequel was that, though "the king was sorry," yet he murdered his monitor to gratify his mistress.
IV. THAT THE WICKED HAVE TO DREAD RETRIBUTIVE RESURRECTIONS.
1. Crime distorts the conscience.
(1) "The king was sorry."
(a) Sorry at his banquet. Note: Sorrow accompanies the joys of earth.
(b) Sorry that he had pledged his oath to the damsel when he saw the consequence.
"How human passion contradicts itself! Now war is waged for an inch of land; now half a kingdom is sacrificed to the will of a young coquette!" (Quesnel).
(2) But his honour was at stake. "Herod had so much religion as to make scruple of an oath—not so much as to make scruple of a murder" (Bishop Hall). Can a wicked oath justify a wicked deed?
(3) "For the sake of them that sat at meat with him". The law of honour would condemn Herod as a coward if he did not keep his oath. Yet was he such a coward that he would rather brave the anger of God than the contempt of vain men. So he murdered a great prophet for very tenderness of conscience!
(4) "The king was sorry." Men enter on a new stage of crime when the restraints of fear yield to self-indulgence. A new step in sin is seldom made without compunction. A guilty man is ever miserable under the power of self-accusation, reproach, and remorse.
2. Phantoms arise frown the distortion.
(1) Christ had been now preaching and working miracles about two years, yet Herod had not heard of him. The fame of the good moves slowly to the great (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 2:8).
(2) The guilty conscience is quick in its conclusions. Herod saw in the miracle worker John the Baptist whom he had beheaded risen from the dead. Blood cries from the conscience of the murderer. He cannot rid himself of that gory visage.
(3) Where now is the Sadducee? The "leaven of Herod" is understood to be the doctrine of the Sadducees. They denied the resurrection (see Acts 23:8). But Sadduceeism staggers when conscience is awake.
(4) The resurrections of the conscience, however, are premonitory of those of the last day. John will yet in verity confront Herod before the bar of God.—J.A.M.
The table in the wilderness.
Jesus had several reasons for his crossing the lake to the desert of Bethsaida.
1. He was there out of the jurisdiction of Herod.
(1) Antipas, instigated by Herodias, had recently beheaded the Baptist, and might have been moved to proceed against Jesus, who he suspected was his victim risen from the dead (see Matthew 14:1, Matthew 14:2). Jesus could have secured himself by Divine power, but, as our Exemplar, he chose to do so by human prudence. It is lawful in times of peril to fly from persecution when we have no special call of God to expose ourselves to it.
(2) Herod desired to see Jesus, but was unworthy of that honour. So, when afterwards they came face to face, "Jesus answered him nothing" (cf. Luke 9:9; Luke 23:8, Luke 23:9; cf. also the case of Saul and Samuel, 1 Samuel 15:35; 1 Samuel 20:24).
2. He avoided the pressure of the people and gained some leisure to converse with his disciples newly returned from their progress.
3. He intended to spread before the multitude a table in the wilderness. He knew that the people would follow him. Note: Jesus sometimes leaves us that we may follow him. He lures us into spiritual solitudes to show us there the wonders of his compassion and goodness. The scene is before us.
I. THERE ARE THE GUESTS.
1. They are many.
(1) Seldom do we hear of a banquet spread for ten thousand. There were "about five thousand men." They were easily reckoned, for they were ranged in companies of fifty. "Beside" these were the "women and children."
(2) Yet these thousands were only representative of the thousands of millions who are daily feasted upon the bounty of Divine providence. Also countless millions of animated organisms. "Thou openest thine hand, and satisfiest the desire of every living thing."
(3) They were also representative of the host for whom God has provided the bounties of his grace. From these none are excluded who have not excluded themselves.
2. They are earnest.
(1) Their interest is excited by the "signs which Jesus did on them that were sick" (see John 6:2). They travelled round the lake on foot, many of them a distance of about four miles.
(2) They brought with them their sick to be healed. Perhaps, in some cases, sought his healing for those at their homes too invalided to be carried. Certain it is that Jesus required faith for healing. It is equally certain that "he had compassion on these, and healed their sick." He "healed them that had need of healing" (Matthew 14:14; Luke 9:11).
(3) They are earnest in attention to his teaching. Luke tells us that Jesus "received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God" (Luke 9:11). From the texts of his power he unfolded his wisdom. Such is the effect that they are scarce restrained from proclaiming him king (see John 9:14, John 9:15).
3. They are needy.
(1) This fact is recognized in the prudence of the disciples (verse 15). Note: Disciples are often more apt to show discretion than faith.
(2) If they need the bread that perisheth, how much more do they need that which endureth to everlasting life! Jesus "had compassion on them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd" (Mark 6:34). The poor people were woefully neglected by the Pharisees and scribes.
(3) "They have no need to go away." In their eagerness after Jesus they had forgotten their ordinary food; but Jesus had not forgotten them. "Seek ye first his kingdom, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you."
II. THERE IS THE TABLE.
1. It is spread in the wilderness.
(1) The disciples did not yet properly estimate the resources of their Lord. Instead of looking to him for the supply of their wants, like Israel in the desert, they were for returning to Egypt. Are there now no disciples in that prudent apostolical succession?
(2) When the Lord said, "Give ye them to eat," still they did not properly consider who it was that spake to them. They now looked to their own resources and found them utterly inadequate. In this error also the disciples have many successors.
(3) Soon, however, they discovered that the God of Israel was among them. The five loaves and two fishes were so multiplied that the thousands were satisfied, and the fragments left were greatly in excess of the original store. Hallelujah!
2. This recalls an earlier scene.
(1) Every reflective person in that company would be reminded of the earlier miracle when their fathers in the wilderness were fed from heaven with manna. Even the desert was suggestive. Moreover, "the Passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh" (see John 6:4), and many in this company were on their way to Jerusalem to celebrate that feast, so significantly recalling the history of the Exodus.
(2) Who, then, but the same God of Israel, who fed the fathers with that heavenly bread, is this Jesus who now feeds their children no less miraculously?
3. This also anticipates a later scene.
(1) This broken bread was a type of the Bread of life, to be broken for the spiritual nourishment of believers (see John 6:26, John 6:27). "By it" Jesus "proclaimed himself the Bread of the world, the Source of all life, of which there shall be enough and to spare for all evermore" (Trench).
(2) The Lord gave the bread to denote the life we have in communion with him. The identity of the teaching in the argument of Jesus upon this miracle (see John 6:1-71.), with the teaching of the Eucharist, cannot be missed.
(3) This, by parity of reasoning, invests with new interest the corresponding miracle of the multiplication of the wine at the marriage (see John 2:1-11). The communion of Christ is the cheer of our joy as well as the food for our need.
III. THERE IS THE SERVICE.
1. The King heads his table.
(1) "We have here but five loaves, and two fishes." God often permits his servants to be brought low that they may have the more frequent opportunities of trusting him.
(2) "Bring them hither to me." If we bring our frugal fare to Jesus for his blessing, he will make it a sufficiency for the body and a sacrament to the soul (cf. Psalms 37:19; Haggai 1:9). He clothes himself with a body that he may encourage us to depend upon him for the supply of our bodily wants. He takes special care of the bodies of those who are engaged in his service.
(3) "Looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake." God's creatures must be received with thanksgiving (see 1 Samuel 9:13; Acts 2:46, Acts 2:47; Acts 27:35; 1 Timothy 4:4). But the blessing of Jesus was more than a thanksgiving.
(4) The presence of Christ can turn a wilderness into a paradise (cf. Isaiah 41:19, Isaiah 41:20; Isaiah 51:3).
2. The disciples are the servitors.
(1) They are commissioned to order the multitude into companies (see Luke 9:14). These fifties are representative of the Churches of Christendom, which are presided over by the ministers of Christ. What Christ designed for his Churches he signified by his servant John (Revelation 1:1-4).
(2) They were commissioned to give the loaves to the multitude. Receiving the bread of life themselves, they are strengthened to minister it to others. Through their hands the multitudes are to receive it from the Lord (cf. ch. 24:45; 2 Corinthians 5:20; 2 Corinthians 6:1).
(3) The bread multiplies in their hands. Herein the Word of God proves itself to be the living bread. So it is like seed. The living Word is the life of the word preached. As seed is multiplied, not by hoarding, but by sowing, so is the Word. "There is that scattereth, and yet increaseth." Note: What we give in charity should first be given to Christ, that his blessing may multiply its benefit. They that have little must relieve others out of that little, that they may have more.
(4) They are instructed to "gather up the broken pieces which remain over, that nothing be lost" (John 6:12). What they gave they received back manifold. There were "five loaves," one forevery thousand men; they gathered up twelve hand baskets full, one for each apostle. They had also fragments over from the fishes.—J.A.M.
Lessons of the storm.
The wonderful narrative before us suggests many lessons, amongst which the following may be noted, viz.—
I. THAT JESUS IS A PARTY TO THE TROUBLES OF HIS DISCIPLES.
1. These are often induced by their own folly.
(1) After the miracle of the loaves the multitudes were eager to proclaim Jesus as their national King. From what we learn from John (John 6:15), it would seem the disciples were more disposed to second their wishes than to aid their Master in his efforts to send the people away. In this they were moved by the ignorant prejudices of the times. Note: The ignorance of his disciples has ever been a trouble to Christ.
(2) This was the occasion of their having to embark and put to sea, and consequently of their having to encounter a terrific storm. Note: We may expect to encounter afflictions and perplexities when, from whatever motives, we are so foolish as to oppose the will of Christ.
2. Satan has a malignant hand in them.
(1) Evil spirits are concerned in the mischief of destructive storms. The history of Job shows what power Satan has over the elements when he is permitted to use it. When our Lord, in another storm, "rebuked the winds and the sea" (see Matthew 8:26), did he not recognize blameworthy intelligence as working behind these elements?
(2) The closing petitions of the Lord's Prayer, "And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one," show that not only is Satan, in some of his agencies, concerned in every mischief, but that he is so of set malignant purpose. It shows, moreover, that our defence is prayer.
3. Jesus has a benevolent hand in them.
(1) He constrained his disciples to enter the boat and put to sea. This was to relieve himself from their embarrassing sympathy with the prejudices of the multitude. This in itself was a benevolence. It put them out of the way of working further mischief.
(2) He knew, when he constrained them to enter that boat, that they would have to encounter the storm. He permitted the evil spirits to exert their power upon the elements, or, otherwise, commissioned those elements to war. But his design here also was benevolent. It taught the disciples:
(a) That those who will not submit to the ruling of Christ's wisdom will have to sail without him in the voyage of life.
(b) That in voyaging without Christ the way is difficult and perilous.
(c) That the policy of their ignorant prejudice in making Christ a civil Ruler, if carried out, would, instead of bringing the tranquillity they pictured to themselves, bring them into a political hurricane.
(3) If, then, Jesus is a party to the troubles of his disciples, and that his hand in those troubles is benevolent, let us bless him for them. Let us also be quick to learn the lessons they are intended to teach.
II. THAT JESUS IS PRESENT WITH HIS DISCIPLES IN THEIR TROUBLES,
1. He is present in spirit when invisible.
(1) When he had dispersed the multitudes "he went up into the mountain apart to pray." He knew the temper in which his disciples had sailed; he foresaw the coming storm; he remembers them in prayer. By that intercession the malignity of Satan is restrained, and the fury of the winds and waves so moderated that the lives are preserved.
(2) And if Jesus from that mountain height could see and sympathize with his disciples in that tempest, so does he still, from the height of heaven, see and sympathize with his followers in every trouble of their lives.
2. He is present, moreover, in power.
(1) In the crisis of extremity that power is seen. The disciples were now "about five and twenty furlongs" from the shore, in the centre of the inland sea, and the storm most distressing. Just then Jesus "came unto them, walking upon the sea."
(2) That blessed presence is as powerful as it is timely. The Egyptian hieroglyphic for impossibility was a man's feet walking on the sea. Things impossible to men are possible with God (cf. Job 9:8). In this miracle the law of gravitation is inverted, and the liquid waves are converted into an adamantine way.
(3) Now he enters the boat. Behold, instantly, all is calm!
III. THAT CREDULITY IS THE COMPANION OF UNBELIEF.
1. The heart is slow to discern Christ.
(1) There he is walking upon the sea, yet is he not identified even by his own disciples. Why did they not recognize him instantly? Who else could it possibly be?
(2) But they deemed this too wonderful to be Christ. What, too wonderful for that Blessed One who in this very lake district—at Chorazin, Bethasaida, Capernaum—had wrought so many miracles! Who on this very sea had stilled a tempest with a word! Who but a few hours earlier had feasted ten thousand upon five barley cakes! Yet such was the fact.
(3) Are we more quick to discern Christ in the wonders of providence than the apostles were to recognize his presence in the wonders of this history? How seldom do we see deeper than the second causes of things!
2. It mistakes him for a phantom.
(1) "And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is an apparition; and they cried out for fear" (cf. Acts 12:15).
(2) This "fear" suggests that they even mistook Jesus for a demon or evil spirit. How frightful are the distortions of the credulity of unbelief!
(3) The disciples were terrified at an apparition which was designed for their salvation. When in their extremity they "cried out for fear," then came their relief. By a word, "It is I; be not afraid," the deepest fear is turned into the highest joy (cf. Psalms 112:4). The calm now succeeds the storm in the soul.
IV. THAT NATURAL RESOURCES ARE USELESS IN SPIRITUAL CONFLICTS.
1. Seamanship failed in this storm.
(1) Several of the disciples were brought up as fishermen, and knew how to handle the oar (Mark 6:48). But here they were at their wits' end, so furiously was the sea working in the storm. This was not purely an elemental strife; it was a spiritual conflict, brought about for spiritual purposes.
(2) Their salvation was of the Lord. He laid the storm. We too shall exclaim, "Of a truth thou art the Son of God," when he tranquillizes the mind which the prince of the powers of the air had disturbed and troubled. Only in so far as the love of Christ is in us can we worship him as Love.
2. The swimming art failed in these waves.
(1) Peter's fault was not his courage when he said, "Lord, if it be thou"—since it is thou—"bid me come unto thee upon the waters." Courage is fearlessness, and intelligent fearlessness is faith. Faith is the opposite of doubt and fear.
(2) The Lord permits us to try our strength that we may discover our weakness. Peter in the ship was bold; timid on the angry sea. Men are often confident in speculation, diffident in practice.
(3) Peter was borne up on the water in proportion to his faith, as the children of Israel were victorious as the hands of Moses were held up (Exodus 17:11). "The true position of every disciple is this: So to see the deep that is beneath him as to lose all confidence in himself, and so to see the Saviour that is near him as to lose all terror of the billows" (Anon.).
(4) Peter was a good swimmer (see John 21:7), but he trusts not to his swimming in this peril. Those who rely on grace lose confidence in nature. Christ is the sufficient confidence of his saints.—J.A.M.
After Jesus had come to his distressed disciples walking on the sea, and calmed for them the fury of the storm, with their Master now in their company, they had a pleasant run to the land of Gennesaret. Behold now another scene of wonder. "When the men of that place knew him," etc. Here we have a fine example of philanthropy, in which there is—
I. A TRUE SYMPATHY WITH HUMANITY. The evidences of this are:
1. A knowledge of what it is. This is expressed in the single word "sick." And this implies:
(2) Disability, viz. in every part of our nature.
2. An estimate of what it ought to be. This also may be expressed in the single word "healthy." And this implies:
(1) That the elements of our nature work together harmoniously.
(a) As to the organs of the body;
(b) as to the faculties of the intellect;
(c) as to the will and the affections of the heart.
(2) That consequently there is strength and competence in all our powers.
(3) Moreover that there is happiness.
(a) The sense of immunity from pain;
(b) the sense of vigour.
(4) And there is life. This is more than existence. Physically, it is existence under the best conditions. So, morally, it is union with God.
3. A yearning for its regenerations. This is the crucial point. There are theorists who have noble conceptions of what men ought to be, who do not endeavour to exemplify their ideal, nor to induce others to do so. Such a theorist may be a devil.
II. AN ACTIVE PUBLIC SPIRIT. This is evinced in:
1. The quick discernment of the presence of the Healer.
(1) The men of Gennesaret recognized Jesus as soon as he landed on their shore. He had been amongst them before. Gennesaret, the ancient Chinnereth (see Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 19:35), the district in Lower Galilee in which Capernaum was situate. Probably they had been amongst those who witnessed the miracle of the loaves on the preceding day.
(2) They were more noble than their neighbours, the Gergesenes, who "besought Jesus that he would depart out of their coasts," for they welcomed him among them. Note: If Christ were better known he would be better trusted, and not rejected as he is too often.
(3) The discernment of the day of opportunity is an important step towards its improvement (cf. Luke 19:24; John 1:10). It is better to know that there is a prophet amongst us than that there has been one (see Ezekiel 2:5).
2. The prompt gathering into that presence of the sick.
(1) The men of Gennesaret lost no time, but sent instantly messengers through all parts of the surrounding country to advise the sick that the Healer had arrived. Note: Those who know Christ should preach him.
(2) If these men of Gennesaret had tasted of the loaves, and that this zeal was an effect of the miracle upon them, this lesson is suggested, viz. that the inward reception of the truth will create a desire for the removal of outward evil. When the word comes into the heart it will renovate the life.
(3) The zeal of the men of Gennesaret was transfused into their messengers. Mark gives a graphic description of their activity.
3. The earnest supplication of the Divine blessing.
(1) The religious is the truest philanthropy.
(a) Religion benefits the body. Its precepts conduce to health. Their violation is the chief cause of disease.
(b) Religion benefits the soul. The soul is the grander part. The philanthropy which terminates in the body is imperfect.
(2) It is prayerful. "They," the men of Gennesaret, "besought Jesus that they," the sick, "might only touch the border of his garment." Note:
(a) The prayer was importunate. "Besought him."
(b) It was mixed with faith. "That they might only touch." The virtue was not in the garment, but in the touch, which, as an act of faith, was to be rewarded.
(c) It was mixed with gratitude. Eastern people show respect to their princes by kissing their sleeve or skirt.
(3) They were evidently influenced by the example of their countrywoman. For she was of Capernaum who introduced this idea of touching the hem of the garment (see Matthew 9:20-22). The precious ointment which was upon the head of Jesus ran down to the skirts of his garment (Psalms 133:2).
(4) "As many as touched were made whole." If ministers could cure bodily diseases they would have many clients; for, unhappily, men are commonly more concerned about the body than about the soul. The cure of disease, morally considered, is the removal of evils and errors, by which the faculties recover their true tone and balance, and the mind becomes enriched with truth and goodness.—J.A.M.
HOMILIES BY R. TUCK
John's rugged faithfulness.
How John came into contact with Herod, or how he was called to administer such a public reproof, we are not informed. It is quite possible that, in the Divine inspiration, he had done somewhat as Elijah had done before him—suddenly appeared at court,—a strange weird figure before which the soldiers shrank back,—marched straight into the presence of Herod, and with no preamble or apology, declared, "It is not lawful for thee to have her." It is, however, quite possible that Herod may have sent for him, hoping to get his conscience eased by securing the prophet's approval of his act; and no doubt Herod had some fine excuses and explanations to offer. Men always have when they have resolved to satisfy their own fancies and vices. And at Eastern courts there are always people willing enough to flatter their king, and encourage him in his vices. John stands out in strong contrast with all such.
I. A MAN WHO KNEW THE RIGHT. We are often confused because, though we may know the right, there are special circumstances in each particular case which disturb our judgment. We can see the abstract right, but it is difficult to see the right in just this case. It cannot be right that a man should have his brother's wife. And yet advisers at court may make out that high policy makes that necessary in this case. Compare Cranmer helping Henry VIII. to secure his shameless divorce. John the Baptist listened to no excuses of policy, which were but excuses of passion. He knew the right.
II. A MAN WHO SPOKE OUT THE RIGHT HE KNEW. So often we "keep silence in the evil time." We think we can do no good by speaking out, and may only bring trouble on ourselves. The men who have influenced the generations are the men of strong convictions, who could not keep silence. John, on this occasion, might have been cautious; he might have spoken like a courtier, eased his message, spoken carefully, and taken care not to offend. His mission was to the conscience of the wicked king. There shall be no trimming in his message; it shall smite right home. It is bald, bare, strong, uncompromising. "It is not lawful for thee to have her." People are sometimes what they call "faithful," but they are only irritating and humiliating. True faithfulness is conscience rousing.
III. A MAN WHO SUFFERED FOR THE RIGHT HE SPOKE. Not really at the hands of Herod. Really at the hands of Herodias, the unscrupulous woman who was the Jezebel to this Ahab. A man who fears the personal consequences of witnessing to the right, or doing the right, will never stand beside rugged, faithful John in the Divine approval.—R.T.
The foolishness of unlimited promises.
"He promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask." We are sometimes invited to promise before we are told what is to be asked. It should never be done. No man can tell whether it is right to promise until he knows what is to be promised. In the case now before us, we find a man excited with wine and company, and not really himself. It is necessary to realize the gay but degrading scene, and the skilfulness of the wicked scheme carried through by Herodias. To us dancing is a modest and beautiful amusement, whatever may be thought of its relation to religious people. But at Eastern feasts, girls of bad character were often introduced, who amused the guests, and excited evil passions, by rude movements and antics, and dancing in filmy garments. "Herodias knew the tetrarch's weak point as well as Madame du Barry knew that of Louis XV. of France, and sought to bend him to her will, even though it were by the sacrifice of her daughter's modesty." She made Salome act before these guests as if she were an Almeh-dancer. Herod loses all self-control, and foolishly promises her anything.
I. A SURRENDER OF JUDGMENT. A man should always consider and decide before he promises. A man may surrender his judgment to God. He may yield his judgment in discussion with his fellow men, because a better judgment may be given. But he may never give away his judgment, and let some one else judge for him. Then a man is weak, unmanly. By unlimited promise Herod surrendered his manhood, his right to control his conduct.
II. AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE UNSCRUPULOUS. Their trouble always is that their plans may be considered, weighed, judged. So their scheme always is to get things carried through before they can be thought about. "Tomorrow" is the weakness of the undecided, and the ruin of the unscrupulous. If Herod had said, "We will see about the promise tomorrow," John Baptist would not have lost his head. That unlimited promise broke the barriers down; and unscrupulous Herodias pressed her opportunity.
III. A CURSE ALIKE FOR THOSE WHO GET AND THOSE WHO GIVE. Is it possible for us to estimate the moral effect of this abominable transaction on Herodias and Salome? The worst thing that can ever happen to us is to be successful in some shameless enterprise. Salome's life was a horror, almost worse than that of Herodias. Then estimate the misery of Herod. His conscience that ever reminded him of the head in the charger. His dreadful fears that John had risen from the dead. Never promise without knowing what you promise.—R.T.
"And the king was sorry." But no good came of his sorrow. It was too late. He had lost his opportunity. He had put his foot upon a slide, and down he had to go. Plumptre says, "It was the last struggle of conscience. In that moment there must have come before his mind his past reverence for the prophet, the joy which had for a time accompanied the strivings of a better life, possibly the counsels of his foster brother Manaen." Every man must have his regrets. Things done in all good faith turn out very different to our expectations, and we regret that we did them. But, if we are strong men, we work at the correction or the remedying of our unintended evil. And regret sometimes is an important element in repentance. Regret concerns the result of action. Repentance concerns the wrong of action.
I. REGRETS ARE VAIN WHEN CHARACTER IS WEAK. Undisciplined people are always full of regrets; but they do them little or no good. Herod was sorry that he had made that unconditional promise. But he was too weak to refuse to do the wrong to which it led. The weak fear of man extracted the order for the beheading; he was ashamed before that assembly to recall his too hasty promise. "Like most weak men, Herod feared to be thought weak. It was not so much his regard for the oath which he had taken, but his shrinking from the taunt, or whispered jest, or contemptuous gesture of the assembled guests, if they should see him draw back from his plighted word." When the character is weak it is
(1) always sensitive to public opinion;
(2) it is always subject to the sway of stronger characters.
Herod may be as sorry as he pleases, but his regret is helpless and vain. Public opinion will drag him on into crime, and so will the shameless companion of his sins.
II. REGRETS ARE VAIN WHEN CIRCUMSTANCES ARE MASTERFUL. A man may be sorry, and may even try to put right his wrong, yet find all his efforts in vain. The man who plays with the fates will be dragged on to his doom by them. It is easy to set going a train of circumstances, but even the strong man vainly tries to check their unfoldings; they become masterful; and he must see the misery he has made, and be punished by seeing it. Our life is so ordered that good, sooner or later, inevitably unfolds good; and evil, sooner or later, inevitably unfolds misery. Let a man do the prudent, the thoughtful, the self-restrained, the good, and he will never know the misery of vain regrets.—R.T.
The first impulse of the sorrow stricken.
There may have been more than one reason for our Lord's retirement on this occasion. He may have designed to secure a time of close personal intercourse with the apostles. They had just returned from their trial mission; they were in a very excited frame of mind, and sorely needed a time of quiet guidance and teaching. He may also have felt that the violent death of John the Baptist, of which very imperfect accounts must have reached him, put his own life in peril, and made it advisable to remove from more public scenes for a while. But the accounts leave on us the impression that our Lord was specially affected by the news of John's death, and felt the longing for quietness and seclusion, which is the first impulse of the sorrow stricken; in this showing himself tempted and tried even as we are, and so having a "fellow feeling of our infirmities." The point on which we dwell is that the first desire of the sorrow stricken is a mixed one. He both seeks quietude and he seeks company; and often he restlessly changes from the one to the other. This peculiarity we find in Jesus, in "the Man Christ Jesus."
I. THE IMPULSE TO SEEK LONELINESS. This perhaps always comes first. Sorrow sends us into retirement. The stricken care to see nobody. Leave them alone in their grief. This is illustrated in two scenes of Christ's life.
1. In the case before us, when Jesus received the sad news of the violent death of a friend and fellow worker. He wanted to be alone. He went into quietude. He passed across the lake, to the lonely eastern side, away from the pressure of the crowds. Silence, separation, are the felt needs of such an hour.
2. In the case of Gethsemane, when Jesus was in immediate anticipation of calamity, and overwhelmed with mental distress. Then he sought the quiet of the garden, the shade of the olives, and even separation from the trusted three. None may see the Man in his sublime soul wrestlings. He must be alone.
II. THE IMPULSE TO SEEK COMPANY. This is quite as marked. The stricken man wants to be alone, and yet cannot bear to be alone, he wants to feel that friends are near; that he can reach them. He must sometimes speak out the woe to them, or it would grow unendurable. This is illustrated in the same two scenes of Christ's life. In the first, our Lord must have the apostolic company with him. "Come ye into a desert place, and rest a while." In the second, he must feel that the chosen three were close at hand. Truly a "fellow feeling of our infirmities."—R.T.
The necessity for constraint.
Thomson puts together the narrative so as to bring out the reason for Christ's constraining the disciples; or, rather, a first and external reason which prepares for the discernment of the deeper reason.
I. THE EVIDENT NECESSITY FOR THE CONSTRAINT. "As the evening was coming on, Jesus commanded the disciples to return home to Capernaum, while he sent the people away. They were reluctant to go and leave him alone in that desert place; probably remonstrated against his exposing himself to the coming storm and the cold night air, and reminded him that he would have many miles to walk round the head of the lake, and must cross the Jordan at Bethsaida before he could reach home. To quiet their minds, he may have then told them to go on toward Bethsaida, while he dismissed the crowd, promising to join them in the night, which he intended to do, and actually did, though in a manner very different from what they expected. Still they were reluctant to leave him, and bad to be constrained to set sail. In this state of anxiety, they endeavoured to keep near the shore between this and Bethsaida, hoping, no doubt, to take in their beloved Master at some point along the coast. But a violent wind beat off the boat, so that they were not able to make Bethsaida, nor even Capernaum, but were driven past both; and when near the Plain of Gennesaret, at the northwest corner of the lake, Jesus came to them walking on the sea." This illustrates well the surface explanation of these events; but it does not satisfy, because it does not give any reason for our Lord sending the disciples away. Why did he not keep them to help him in dismissing the crowd?
II. THE REAL NECESSITY FOR THE CONSTRAINT. We must look below the surface, and then some interesting things come to view. The miracle of feeding the thousands excited the people, and led them to regard Jesus as the delivering Messiah, and there and then proclaim him as the expected King. And our Lord's disciples, instead of repressing this excitement, were carried away by it, and would have joined in this mistaken acclamation. Herein lies the explanation of the following things.
1. Their uselessness as helpers in dismissing the excited crowd, seeing they were themselves excited.
2. Christ's determination to get them out of the way.
3. Their unwillingness to go.
4. Our Lord's constraint.
5. The revelation of his mystery and spirituality, in the walking on the sea, as corrective of the material notions to which they were giving room.—R.T.
The soothing power of prayer.
Earnest effort should be made to realize the strain, and excitement, and fatigue, and distress of that day to Christ. In some senses it was the very hardest day of his active ministry. Appraise carefully the spiritual, and even physical, influence of the following things.
1. Anxiety concerning the excitement of his disciples because the devils had been subject to them on their first mission.
2. Distress on hearing of the violent death of John.
3. Effort to put personal feeling aside in order to teach and heal the crowds who gathered at his landing place.
4. The spiritual strain of expending miraculous force in multiplying the few loaves.
5. Excitement at the dangerous intentions of the people to make him king.
6. Annoyance at his disciples when they would take part with the people.
7. Necessity for acting promptly and vigorously in checking the beginnings of mischief.
8. Pain to find his disciples still imprisoned in material conceptions of him and of his mission. Surely when all was over, the disciples were on the lake, and the last lingerer of the crowd well out of sight, Jesus must have been utterly exhausted, and needed some soothing, healing balm. Where could he get it? He knew. He shows us the place of soothing. It is the place of prayer.
I. PRAYER SOOTHES BY ENABLING US TO CAST OUR CARE ON GOD. The simple soothing mission of prayer is not often dwelt on. It is too much treated as a means of getting something. Its best blessings may be said to be the good things it does for us, rather than the good things it obtains for us. Prayer allays excitement. Prayer soothes the worried. Prayer quiets the restless. Prayer stills our atmospheres. And all because it just means telling God. If we begin to tell excitedly we soon fall into the deep peace which his presence and sympathy always breathe.
II. PRAYER SOOTHES BY ASSURING US THAT GOD CARES FOR US. And that, of necessity, means the mastery of the circumstances that trouble us. We are in the midst of difficulties, and they worry; they seem to be masterful. We go to God in prayer, and feel that he is in the midst of them, ruling and overruling; and we are calmed and rested. There are no real difficulties. "Greater is he who is for us than all who can be against us."—R.T.
A first lesson on the spiritual presence.
The answer of the disciples to the sight of Jesus walking on the sea revealed the fact that they shared the superstitious sentiments of their age. They said, "It is a spirit." "Orientals continue to believe, as of old, in supernatural agencies, not only in the all-pervading and all-controlling providence and personal influence of the Deity, which they have ever pushed to extreme fatalism, but also in the existence and activity, either for good or for evil, of spirits and invisible beings, who people the air." Our Lord desired to guide his disciples to worthier apprehensions of spiritual things, through the proper apprehension of himself as a spiritual Being and a spiritual Messiah. Our Lord had wrought many miracles which displayed his power, and revealed him as
(1) Lord of Nature in all her moods;
(2) of death in all its stages;
(3) of devils in all their forms of mischief;
(4) of souls in all their spiritual needs.
Now, by this walking on the sea, he would reveal to them something of the mystery which belonged to his own Person. And this particular revelation was called for by the fact that the disciples had encouraged the attempt of the people to make their Master a merely earthly king (John 6:15).
I. CHRIST'S BODILY PRESENCE DID BUT ILLUSTRATE HIS SPIRITUAL PRESENCE. It should be clearly seen that our Lord was with his disciples in a double sense. He was with them spiritually, just as he is still with us; but, besides that, he was with them in bodily relations, in ways that could be apprehended by their senses. That bodily presence was given to teach them what the spiritual presence is and involves. The record of that bodily presence is preserved that it might do the same thing for us. Christ, by coming on the sea, taught the disciples two things.
1. That he would be with them when they could not see him.
2. That they must not wonder if he came to them in strange forms and manifestations. He was teaching them how to use their wings in the spiritual atmosphere, as the mother bird teaches her fledgelings.
II. CHRIST'S BODILY PRESENCE WAS PRESENTLY TO PASS INTO A SPIRITUAL PRESENCE. The first suggestion was the loss of bodyweight which enabled Jesus to walk on the water. The second suggestion was the passing of the bodily into the spiritual at the Resurrection. The third was the passing of the spiritual body beyond the apprehension of the senses at the Ascension. The illustrative bodily presence has gone now, and gone forever; the reality of the spiritual presence of Christ is the possession and the glory of his Church today.—R.T.
Matthew 14:29, Matthew 14:30
The lack of staying power.
"But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid." It is the weakness of the impulsive man that he has no staying power, and is only good for the little while that the fit is on him. It is the weakness of impulsive, excitable nations, that while they are splendid at a dash, they have none of the persistency that holds on until the end is fully secured. St. Peter often spoke and acted before he thought. Behind him was impulse rather than resolve. So difficulties created at once a new and opposing impulse. He failed as quickly and as unreasonably as he acted. The men who succeed in life are the men who can hold on. St. Peter might have safely walked the water if he had held on the faith with which he started from the boat, and which had received the Master's approval.
I. ST. PETER ATTEMPTED AN IMPOSSIBILITY. There is nothing that men regard as so impossible as "walking on the sea." Men can walk on the narrowest ledges of the loftiest cliffs, or on the thinnest ropes, but not on the water. The Egyptians, in their hieroglyphics, were wont to represent an impossibility by painting the figure of a man with his feet walking upon the sea. St. Peter saw this impossibility overcome by his Master. A sudden thought seized him. He should like to do what his Master did. It was a child's wish; but it showed love and trust. He spoke it out. The Master said "Come," and he tried to do the impossible. A nobler man than those who never had such thoughts, and never made such attempts.
II. ST. PETER BEGAN TO SUCCEED WITH HIS IMPOSSIBILITY. A man can walk steadily along a very dangerous place if he looks up at the steadfast sky. He will be giddy if he ventures to look around or to look down. It is thus always in the spiritual spheres. St. Peters can always walk safely, even on the treacherous waters, so long as they look up and away to the steadfast Christ. They will fail and fall as soon as they look around, or down, or within. And the reason is that man is strong when he leans on another, but weak when he trusts to himself. The impulsive man leans for a minute and is strong; then impulse fails, and he is, like Samson, weak as other men.
III. ST. PETER SOON FAILED WITH HIS IMPOSSIBILITY. If he could have kept his eye and mind fixed on Jesus he would have succeeded. But he thought of the wind; and the wind took the place of Jesus. Jesus quickened faith; the wind quickened fear. Faith makes a man strong. Fear wholly unnerves. What St. Peter needed for success was "staying power of faith." Keeping on trusting. Keeping on "looking off unto Jesus;" "patient continuance in well doing,"—R.T.
The name which disciples found for Jesus.
In a previous homily attention has been given to the name which Jesus found for himself, "The Son of man." Here we have the name for the highest thoughts which disciples could reach concerning him, "The Son of God." Much interest may be found in comparing the leading names given to Christ. God's name for him. His own name for himself. His disciples' name for him. The name he was to have. The name he wished to have. The name he came to have. "Emmanuel;" "Son of man;" "Son of God." The disciples' confession was made in a moment of wonder at their Lord's walking on the sea, which convinced them that he was more than man. We need not suppose that they put into the term that full meaning which we associate with it; but they said it to Christ in a spirit of true reverence, offering to him the worship due only to a Divine Being.
I. THE NAME "SON OF GOD" DOES NOT REPRESENT OUR FIRST APPREHENSION OF CHRIST. It is intended that the humanity of Christ should make the first impression upon us. At first sight he is the "Man Christ Jesus." St. John is even supremely jealous of the truth that "Jesus is come in the flesh." It may be doubted whether any arguments for the Divinity of Christ can be effective until the truth of his humanity has been fully apprehended. What requires to be seen clearly is that the humanity of Christ cannot be fully and adequately set forth without producing the conviction that he was more than human. What the orthodox party needs to secure is a complete representation of our Lord's humanity. Imperfect representations have laid the basis of erroneous doctrines concerning our Lord's Person. We begin with his full humanity.
II. THE NAME "SON OF GOD" REPRESENTS ADVANCED CHRISTIAN ATTAINMENT. Hardly in the instance now before us, which is better regarded as an anticipative exclamation of what would be more intelligently and more considerately stated by and by. We have also to remember that the Jews commonly spoke of tradesmen as "son of the trade," and these disciples may but have intended a figure for the good man, the "Son of God." But the term was subsequently used with its fullest meaning. It represents the advanced spiritual apprehension of Christ. He is "the Son of God with power." The conviction of the Divinity, or Deity, of Christ is seldom or ever reached by arguments. It is the conviction which comes to men by personal dealings with Christ; personal experiences of his power. At first we know him as our Saviour; by and by we know him as our God.—R.T.
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Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on Matthew 14". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25