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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 18

Introduction

Overview

1 Samuel 18:1, Jonathan loves David; 1 Samuel 18:5, Saul envies his praise; 1 Samuel 18:10, seeks to kill him in his fury; 1 Samuel 18:12, fears him for his good success; 1 Samuel 18:17, offers him his daughters for a snare; 1 Samuel 18:23, David persuaded to be the king’s son-in-law, gives two hundred foreskins of the Philistines for Michal’s dowry; 1 Samuel 18:28, Saul’s hatred and David’s glory increase.

Verse 1

the soul of Jonathan: The modesty, piety, and courage of David were so congenial to the character of the amiable Jonathan, that they attracted his most cordial esteem and affection; so that the most intimate friendship subsisted between them from that time, and they loved each other with pure hearts fervently. Their friendship could not be affected by the common vicissitudes of life; and it exemplifies by fact what the ancients have written on the subject.

&חם ציכיבם יףןפחפב ויםבי ךבי ליבם רץקחם פןם ציכןם ופוסןם בץפןם. "Friendship is an entire sameness, and one soul. A friend is another self." 1 Samuel 14:1-2 Chronicles :, 1 Samuel 14:45, Genesis 44:30, Judges 20:11, 1 Chronicles 12:17, Psalms 86:11, Colossians 2:2

loved him: 1 Samuel 18:3, 1 Samuel 19:2, 1 Samuel 20:17, Deuteronomy 13:6, 2 Samuel 1:26, Proverbs 18:24

Reciprocal: Genesis 34:3 - soul Joshua 23:12 - cleave 1 Samuel 17:31 - sent for him 1 Samuel 31:2 - Jonathan 2 Samuel 1:23 - pleasant 2 Samuel 9:1 - show him Psalms 132:1 - all his afflictions Matthew 19:5 - cleave Philippians 2:20 - likeminded Titus 1:8 - a lover of good

Verse 2

took him: 1 Samuel 16:21-Isaiah :, 1 Samuel 17:15

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 19:7 - in times past

Verse 3

made a covenant: 1 Samuel 20:8-Esther :, 1 Samuel 20:42, 1 Samuel 23:18, 2 Samuel 9:1-Leviticus :, 2 Samuel 21:7

Reciprocal: Genesis 21:27 - made Genesis 21:32 - General Deuteronomy 13:6 - which is 1 Samuel 18:1 - loved him 1 Samuel 20:16 - made 1 Samuel 20:17 - for he loved 1 Samuel 20:41 - David exceeded 1 Samuel 22:8 - that my son 2 Kings 11:4 - made a covenant 1 Chronicles 12:17 - heart 2 Chronicles 23:1 - covenant with him Proverbs 17:17 - General Philippians 2:20 - likeminded

Verse 4

stripped himself: Presents of clothes or rich robes, as tokens of respect or friendship, are frequent in the East. Genesis 41:42, Esther 6:8, Esther 6:9, Isaiah 61:10, Luke 15:22, 2 Corinthians 5:21, Philippians 2:7, Philippians 2:8

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 1:22 - the bow Isaiah 22:21 - clothe Ezekiel 23:15 - with girdles

Verse 5

behaved: or, prospered, 1 Samuel 18:14, 1 Samuel 18:15, 1 Samuel 18:30, Genesis 39:2, Genesis 39:3, Genesis 39:23, Psalms 1:3, Acts 7:10

wisely: Matthew 10:16, Ephesians 5:17, Colossians 4:5

the men of war: 1 Samuel 13:2, 1 Samuel 14:52

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 18:16 - all Israel 2 Samuel 19:9 - The king 1 Kings 2:3 - prosper 2 Kings 18:7 - he prospered Psalms 62:9 - Surely Psalms 119:98 - through

Verse 6

Philistine: or, Philistines

the women: Exodus 15:20, Judges 11:34, Psalms 68:25, Jeremiah 31:11-1 Chronicles :

instruments of music: Heb. three stringed instruments, The original shalishim, is rendered by the Vulgate sistris. The sistrum. The sistrum was an ancient Egyptian instrument made of brass, with three, and sometimes more brass rods across; which, being loose in their holes, made a jingling noise when shaken.

Reciprocal: Genesis 14:17 - to Judges 21:21 - dance 1 Samuel 29:5 - General 2 Samuel 1:20 - Philistines Jeremiah 31:4 - again

Verse 7

answered: Exodus 15:21, Psalms 24:7, Psalms 24:8

Saul: 1 Samuel 21:11, 1 Samuel 29:5

Reciprocal: Judges 11:34 - his daughter 1 Samuel 14:49 - name of the firstborn Psalms 62:9 - Surely Psalms 75:3 - I bear Proverbs 27:21 - so Jeremiah 31:4 - again Daniel 3:12 - certain Matthew 27:18 - he

Verse 8

the saying: Esther 3:5, Proverbs 13:10, Proverbs 27:4, Ecclesiastes 4:4, James 4:5

displeased him: Heb. was evil in his eyes, Numbers 11:1, Numbers 22:34, *marg.

and what: 1 Samuel 13:14, 1 Samuel 15:28, 1 Samuel 16:13, 1 Samuel 20:31, 1 Kings 2:22

Reciprocal: Exodus 21:8 - please not 1 Samuel 19:1 - And Saul 1 Samuel 21:11 - the king Job 5:2 - envy Proverbs 27:21 - so Matthew 5:22 - That Mark 7:22 - an evil Mark 15:10 - for envy Luke 15:28 - he 1 Peter 2:1 - envies

Verse 9

eyed David: Genesis 4:5, Genesis 4:6, Genesis 31:2, Matthew 20:15, Mark 7:22, Ephesians 4:27, James 5:9

Reciprocal: Genesis 26:14 - envied Judges 9:23 - God 1 Samuel 17:31 - sent for him 1 Samuel 19:1 - And Saul Job 5:2 - envy Ecclesiastes 4:4 - every Matthew 5:22 - That Mark 15:10 - for envy 1 Peter 2:1 - envies

Verse 10

the evil spirit: 1 Samuel 16:14, 1 Samuel 16:15, 1 Samuel 19:9, 1 Samuel 26:19

and he prophesied: Wyyithnabbai, rather, "and he pretended to prophesy; for the verb is in Hithpael, the signification of which conjugation is not only reflex action, but also affectation of the action: Jeremiah 29:26, Jeremiah 29:27. The meaning seems to be, that Saul, influenced by the evil spirit, feigned to be prophesying, the better to conceal his murderous intentions, and to render David unsuspicious. 1 Samuel 19:24, 1 Kings 18:29, 1 Kings 22:12, 1 Kings 22:20-Isaiah :, Jeremiah 28:2-Numbers :, Jeremiah 28:11, Zechariah 13:2-Deuteronomy :, Acts 16:16, 2 Thessalonians 2:11

played: 1 Samuel 16:16, 1 Samuel 16:23

and there was: Wehachanith beyad Shaool, rather, "and the javelin was in the hand of Saul;" for the javelin or spear was the emblem of regal authority; and kings had it always in their hand, as may be seen represented on ancient monuments. In ancient times, says Justin, kings used a spear instead of a sceptre.

Reciprocal: Numbers 25:7 - a javelin Numbers 35:20 - by laying Judges 9:23 - God 1 Samuel 19:7 - in times past 1 Samuel 22:6 - spear 2 Kings 3:15 - bring me

Verse 11

cast the javelin: 1 Samuel 19:9, 1 Samuel 19:10, 1 Samuel 20:33, Proverbs 27:4, Isaiah 54:17

And David: Psalms 37:32, Psalms 37:33, Isaiah 54:17, Luke 4:30, John 8:59, John 10:39

Reciprocal: Numbers 25:7 - a javelin Numbers 35:20 - by laying 1 Samuel 16:23 - Saul 1 Samuel 20:27 - Wherefore 1 Samuel 20:32 - what hath 2 Samuel 4:8 - sought 2 Samuel 12:7 - I delivered Psalms 64:4 - suddenly

Verse 12

afraid: 1 Samuel 18:15, 1 Samuel 18:20, 1 Samuel 18:29, 1 Samuel 16:4, Psalms 48:3-Joshua :, Psalms 53:5, Mark 6:20, Luke 8:37, Acts 24:25

the Lord: 1 Samuel 16:13, 1 Samuel 16:18, 1 Samuel 22:13, Acts 7:9

departed: 1 Samuel 16:14, 1 Samuel 28:15, Psalms 51:11, Hosea 9:12, Matthew 25:41

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 28:10 - and they shall Judges 16:20 - the Lord Acts 5:17 - indignation

Verse 13

removed: 1 Samuel 18:17, 1 Samuel 18:25, 1 Samuel 8:12, 1 Samuel 22:7

he went out: 1 Samuel 18:16, Numbers 27:16, Numbers 27:17, 2 Samuel 5:2, Psalms 121:8, Saul was sensible that the Lord was departed from him; while he perceived, with evident sorrow of heart, that the Lord had given David peculiar wisdom, and that he was with him to prosper all his undertakings. This increased the disquietude of his malevolent mind, and his dread of David as a prevailing rival: he therefore removed him from his presence. This impolitic step, however, served the more to ingratiate David with the people, by affording him the opportunity of leading them forth to victory over their enemies.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 18:27 - his men 1 Samuel 19:7 - in times past 1 Samuel 22:14 - goeth 1 Chronicles 11:2 - that leddest

Verse 14

behaved: or, prospered, 1 Samuel 18:5

the Lord: 1 Samuel 10:7, 1 Samuel 16:18, Genesis 39:2, Genesis 39:3, Genesis 39:23, Joshua 6:27, Matthew 1:23, Matthew 28:20, Acts 18:10

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 3:19 - the Lord 1 Samuel 22:7 - the son of Jesse 2 Samuel 7:9 - And I was 1 Kings 2:3 - prosper 2 Kings 18:7 - And the Lord 1 Chronicles 17:8 - I have been Psalms 101:2 - behave Psalms 119:98 - through Proverbs 13:15 - Good Ecclesiastes 4:4 - every Daniel 6:4 - but 1 John 3:12 - And

Verse 15

wisely: Psalms 112:5, Daniel 6:4, Daniel 6:5, Colossians 4:5, James 1:5, James 3:17

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 18:5 - behaved 1 Samuel 18:12 - afraid 1 Samuel 18:29 - yet the Psalms 101:2 - behave Proverbs 27:21 - so Ezekiel 31:9 - envied 1 John 3:12 - And

Verse 16

all Israel: 1 Samuel 18:5, Luke 19:48, Luke 20:19

he went: Numbers 27:17, 2 Samuel 5:2, 1 Kings 3:7

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 18:13 - he went out Proverbs 27:21 - so

Verse 17

her will I give: 1 Samuel 17:25, Psalms 12:2, Psalms 55:21

valiant: Heb. a son of valour

the Lord's: 1 Samuel 17:47, 1 Samuel 25:28, Numbers 32:20, Numbers 32:27, Numbers 32:29

Let not mine: 1 Samuel 18:21, 1 Samuel 18:25, Deuteronomy 17:7, 2 Samuel 11:15, 2 Samuel 12:9

Reciprocal: Genesis 29:30 - served Genesis 37:27 - let not Judges 5:23 - to the help 1 Samuel 17:31 - sent for him 1 Samuel 18:13 - removed 2 Samuel 17:10 - thy father 1 Chronicles 5:18 - valiant men Psalms 12:8 - when Psalms 35:8 - into Psalms 56:5 - all Proverbs 26:26 - Whose hatred is covered by deceit

Verse 18

Who am I: 1 Samuel 18:23, 1 Samuel 9:21, Exodus 3:11, Ruth 2:10, 2 Samuel 7:18, Proverbs 15:33, Proverbs 18:12, Jeremiah 1:6

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 4:15 - the daughter Psalms 12:8 - when Proverbs 25:6 - in the presence

Verse 19

Adriel: Judges 14:20, 2 Samuel 21:8

Meholathite: Judges 7:22

Verse 20

loved David: 1 Samuel 18:28, Genesis 29:18, Genesis 29:20, Genesis 34:3, Judg. 16, 4, 15; 2Sam. 13, 1; 1Kings 11, 1, 2; Hosea 3:1-Deuteronomy :, 2

pleased him: Heb. was right in his eyes

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 18:12 - afraid 1 Samuel 25:44 - Michal 2 Samuel 3:13 - Michal 2 Samuel 17:4 - the saying 1 Chronicles 13:4 - the thing

Verse 21

a snare: Exodus 10:7, Psalms 7:14-Nehemiah :, Psalms 38:12, Proverbs 26:24-Ezekiel :, Proverbs 29:5, Jeremiah 5:26, Jeremiah 9:8

the hand: 1 Samuel 18:17, 1 Samuel 19:11, 1 Samuel 19:12

this day: 1 Samuel 18:26

Reciprocal: Exodus 23:33 - it will surely 2 Samuel 11:15 - Set ye 2 Samuel 12:7 - I delivered 2 Samuel 17:4 - the saying Psalms 10:10 - humbleth Psalms 11:2 - that Psalms 36:3 - The words Psalms 37:12 - General Psalms 56:5 - all Psalms 62:9 - of high Proverbs 10:18 - that hideth Proverbs 26:26 - Whose hatred is covered by deceit Matthew 2:7 - General

Verse 22

commanded: Psalms 36:1-Leviticus :, Psalms 55:21

servants: 2 Samuel 13:28, 2 Samuel 13:29, Proverbs 29:12

Reciprocal: Proverbs 10:18 - that hideth

Verse 23

a light: 1 John 3:1

a poor man: 1 Samuel 9:21, Proverbs 14:20, Proverbs 19:6, Proverbs 19:7, Ecclesiastes 9:15, Ecclesiastes 9:16

and lightly: Psalms 119:141

Reciprocal: Numbers 16:9 - Seemeth it but Judges 1:12 - And Caleb Judges 6:15 - my family is poor 1 Samuel 18:18 - Who am I Psalms 131:1 - my heart

Verse 24

On this manner: Heb. According to these words, 1 Samuel 18:24

Verse 25

dowry: Genesis 29:18, Genesis 34:12, Exodus 22:16, Exodus 22:17

but an hundred: That is, Thou shalt slay one hundred Philistines, and thou shalt produce their foreskins as a proof, not only that thou hast killed one hundred men, but that these are of the uncircumcised Philistines.

foreskins: 1 Samuel 17:26, 1 Samuel 17:36, Genesis 17:11-2 Chronicles :, Joshua 5:3

to be avenged: 1 Samuel 14:24

thought: 1 Samuel 18:17, 2 Samuel 17:8-1 Kings :

Reciprocal: Numbers 35:20 - by laying 1 Samuel 18:13 - removed 2 Samuel 3:14 - an hundred 2 Samuel 11:15 - Set ye 2 Samuel 19:9 - The king Hosea 3:2 - I bought

Verse 26

the days: 1 Samuel 18:21

expired: Heb. fulfilled

Verse 27

his men: 1 Samuel 18:13

slew: Judges 14:19, 2 Samuel 3:14

two hundred men: The Septuagint has only וךבפןם בםהנבע, one hundred men; and as Saul covenanted for a hundred, as David himself says - 2 Samuel 3:14, that he espoused Michal for a hundred, it is very probable that this is the true reading.

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 22:14 - the king's 1 Samuel 24:11 - my father 1 Samuel 25:44 - Michal 1 Chronicles 15:29 - Michal

Verse 28

1 Samuel 24:20, 1 Samuel 26:25, Genesis 30:27, Genesis 37:8-1 Kings :, Genesis 39:3, Revelation 3:9

Reciprocal: Genesis 39:2 - the Lord Deuteronomy 28:10 - and they shall 1 Samuel 18:20 - loved David 1 Chronicles 15:29 - Michal 1 Chronicles 17:8 - I have been 2 Chronicles 15:9 - they saw

Verse 29

yet the: 1 Samuel 18:12, 1 Samuel 18:15, Psalms 37:12-2 Chronicles :, Ecclesiastes 4:4, James 2:19

Saul became: Genesis 4:4-Ruth :, John 11:53, 1 John 3:12-Ezra :

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 28:10 - and they shall Psalms 13:2 - enemy Psalms 56:5 - all Proverbs 10:18 - that hideth

Verse 30

the princes: Of this war we know no more than that David, whose military skill was greater, was more successful in it, than all the other officers of Saul.

went forth: 2 Samuel 11:1

behaved himself: 1 Samuel 18:5, Psalms 119:99, Daniel 1:20, Luke 21:15, Ephesians 5:15

set by: Heb. precious, 1 Samuel 2:30, 1 Samuel 26:21, 2 Kings 1:13, Psalms 116:15, 1 Peter 2:4, 1 Peter 2:7

Reciprocal: 1 Kings 2:3 - prosper Psalms 119:98 - through Proverbs 12:8 - commended Proverbs 27:21 - so Ecclesiastes 4:4 - every Hebrews 11:32 - David

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/1-samuel-18.html.