Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

2 Chronicles 18

Introduction

1Jehoshaphat, joined in affinity with Ahab, is persuaded to go with him against Ramoth-gilead.
4Ahab, seduced by false prophets, according to the word of Micaiah, is slain there.

Verse 1

Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honour in abundance, and joined affinity with Ahab.
A. M. 3107. B.C. 897. riches
1:11-15; 17:5,12; Matthew 6:33
joined affinity
He took Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, to be wife to his son Joram, (2 Ki 8:18;) which fatal connection was highly displeasing to God, and Jehoshaphat was severely reproved for it by Jehu the seer, 2 Ch 19:1-3.
31; 19:2; 21:6; 22:2,3; 1 Kings 16:31-33; 21:25; 2 Kings 8:18,26,27; 11:1; 2 Corinthians 6:14
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 3:1 - affinity;  1 Kings 22:2 - Jehoshaphat

Verse 2

And after certain years he went down to Ahab to Samaria. And Ahab killed sheep and oxen for him in abundance, and for the people that he had with him, and persuaded him to go up with him to Ramothgilead.
after certain years
Heb. at the end of years.
1 Kings 17:7; Nehemiah 13:6; *margins
he went
19:2; 1 Kings 22:2-28
Ahab
1 Kings 1:9; Isaiah 22:12,13; Luke 17:27-29
persuaded
1 Kings 22:4,20-22
Ramoth-gilead
Deuteronomy 4:43; Joshua 20:8; 1 Kings 4:13; 2 Kings 9:1
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 8:28 - he went

Verse 3

And Ahab king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat king of Judah, Wilt thou go with me to Ramothgilead? And he answered him, I am as thou art, and my people as thy people; and we will be with thee in the war.
I am as thou
1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; Psalms 139:21; Ephesians 5:11; 2 John 1:10,11
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 8:28 - he went;  1 Chronicles 19:6 - Zobah;  2 Chronicles 16:3 - a league;  2 Chronicles 19:2 - Shouldest;  2 Chronicles 22:5 - Ramothgilead

Verse 4

And Jehoshaphat said unto the king of Israel, Enquire, I pray thee, at the word of the LORD to day.
Enquire
34:26; 1 Samuel 23:2; 23:2,4,9-12; 2 Samuel 2:1; 5:19,23; 1 Kings 22:5,6; Psalms 27:4; Jeremiah 21:2; Ezekiel 20:3
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 35:22 - the mouth;  2 Timothy 4:3 - but

Verse 5

Therefore the king of Israel gathered together of prophets four hundred men, and said unto them, Shall we go to Ramothgilead to battle, or shall I forbear? And they said, Go up; for God will deliver it into the king's hand.
prophets
1 Kings 18:19; 2 Kings 3:13; 2 Timothy 4:3
Shall we go
Jeremiah 38:14-28; 42:2,3,20
Go up
14,20,21; Jeremiah 8:10,11; 23:14,17; 28:1-17; Ezekiel 13:3-16,22; Micah 2:11; Micah 3:11; Revelation 19:20
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 12:9 - General1 Kings 22:5 - Inquire;  1 Chronicles 19:6 - Zobah;  2 Chronicles 18:11 - all the prophets;  Jeremiah 23:31 - He;  Romans 16:18 - by

Verse 6

But Jehoshaphat said, Is there not here a prophet of the LORD besides, that we might enquire of him?
Is there not
1 Kings 22:7-9; 2 Kings 3:11-13
besides
Heb. yet, or more.

Verse 7

And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, There is yet one man, by whom we may enquire of the LORD: but I hate him; for he never prophesied good unto me, but always evil: the same is Micaiah the son of Imla. And Jehoshaphat said, Let not the king say so.
one man
1 Kings 18:4; 19:10
I hate him
1 Kings 18:17; 20:42,43; 21:20; Psalms 34:21; 55:3; 69:14; Proverbs 9:8; 29:10; Jeremiah 18:18; Amos 5:10; Mark 6:18,19,27; Luke 6:22; John 7:7; 15:18,19,24; Galatians 4:16
good
Isaiah 30:10; Jeremiah 38:4
me
13; 2 Kings 9:22; Ezekiel 3:17-19; Acts 20:26,27
Let not the
Proverbs 25:12; Micah 2:7
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:7 - Is there not;  2 Chronicles 18:17 - Did I not tell;  2 Chronicles 18:22 - and the Lord;  2 Chronicles 19:2 - hate the Lord;  Proverbs 15:12 - neither

Verse 8

And the king of Israel called for one of his officers, and said, Fetch quickly Micaiah the son of Imla.
officers
or, eunuchs.
1 Samuel 8:15; 1 Chronicles 28:1; *margins; Isaiah 39:7; Daniel 1:3,7,8
Fetch quickly
Heb. hasten.
25,26; 1 Kings 22:9

Verse 9

And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat king of Judah sat either of them on his throne, clothed in their robes, and they sat in a void place at the entering in of the gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before them.
sat either
1 Kings 22:10-12; Isaiah 14:9; Ezekiel 26:16; Daniel 7:9; Matthew 19:28
clothed
29; Matthew 6:29; 11:8
void place
or, floor. Threshing-floors, among the ancient Jews, as we have before remarked, were only, as they are to this day in the East, round level plats of ground in the open air. Hence a floor might well be near the gate of Samaria, which was built on a hill, and afford no improper place for the kings of Judah and Israel to give audience to the prophets.
all the prophets
Jeremiah 27:14-16
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 19:6 - Zobah

Verse 10

And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah had made him horns of iron, and said, Thus saith the LORD, With these thou shalt push Syria until they be consumed.
horns of iron
Mr. Bruce, in describing the head-dress of the governors of Abyssinia, says, "A large broad fillet was bound upon their forehead, and tied behind their head: in the middle of this was a horn, or conical piece of silver, gilt, about four inches long, much in the shape of our common candle extinguishers. This is called kirn, [keren] and is only worn in reviews, or parades after victory." Such, it may be supposed, were the horns of iron which Zedekiah (who appears to have acted the hero returning from a military triumph) made for himself, when he presumed, in the name of Jehovah, to flatter his prince with the promise of victory: "Thus saith the Lord, With these thou shalt push Syria, until they be consumed."
Jeremiah 27:2; 28:10-14; Zechariah 1:18-21; 2 Timothy 3:8
Thus
Jeremiah 23:17,21,25,31; 28:2,3; 29:21; Ezekiel 13:7; 22:28
they be consumed
Heb. thou consume them.
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 33:17 - he shall push;  2 Chronicles 18:23 - Zedekiah;  Jeremiah 28:11 - Thus

Verse 11

And all the prophets prophesied so, saying, Go up to Ramothgilead, and prosper: for the LORD shall deliver it into the hand of the king.
all the prophets
5,12,33,34; Proverbs 24:24,25; Micah 3:5; 2 Peter 2:1-3; Jude 1:16; Revelation 16:13,14; Revelation 19:20
Reciprocal: Isaiah 44:25 - frustrateth

Verse 12

And the messenger that went to call Micaiah spake to him, saying, Behold, the words of the prophets declare good to the king with one assent; let thy word therefore, I pray thee, be like one of theirs, and speak thou good.
Behold
Job 22:13; Psalms 10:11; Isaiah 30:10; Hosea 7:3; Amos 7:13; Micah 2:6,11; 1 Corinthians 2:14-16
assent
Heb. mouth.
Joshua 9:2; *marg:
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:14 - what the Lord;  2 Chronicles 18:11 - all the prophets;  Ezekiel 13:10 - others;  Romans 16:18 - by

Verse 13

And Micaiah said, As the LORD liveth, even what my God saith, that will I speak.
even what my God
Numbers 22:18-20,35; 23:12,26; 24:13; 1 Kings 22:14; Jeremiah 23:28; 42:4; Ezekiel 2:7; Micah 2:6,7; Acts 20:27; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 2 Corinthians 2:17; Galatians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 2:4
Reciprocal: Numbers 22:38 - the word;  2 Chronicles 18:7 - me;  Jeremiah 1:7 - for thou shalt;  Hosea 9:17 - My God;  Mark 12:14 - carest;  Philippians 4:19 - God

Verse 14

And when he was come to the king, the king said unto him, Micaiah, shall we go to Ramothgilead to battle, or shall I forbear? And he said, Go ye up, and prosper, and they shall be delivered into your hand.
Go ye up
1 Kings 18:27; 22:15; Ecclesiastes 11:1; Lamentations 4:21; Amos 4:4,5; Matthew 26:45
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:6 - Go up;  2 Chronicles 18:5 - Go up;  2 Chronicles 25:8 - be strong

Verse 15

And the king said to him, How many times shall I adjure thee that thou say nothing but the truth to me in the name of the LORD?
shall I adjure
1 Samuel 14:24; 1 Kings 22:16; Matthew 26:63; Mark 5:7; Acts 19:13
Reciprocal: Leviticus 5:1 - hear;  2 Chronicles 18:26 - Put;  Jeremiah 38:14 - I will;  1 Thessalonians 5:27 - I charge

Verse 16

Then he said, I did see all Israel scattered upon the mountains, as sheep that have no shepherd: and the LORD said, These have no master; let them return therefore every man to his house in peace.
he said
Matthew 26:64
as sheep
33,34; 1 Kings 22:17,34-36; Jeremiah 23:1,2; Ezekiel 34:5,6,8; Zechariah 10:2; 13:7; Matthew 9:36; Mark 6:34
master
2 Samuel 2:7; 5:2; 2 Kings 10:3
Reciprocal: Numbers 27:17 - as sheep

Verse 17

And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, Did I not tell thee that he would not prophesy good unto me, but evil?
Did I not tell
7; 1 Kings 22:18; Proverbs 29:1; Jeremiah 43:2,3
but evil
or, but for evil.
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 21:20 - Hast thou found me;  1 Kings 22:17 - as sheep;  2 Chronicles 18:22 - and the Lord;  Jeremiah 27:15 - that I

Verse 18

Again he said, Therefore hear the word of the LORD; I saw the LORD sitting upon his throne, and all the host of heaven standing on his right hand and on his left.
hear the word
Isaiah 1:10; 28:14; 39:5; Jeremiah 2:4; 19:3; 34:4; Amos 7:16
I saw
1 Kings 22:19-23; Isaiah 6:1-5; Daniel 7:9; Acts 7:55,56
all the host
Genesis 32:2; Psalms 103:20,21; Zechariah 1:10
Reciprocal: Ezekiel 13:2 - prophesy against;  Amos 9:1 - I saw;  Zechariah 6:5 - go;  2 Thessalonians 2:11 - God;  Revelation 16:14 - the spirits

Verse 19

And the LORD said, Who shall entice Ahab king of Israel, that he may go up and fall at Ramothgilead? And one spake saying after this manner, and another saying after that manner.
Who shall entice
1 Kings 22:20; Job 12:16; Isaiah 6:9,10; 54:16; Ezekiel 14:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:11,12; James 1:13,14
go up
25:8,19; Proverbs 11:5
Reciprocal: Judges 9:23 - God;  2 Chronicles 18:21 - Thou shalt;  2 Chronicles 18:34 - he died;  Jeremiah 23:31 - He;  Micah 2:11 - a man;  Zechariah 6:5 - go;  1 Corinthians 2:4 - not;  1 Timothy 4:1 - seducing

Verse 20

Then there came out a spirit, and stood before the LORD, and said, I will entice him. And the LORD said unto him, Wherewith?
there came
Job 1:6; 2:1; 2 Corinthians 11:3,13-15
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 18:5 - Go up;  2 Chronicles 25:16 - determined;  John 8:44 - When

Verse 21

And he said, I will go out, and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And the LORD said, Thou shalt entice him, and thou shalt also prevail: go out, and do even so.
a lying spirit
22; Genesis 3:4,5; 1 Kings 22:21,22; John 8:44; 1 John 4:6; Revelation 12:9; 13:14; 20:8
Thou shalt
19; Judges 9:23; Job 1:12; 2:6; Psalms 109:17
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 18:5 - Go up;  2 Chronicles 25:16 - determined

Verse 22

Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of these thy prophets, and the LORD hath spoken evil against thee.
the lord hath
Exodus 4:21; Job 12:16; Isaiah 19:14; Ezekiel 14:3-5,9; Matthew 24:24,25; 2 Corinthians 11:11-13; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-11; 1 Timothy 4:1,2
and the Lord
7,17; 25:18; Isaiah 3:11; Jeremiah 18:11; Micah 2:3; Matthew 26:24,25; Mark 14:20,21
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 18:21 - a lying spirit;  Jeremiah 28:11 - Thus

Verse 23

Then Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah came near, and smote Micaiah upon the cheek, and said, Which way went the Spirit of the LORD from me to speak unto thee?
Zedekiah
10; 1 Kings 22:23-25; Isaiah 50:5,6; Jeremiah 20:2; Lamentations 3:30; Micah 5:1; Matthew 26:67; Mark 14:65; John 18:22,23; Acts 23:2,3
Which way
Jeremiah 29:26,27; Matthew 26:67,68; John 9:40,41
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:24 - smote Micaiah;  Job 16:10 - they have smitten;  Jeremiah 23:18 - who;  Jeremiah 28:11 - Thus;  Luke 6:29 - smiteth

Verse 24

And Micaiah said, Behold, thou shalt see on that day when thou shalt go into an inner chamber to hide thyself.
Behold
Isaiah 26:11; Jeremiah 28:16,17; 29:21,22,32
into an inner chamber
or, from chamber to chamber. Heb. into a chamber in a chamber. "In one of the halls of the seraglio at Constantinople," says De La Motraye, "the eunuch made us pass by several little chambers, with doors shut, like the cells of monks or nuns, as far as I could judge by one that another eunuch opened." This exactly corresponds with the idea of a "chamber within a chamber;" and it would appear that Micaiah predicted that Zedekiah should fly for shelter to a Harem, which we have seen was deemed inviolate. (See on 1 Sa 19:16.)
1 Kings 20:30; Isaiah 26:20
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:24 - smote Micaiah

Verse 25

Then the king of Israel said, Take ye Micaiah, and carry him back to Amon the governor of the city, and to Joash the king's son;
and carry him back
8; Jeremiah 37:15-21; 38:6,7; Acts 24:25-27
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 13:4 - Lay hold;  1 Kings 22:27 - Put this fellow;  2 Chronicles 25:16 - Art thou made

Verse 26

And say, Thus saith the king, Put this fellow in the prison, and feed him with bread of affliction and with water of affliction, until I return in peace.
Put
15; 16:10; 1 Kings 22:26-28; Jeremiah 20:2,3; Matthew 5:12; Luke 3:19,20; Acts 5:18; 2 Corinthians 11:23; Revelation 11:10
this fellow
1 Samuel 25:21; Matthew 12:24; Luke 23:2; Acts 22:22
bread of affliction
Psalms 80:5; 102:9; Isaiah 30:20
until I return
Deuteronomy 29:19; Psalms 10:5; Proverbs 14:16; 1 Thessalonians 5:2,3
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 18:8 - Fetch quickly;  Jeremiah 29:26 - that thou;  Jeremiah 37:15 - put

Verse 27

And Micaiah said, If thou certainly return in peace, then hath not the LORD spoken by me. And he said, Hearken, all ye people.
If
Numbers 16:29; Amos 9:10; Acts 13:10,11
Hearken
Matthew 13:9; 15:10; Mark 7:14; Luke 20:45,46
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:28 - Hearken;  2 Chronicles 18:34 - he died

Verse 28

So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah went up to Ramothgilead.
the king
1 Kings 22:29-33
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 19:2 - Shouldest

Verse 29

And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and will go to the battle; but put thou on thy robes. So the king of Israel disguised himself; and they went to the battle.
I will disguise
1 Samuel 28:8; 1 Kings 14:2-6; 20:38; Job 24:15; Jeremiah 23:24
put thou on thy robes
Psalms 12:2; Proverbs 26:25
the king
35:22,23
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:30 - disguised himself;  2 Kings 3:7 - wilt thou go;  2 Chronicles 18:9 - clothed

Verse 30

Now the king of Syria had commanded the captains of the chariots that were with him, saying, Fight ye not with small or great, save only with the king of Israel.
Fight ye
1 Kings 20:33,34,42
small or great
15:13; Genesis 19:11; Deuteronomy 1:17
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 22:31 - thirty and two;  1 Kings 22:34 - wounded;  2 Chronicles 34:30 - great and small

Verse 31

And it came to pass, when the captains of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, that they said, It is the king of Israel. Therefore they compassed about him to fight: but Jehoshaphat cried out, and the LORD helped him; and God moved them to depart from him.
Jehoshaphat
13:14; 14:11; Exodus 14:10; Psalms 116:1,2; 2 Corinthians 1:9,10
the Lord
26:7; Psalms 34:7; 46:1,11; 94:17; 118:13
God moved them
Ezra 1:1; 7:27; Nehemiah 1:11; Proverbs 16:7; 21:1
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 8:44 - shall pray;  1 Kings 22:32 - Jehoshaphat;  2 Kings 8:28 - he went;  1 Chronicles 5:20 - for they cried;  2 Chronicles 6:34 - they pray;  2 Chronicles 18:1 - joined affinity;  2 Chronicles 19:1 - in peace;  2 Chronicles 22:5 - Ramothgilead;  Proverbs 16:1 - preparations

Verse 32

For it came to pass, that, when the captains of the chariots perceived that it was not the king of Israel, they turned back again from pursuing him.
from pursuing him
Heb. from after him.
1 Kings 22:33
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 19:1 - in peace

Verse 33

And a certain man drew a bow at a venture, and smote the king of Israel between the joints of the harness: therefore he said to his chariot man, Turn thine hand, that thou mayest carry me out of the host; for I am wounded.
a certain man
1 Kings 22:34
at a venture
Heb. in his simplicity.
2 Samuel 15:11
between the, etc
Heb. between the joints and between the breast plate. The shiryon, in Syriac, sheryono, seems to have covered both the back and breast of the warrior, and was consequently not properly a breast-plate, but a coat of mail or corslet. The corslet was made of flax or of wool woven very thick, of ox-hide, of brass, or of iron. The metallic corslet consisted not of solid piece, but of scales, hooks, or rings, connected like the links of a chain, that the warrior might move with greater ease. It was between the joints of this harness that Ahab received his mortal wound.
1 Kings 22:34,35
wounded
Heb. made sick.
35:23
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:42 - thy life shall go;  2 Chronicles 18:11 - all the prophets;  2 Chronicles 18:16 - as sheep

Verse 34

And the battle increased that day: howbeit the king of Israel stayed himself up in his chariot against the Syrians until the even: and about the time of the sun going down he died.
he died
16,19,27; Numbers 32:23; Proverbs 13:21; 28:17 Reciprocal: 1 Kings 20:42 - thy life shall go;  2 Chronicles 18:11 - all the prophets;  Isaiah 44:25 - frustrateth

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Chronicles 18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/2-chronicles-18.html.