Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Isaiah 22

Introduction

1The prophet laments the invasion of Jewry.
8He reproves their human wisdom and worldly joy.
15He prophesies Shebna's deprivation,
20and the substitution of Eliakim, prefiguring the kingdom of Christ.

Verse 1

The burden of the valley of vision. What aileth thee now, that thou art wholly gone up to the housetops?
A. M. cir. 3292. B.C. cir. 712. the valley. Jerusalem being situated in the midst of surrounding hills, and the seat of Divine revelation, is here termed "the valley of vision." This prophecy foretells the invasion of Jerusalem by the Assyrians under Sennacherib; and probably also, by the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar
Psalms 125:2; Jeremiah 21:13
of vision
1 Samuel 3:1; Psalms 147:19,20; Proverbs 29:18; Micah 3:6; Romans 3:2; 9:4,5
What
Genesis 21:17; Judges 18:23; 1 Samuel 11:5; 2 Samuel 14:5; 2 Kings 6:28; Psalms 114:5
that thou
The eastern houses are built with a court within, into which chiefly the windows open; those that open to the street being so obstructed with lattice work, that no one can see through them. Whenever, therefore, any thing is to be seen or heard in the streets, any public spectacle, or any alarm, everyone immediately goes up to the house-top to satisfy his curiosity. Hence all the people running to the top of their houses, gives a lively image of a sudden general alarm.
15:3; Deuteronomy 22:8; Jeremiah 48:38
Reciprocal: Isaiah 8:8 - he shall pass;  Isaiah 13:1 - burden;  Isaiah 13:4 - noise;  Jeremiah 18:22 - a cry;  Jeremiah 47:2 - then the;  Hosea 10:14 - shall a;  Nahum 1:1 - burden;  Habakkuk 1:1 - General

Verse 2

Thou that art full of stirs, a tumultuous city, a joyous city: thy slain men are not slain with the sword, nor dead in battle.
that art
12,13; 23:7; 32:13; Amos 6:3-6
thy slain
37:33,36; Jeremiah 14:18; 38:2; 52:6; Lamentations 2:20; 4:9,10
Reciprocal: Isaiah 14:11 - pomp;  Lamentations 1:1 - full;  Ezekiel 26:13 - GeneralZephaniah 2:15 - the rejoicing

Verse 3

All thy rulers are fled together, they are bound by the archers: all that are found in thee are bound together, which have fled from far.
thy rulers
3:1-8; 2 Kings 25:4-7,18-21; Jeremiah 39:4-7; 52:24-27
by the archers
Heb. of the bow.
Reciprocal: Psalm 18:35 - gentleness;  Jeremiah 4:9 - that the heart

Verse 4

Therefore said I, Look away from me; I will weep bitterly, labour not to comfort me, because of the spoiling of the daughter of my people.
Look
Ruth 1:20,21; Jeremiah 4:19; 9:1; 13:17; Luke 1:2
Weep bitterly
Heb. be bitter in weeping.
33:7; Jeremiah 6:26; Micah 1:8; Matthew 26:75
labour
Psalms 77:2; Jeremiah 8:18; 31:15; Matthew 2:18
Reciprocal: Esther 4:1 - and cried;  Esther 4:3 - great mourning;  Isaiah 32:11 - be troubled;  Isaiah 51:19 - by whom;  Jeremiah 4:11 - daughter;  Jeremiah 9:18 - our eyes;  Jeremiah 47:2 - then the;  Jeremiah 48:3 - voice;  Lamentations 2:11 - for;  Ezekiel 21:6 - Sigh;  Ezekiel 27:31 - they shall weep;  Zephaniah 1:10 - the noise;  Zephaniah 1:14 - even;  Luke 21:25 - with

Verse 5

For it is a day of trouble, and of treading down, and of perplexity by the Lord GOD of hosts in the valley of vision, breaking down the walls, and of crying to the mountains.
a day
37:3; 2 Kings 19:3; Jeremiah 30:7; Amos 5:18-20
treading
5:5; 10:6; 25:10
perplexity
Esther 3:15; Micah 7:4
breaking
2 Kings 25:10; Lamentations 1:5; 2:2
crying
Hosea 10:8; Matthew 24:16; Luke 23:30; Revelation 6:16,17
Reciprocal: Isaiah 15:5 - destruction;  Isaiah 32:11 - be troubled;  Jeremiah 47:2 - then the;  Ezekiel 7:7 - the day;  Zephaniah 1:10 - the noise;  Zephaniah 1:14 - even;  Zephaniah 1:15 - is;  Luke 9:7 - he;  Luke 21:25 - with

Verse 6

And Elam bare the quiver with chariots of men and horsemen, and Kir uncovered the shield.
Elam
21:2; Genesis 10:22; Jeremiah 49:35-39
Kir
15:1; 2 Kings 16:9; Amos 1:5; 9:7
uncovered
Heb. made naked.
Reciprocal: Genesis 14:1 - Elam;  1 Chronicles 1:17 - Elam;  1 Chronicles 19:17 - and set;  Jeremiah 25:25 - Elam

Verse 7

And it shall come to pass, that thy choicest valleys shall be full of chariots, and the horsemen shall set themselves in array at the gate.
thy choicest valleys
Heb. the choice of thy valleys. full.
8:7,8; 10:28-32; 37:34; Jeremiah 39:1-3
at
or, toward.
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 19:17 - and set;  Jeremiah 1:15 - and they

Verse 8

And he discovered the covering of Judah, and thou didst look in that day to the armour of the house of the forest.
he discovered
36:1-3
the armour
1 Kings 7:2; 10:17; 14:27,28; Song of Solomon 4:4
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 11:5 - built;  2 Chronicles 32:3 - to stop;  Hosea 8:14 - and Judah

Verse 9

Ye have seen also the breaches of the city of David, that they are many: and ye gathered together the waters of the lower pool.
2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chronicles 32:1-6,30
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 11:27 - the breaches;  2 Kings 18:17 - the conduit of the upper pool;  2 Chronicles 32:5 - he strengthened;  Isaiah 36:2 - the conduit;  Nahum 3:14 - Draw;  John 5:2 - pool

Verse 11

Ye made also a ditch between the two walls for the water of the old pool: but ye have not looked unto the maker thereof, neither had respect unto him that fashioned it long ago.
a ditch
Nehemiah 3:16
ye have
8:17; 17:7; 31:1; 37:26; 2 Chronicles 6:6; 16:7-9; Jeremiah 33:2,3; Micah 7:7
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 32:18 - forgotten;  2 Chronicles 11:11 - he fortified;  Psalm 28:5 - Because;  Zechariah 5:7 - talent;  John 5:2 - pool

Verse 12

And in that day did the Lord GOD of hosts call to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth:
call
2 Chronicles 35:25; Nehemiah 8:9-12; 9:9; Ecclesiastes 3:4,11; Joel 1:13; 2:17; James 4:8-10; James 5:1
to baldness
15:2; Ezra 9:3; Job 1:20; Amos 8:10; Jonah 3:6; Micah 1:16
Reciprocal: Genesis 37:34 - GeneralExodus 33:5 - put off;  Leviticus 21:5 - not make baldness;  Leviticus 23:29 - that shall;  Numbers 25:6 - weeping;  Numbers 29:7 - afflict;  Judges 9:27 - did eat;  2 Samuel 11:11 - shall 1then;  2 Samuel 12:16 - fasted;  1 Kings 20:31 - put sackcloth;  1 Kings 21:27 - lay in sackcloth;  1 Chronicles 12:32 - understanding of the times;  2 Chronicles 18:2 - Ahab;  Ezra 10:6 - he mourned;  Nehemiah 9:1 - children;  Esther 4:3 - great mourning;  Esther 4:16 - fast;  Job 16:15 - sewed;  Job 30:31 - GeneralPsalm 69:11 - I made;  Psalm 137:4 - How shall;  Proverbs 19:10 - Delight;  Ecclesiastes 2:2 - It is;  Ecclesiastes 7:2 - better;  Ecclesiastes 7:14 - but;  Ecclesiastes 8:6 - therefore;  Isaiah 3:24 - baldness;  Isaiah 22:2 - that art;  Isaiah 29:9 - GeneralIsaiah 32:13 - in the;  Isaiah 47:8 - given;  Jeremiah 4:8 - gird;  Jeremiah 6:26 - make thee;  Jeremiah 16:6 - nor cut;  Jeremiah 16:8 - GeneralJeremiah 51:39 - their heat;  Ezekiel 21:10 - should;  Ezekiel 27:31 - they shall make;  Daniel 5:1 - made;  Daniel 9:3 - with;  Hosea 9:1 - Rejoice;  Joel 1:8 - Lament;  Joel 2:12 - with fasting;  Amos 5:16 - Wailing;  Zechariah 7:3 - Should;  Matthew 9:15 - and then;  Matthew 24:38 - they;  Luke 5:35 - and;  Luke 17:27 - GeneralRomans 13:13 - rioting;  James 4:9 - afflicted;  Revelation 11:3 - clothed;  Revelation 18:7 - much she

Verse 13

And behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eating flesh, and drinking wine: let us eat and drink; for to morrow we shall die.
behold
5:12; 21:4,5; 56:12; Amos 6:3-7; Luke 17:26-29
let
56:12; 1 Corinthians 15:32; James 5:5
Reciprocal: Genesis 25:34 - eat;  Genesis 37:34 - GeneralJudges 16:25 - their hearts;  1 Samuel 30:16 - eating;  1 Kings 4:20 - eating;  2 Chronicles 18:2 - Ahab;  Job 21:12 - GeneralProverbs 23:20 - not;  Proverbs 23:35 - I will;  Ecclesiastes 2:2 - It is;  Ecclesiastes 3:4 - time to weep;  Isaiah 22:2 - that art;  Isaiah 29:9 - GeneralIsaiah 32:13 - in the;  Isaiah 47:8 - given;  Ezekiel 16:49 - fulness;  Amos 6:4 - lie;  Zechariah 7:3 - Should;  Luke 12:19 - take;  Luke 15:13 - wasted;  Acts 14:17 - filling;  Romans 13:13 - rioting;  1 Timothy 5:6 - she;  James 4:9 - afflicted;  James 5:1 - weep

Verse 14

And it was revealed in mine ears by the LORD of hosts, Surely this iniquity shall not be purged from you till ye die, saith the Lord GOD of hosts.
it was
5:9; 1 Samuel 9:15; Amos 3:7
Surely
Numbers 15:25-31; 1 Samuel 3:14; Ezekiel 24:13; John 8:21-24; Hebrews 10:26,27; Revelation 22:11,12
Reciprocal: Genesis 49:1 - Gather;  Leviticus 11:24 - GeneralLeviticus 15:5 - GeneralLeviticus 15:21 - General2 Samuel 6:23 - unto the day;  Isaiah 21:5 - eat;  Isaiah 56:12 - to morrow;  Ezekiel 9:5 - hearing;  Ezekiel 16:49 - fulness;  Daniel 5:1 - made

Verse 15

Thus saith the Lord GOD of hosts, Go, get thee unto this treasurer, even unto Shebna, which is over the house, and say,
treasurer
1 Chronicles 27:25; Acts 8:27
Shebna
36:3; 37:2; 2 Kings 18:18,37; 19:2
which
1 Kings 4:6; 2 Kings 10:5
Reciprocal: Isaiah 22:25 - the nail

Verse 16

What hast thou here? and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth an habitation for himself in a rock?
What hast
52:5; Micah 2:10
hewed
There are some monuments still remaining in Persia, of great antiquity, says Bp. Lowth, called Naksi Rustam, which give a clear idea of Shebna's pompous design for his sepulchre. They consist of several sepulchres, each of them hewn in a high rock near the top. The front of the rock to the valley below is adorned with carved work in relief, being the outside of the sepulchre. Some of these sepulchres are about thirty feet in the perpendicular from the valley, which is itself raised perhaps about half as much by the accumulation of the earth since they were made.
14:18; 2 Samuel 18:18; 2 Chronicles 16:14; Job 3:14; Matthew 27:60
as he
or, O he.
Reciprocal: Genesis 50:5 - I have;  Judges 18:3 - and what hast;  Isaiah 22:25 - the nail;  Mark 15:46 - hewn;  Luke 16:22 - and was buried;  John 11:38 - It was;  John 19:41 - and in

Verse 17

Behold, the LORD will carry thee away with a mighty captivity, and will surely cover thee.
will carry, etc
or, who covered thee with an excellent covering, and clothed thee gorgeously, shall surely violently turn, etc.
a mighty captivity
Heb. the captivity of a man. cover.
Esther 7:8; Job 9:24; Jeremiah 14:3
Reciprocal: Jeremiah 22:26 - GeneralEzekiel 21:24 - ye shall

Verse 18

He will surely violently turn and toss thee like a ball into a large country: there shalt thou die, and there the chariots of thy glory shall be the shame of thy lord's house.
surely
17:13; Amos 7:17
a large country
Heb. a land large of spaces.
Reciprocal: Isaiah 22:17 - will carry;  Ezekiel 21:24 - ye shall;  Hosea 4:16 - as a lamb

Verse 19

And I will drive thee from thy station, and from thy state shall he pull thee down.
Job 40:11,12; Psalms 75:6,7; Ezekiel 17:24; Luke 1:52
Reciprocal: Esther 8:2 - his ring;  Ezekiel 28:16 - therefore

Verse 20

And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will call my servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah:
Eliakim
36:3,11,22; 37:2; 2 Kings 18:18,37

Verse 21

And I will clothe him with thy robe, and strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy government into his hand: and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah.
clothe
Genesis 41:42,43; 1 Samuel 18:4; Esther 8:2,15
a father
9:6,7; Genesis 45:8
Reciprocal: Numbers 20:26 - GeneralJudges 17:10 - a father;  Job 12:21 - weakeneth the strength of the mighty;  Isaiah 45:5 - I girded thee;  Ezekiel 23:15 - with girdles

Verse 22

And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.
And the key
As the robe and the baldric, mentioned in the preceding verse, were the ensigns of power and authority; so likewise was the key the mark of office, either sacred or civil. To comprehend how the key could be borne on the shoulder, it will be sufficient to observe, that the ancient keys were of considerable magnitude, and much bent.
Matthew 16:18,19; Revelation 1:18
so he
Job 12:14; Matthew 18:18,19; Revelation 3:7
Reciprocal: Numbers 20:26 - GeneralJob 31:36 - I;  Isaiah 9:6 - the government

Verse 23

And I will fasten him as a nail in a sure place; and he shall be for a glorious throne to his father's house.
I will
Ezra 9:8; Ecclesiastes 12:11; Zechariah 10:4
a glorious
Genesis 45:9-13; 1 Samuel 2:8; Esther 4:14; 10:3; Job 36:7; Luke 22:29,30; Revelation 3:21
Reciprocal: Exodus 27:19 - all the pins thereof;  Exodus 38:20 - the pins

Verse 24

And they shall hang upon him all the glory of his father's house, the offspring and the issue, all vessels of small quantity, from the vessels of cups, even to all the vessels of flagons.
hang
Genesis 41:44,45; 47:11-25; Daniel 6:1-3; Matthew 28:18; John 5:22-27; 20:21-23
vessels of small
Ezekiel 15:3; Romans 9:22,23; 2 Timothy 2:20,21
vessels of flagons
or, instruments of viols.
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 7:15 - vessels;  Zechariah 6:13 - bear

Verse 25

In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall the nail that is fastened in the sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut off: for the LORD hath spoken it.
the nail
15,16
the burden
Esther 9:5-14,24,25; Psalms 52:5; 146:3; Jeremiah 17:5,6
for the
46:11; 48:15; Jeremiah 4:28; Ezekiel 5:13,15,17; Micah 4:4 Reciprocal: Isaiah 13:1 - burden;  Isaiah 24:3 - the Lord

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Isaiah 22". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/isaiah-22.html.