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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Leviticus 23

Introduction

1The feasts of the Lord.
3The sabbath.
4The passover.
9The sheaf of first-fruits.
15The feast of Pentecost.
22Gleanings to be left for the poor.
23The feast of trumpets.
26The day of atonement.
33The feast of tabernacles.

Verse 2

Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.
the feasts
God appointed several festivals among the Jews. The Passover was celebrated on the 14th, or rather 15th day of the first month in the ecclesiastical year, which was the seventh of the civil year, and lasted seven days. The Pentecost was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the passover, in memory of the law's being given to Moses on Mount Sinai, fifty days, or seven weeks after the departure out of Egypt. The word is derived from the Greek word [Pentekoste] which signifies the fiftieth. The Hebrews call it the feast of weeks, Ex 34:22. The feast of trumpets, celebrated on the first day of the civil year, when a trumpet was sounded, to proclaim its commencement, which was in the month Tisri, answering to our September, Le 23:24, 25. The new moons, or first days of every month, were, in some sort, a consequence of the feast of trumpets. God ordained that, by giving him the first-fruits of every month they should acknowledge him as the Lord of all their time, and own his providence, by which all times and seasons are ordered. The feast of expiation or atonement was kept on the 10th day of Tisri or September: the Hebrews call it Kippur, i.e., pardon or expiation, because it was instituted for the expiation of their sins. The feast of tents or tabernacles was so called, because the Israelites kept it under green tents or arbours, in memory of their dwelling in their passage through the wilderness. It was celebrated on the 15th day of Tisri, and continued eight days: the first and last days are the most solemn. Besides the feasts mentioned by Moses, we find the feast of lots, or Purim, which was celebrated among the Jews of Shushan on the 14th of Adar, which answers to our February. The feast of the dedication of the temple, or rather, of the restoration of the temple, which had been profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, which is thought to be the feast mentioned in the gospel Joh 10:22, was celebrated in the winter. Moâdim, properly means assemblies, convened at an appointed time and place.
4,37; Exodus 23:14-17; Isaiah 1:13,14; 33:20; Lamentations 1:4; Hosea 2:11; Nahum 1:15; John 5:1; Colossians 2:1; Exodus 32:5; Numbers 10:2,3,10; 2 Kings 10:20; 2 Chronicles 30:5; Psalms 81:3; Joel 1:14; 2:15; Jonah 3:5-9
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day; Leviticus 23:21 - proclaim; Leviticus 23:44 - General; Numbers 29:39 - in your set feasts; Judges 21:19 - a feast; 2 Chronicles 31:3 - the set feasts

Verse 3

Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings.
19:3; Exodus 16:23,29; 20:8-11; 23:12; 31:15; 34:21; 35:2,3; Deuteronomy 5:13; Isaiah 56:2,6; 58:13; Luke 13:14; 23:56; Acts 15:21; Revelation 1:10
Reciprocal: Genesis 2:3 - blessed; Exodus 12:16 - first day; Exodus 16:30 - General; Exodus 31:13 - Verily; Leviticus 16:29 - do no; Leviticus 23:38 - the sabbaths; Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do; Nehemiah 10:31 - the people; Jeremiah 17:22 - neither do; Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave; Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 4

These are the feasts of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons.
2,37; Exodus 23:14
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:14 - by an ordinance; Exodus 32:5 - made proclamation; Leviticus 23:21 - proclaim; Judges 21:19 - a feast; 2 Chronicles 30:5 - to make proclamation; Nehemiah 8:15 - And that

Verse 5

In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD'S passover.
Exodus 12:2-14,18; 13:3-10; 23:15; Numbers 9:2-7; 28:16; Deuteronomy 16:1-8; Joshua 5:10; 2 Chronicles 35:18,19; Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7; 1 Corinthians 5:7,8
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:6 - fourteenth; Exodus 12:11 - it is the; Exodus 12:14 - by an ordinance; Exodus 12:15 - Seven; Exodus 23:14 - General; 2 Kings 23:21 - as it is written; 2 Chronicles 35:17 - the feast; Ezekiel 45:21 - ye shall; Luke 2:41 - the; Luke 22:1 - General; John 6:4 - General

Verse 6

And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.
Exodus 12:15,16; 13:6,7; 34:18; Numbers 28:17,18; Deuteronomy 16:8; Acts 12:3,4
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:18 - General; Exodus 13:10 - General; Deuteronomy 16:3 - eat no; Joshua 5:11 - unleavened cakes; Judges 21:19 - a feast; 2 Chronicles 30:21 - the feast; Matthew 26:17 - the first; Mark 14:12 - the first; Luke 22:1 - General; 1 Corinthians 5:8 - let

Verse 7

In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.
Numbers 28:18-25
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day; Leviticus 16:29 - do no; Leviticus 23:35 - General; Luke 6:1 - the second; John 6:4 - General; John 19:31 - that sabbath

Verse 10

Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:
When
14:34
and shall
2:12-16; Exodus 22:29; 23:16,19; 34:22,26; Numbers 15:2,18-21; 28:26; Deuteronomy 16:9; Joshua 3:15
sheaf
or, handful. Heb. omer. the first fruits. This offering was a public acknowledgement of the bounty and goodness of God for the kindly fruits of the earth. From the practice of the people of God, the heathen borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason.
Proverbs 3:9,10; Ezekiel 44:30; Romans 11:16; 1 Corinthians 15:20-23; James 1:18; Revelation 14:4
Reciprocal: Exodus 23:15 - and none; Leviticus 2:14 - a meat offering; Leviticus 23:15 - General; Leviticus 23:17 - the firstfruits; Numbers 18:20 - General; Deuteronomy 18:4 - firstfruit; Judges 21:19 - a feast; Luke 6:1 - the second

Verse 11

And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.
9:21; 10:14; Exodus 29:24
Reciprocal: Exodus 28:38 - accepted; Leviticus 23:15 - General; Numbers 6:20 - the priest shall; Luke 6:1 - the second

Verse 12

And ye shall offer that day when ye wave the sheaf an he lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD.
1:10; Hebrews 10:10-12; 1 Peter 1:19
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:5 - a male of the first year; Leviticus 9:3 - both; Leviticus 23:18 - seven lambs; Numbers 15:3 - in your

Verse 13

And the meat offering thereof shall be two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour: and the drink offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of an hin.
the meat
2:14-16; 14:10; Numbers 15:3-12
the drink
Exodus 29:40,41; 30:9; Numbers 28:10; Joel 1:9,13; 2:14
the fourth
Exodus 30:24; Ezekiel 4:11; 45:24; 46:14
Reciprocal: Leviticus 23:18 - seven lambs; Numbers 15:4 - a meat; Numbers 28:7 - to be poured; 1 Samuel 10:3 - three kids; 1 Chronicles 29:21 - drink offerings; 2 Chronicles 29:35 - the drink; Psalm 16:4 - drink

Verse 14

And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
eat
19:23-25; 25:2,3; Genesis 4:4,5; Joshua 5:11,12
it shall be
3:17; 10:11; Deuteronomy 16:12; Nehemiah 9:14; Psalms 19:8
Reciprocal: Leviticus 2:14 - a meat offering; Leviticus 23:21 - a statute

Verse 15

And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete:
10,11; 25:8; Exodus 34:22; Deuteronomy 16:9,10
Reciprocal: Numbers 28:26 - in the day; Luke 6:1 - the second; Acts 2:1 - the day; 1 Corinthians 16:8 - Pentecost

Verse 16

Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.
Acts 2:1
Reciprocal: Exodus 19:1 - the third; Exodus 23:14 - General; Numbers 15:20 - the heave offering; Deuteronomy 16:9 - General; 2 Chronicles 31:7 - General

Verse 17

Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto the LORD.
two wave
Numbers 28:26
leaven
7:13; Matthew 13:33
the first-fruits
10; Exodus 22:29; 23:16,19; 34:22,26; Numbers 15:17,19-21; Deuteronomy 26:1,2; Proverbs 3:9,10; Romans 8:23; 1 Corinthians 15:20; James 1:18; Revelation 14:4
Reciprocal: Leviticus 23:20 - wave them; Numbers 15:20 - the heave offering; Numbers 18:12 - the firstfruits; Numbers 18:20 - General; Deuteronomy 18:4 - firstfruit; Nehemiah 10:37 - the firstfruits; Amos 4:5 - offer a sacrifice

Verse 18

And ye shall offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams: they shall be for a burnt offering unto the LORD, with their meat offering, and their drink offerings, even an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto the LORD.
seven lambs
12,13; Numbers 28:27-31; Malachi 1:13,14
with their
Numbers 15:4-12

Verse 19

Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings.
one kid
4:23-28; 16:15; Numbers 15:24; 28:30; Romans 8:3; 2 Corinthians 5:21
two lambs
3:1-17; 7:11-18
Reciprocal: Leviticus 4:10 - peace offerings; Numbers 18:20 - General; Numbers 28:27 - two young

Verse 20

And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the firstfruits for a wave offering before the LORD, with the two lambs: they shall be holy to the LORD for the priest.
wave them
17; 7:29,30; Exodus 29:24; Luke 2:14; Ephesians 2:14
holy to
7:31-34; 8:29; 10:14,15; Numbers 18:8-12; Deuteronomy 18:4; 1 Corinthians 9:11
Reciprocal: Leviticus 2:14 - a meat offering; Numbers 15:20 - the heave offering; Numbers 18:12 - the firstfruits; Numbers 18:20 - General; Ezekiel 48:14 - for

Verse 21

And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.
proclaim
2,4; Exodus 12:16; Deuteronomy 16:11; Isaiah 11:10
a statute
14; Genesis 17:7; Exodus 12:17; Numbers 18:23
Reciprocal: Exodus 32:5 - made proclamation; Leviticus 16:29 - do no; Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do; Nehemiah 10:31 - on the holy day

Verse 22

And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest: thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stranger: I am the LORD your God.
19:9,10; Deuteronomy 16:11-14; 24:19-21; Ruth 2:3-7,15,16-23; Job 31:16-21; Psalms 41:1-3; 112:9; Proverbs 11:24,25; Isaiah 58:7,8,10; Luke 11:41; 2 Corinthians 9:5-12; To the institution of the feast of pentecost is annexed a repetition of that law, by which they were required to leave the gleanings of their fields, and the corn that grew on the ends of the butts, for the poor. It may come in here as a thing which the priests must take occasion to remind the people of, when they brought their first-fruits, intimating to them, that to obey even in this small matter was better than sacrifice; and that unless they were obedient, their offerings should not be accepted. It also taught them that the joy of harvest should express itself in charity to the poor, who must have their due out of what we have, as well as God his. They that are truly sensible of the mercy they receive from God, will without grudging shew mercy to the poor.
Reciprocal: Ruth 2:2 - glean ears; Nehemiah 13:19 - began to be

Verse 24

Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.
In the seventh
Numbers 10:10; 29:1-6; 1 Chronicles 15:28; 2 Chronicles 5:13; Ezra 3:6; Psalms 81:1-4; 98:6; Isaiah 27:13; 1 Corinthians 15:52; 1 Thessalonians 4:16
a memorial
Zichron terooâh, here rendered "a memorial of blowing the trumpets" properly signifies a memorial of triumph or shouting for joy. This festival is generally called the feast of trumpets; and, though the Scriptures have not expressly declared the reason of its celebration, yet, as it fell in the seventh month of the sacred year, which was the first of the civil year, that is, the month Tisri, answering to our September, the opinion very generally embraced by both Jews and Christians is, that it was a memorial of the creation of the world, at which "the sons of God shouted for joy," (Job 38:7;) and which is supposed, not altogether without reason, to have been at this season of the year. The month Tisri was not only anciently, but still is, reckoned by the Jews the first month of the year; and the feast of tabernacles, kept in this month, was said to be, as it is correctly rendered in the margin, "at the revolution of the year," (Ex 34:22;) importing, that at this season the year had revolved, and was beginning anew. So that this feast was the new year's day, on which the people rejoiced in a grateful remembrance of God's benefits, and implored his blessing for the future year.
25:9
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day; Leviticus 23:2 - the feasts; Leviticus 23:35 - General; Leviticus 23:39 - on the first; Judges 7:8 - trumpets; 1 Chronicles 23:31 - in the sabbaths; Ezra 3:1 - the seventh; Nehemiah 8:2 - the first; Nehemiah 8:9 - This day; Psalm 81:3 - new; Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave; Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 27

Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
the tenth
16:29,30; 25:9; Numbers 29:7-11
afflict
16:31; Numbers 29:7; Ezra 8:21; Psalms 35:13; Isaiah 58:5; Daniel 10:2,3; Zechariah 12:10; Acts 2:37,38; 2 Corinthians 7:10,11; James 4:9
offer
16:11,15,24
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day; Exodus 30:10 - Aaron; Leviticus 23:29 - that shall; Leviticus 23:32 - afflict; Numbers 30:13 - to afflict; Ezra 3:1 - the seventh; Isaiah 58:3 - afflicted; Jeremiah 36:6 - upon; Jeremiah 36:9 - they; Acts 27:9 - the fast; Hebrews 10:3 - a remembrance

Verse 28

And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD your God.
16:34; Isaiah 53:10; Daniel 9:24; Zechariah 3:9; Romans 5:10,11; Hebrews 9:12,26; Hebrews 10:10,14; 1 John 2:2; 4:10; 5:6
Reciprocal: Leviticus 16:29 - do no; Numbers 29:39 - beside your vows; Hebrews 10:3 - a remembrance

Verse 29

For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his people.
that shall
27,32; Isaiah 22:12; Jeremiah 31:9; Ezekiel 7:16
he shall be
Genesis 17:14
Reciprocal: Exodus 30:33 - cut off; Leviticus 19:9 - ye reap the harvest; Ezra 8:21 - afflict ourselves

Verse 30

And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will I destroy from among his people.
20:3,5,6; Genesis 17:14; Jeremiah 15:7; Ezekiel 14:9; Zephaniah 2:5; 1 Corinthians 3:17
Reciprocal: Exodus 32:33 - sinned

Verse 32

It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye celebrate your sabbath.
a sabbath
16:31; Matthew 11:28-30; Hebrews 4:3,11
afflict
27; Psalms 35:13; 51:17; 69:10,11; 126:5,6; Isaiah 57:15,18,19; 58:3-7; Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 5:4; 1 Corinthians 11:31
celebrate your sabbath
Heb. rest.
Reciprocal: Exodus 31:15 - the sabbath; Leviticus 23:29 - that shall; Leviticus 25:2 - keep; Numbers 30:13 - to afflict; Isaiah 30:29 - in the night; Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave; Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 34

Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD.
The fifteenth
Exodus 23:16; 34:22; Numbers 29:12; Deuteronomy 16:13-15; Ezra 3:4; Nehemiah 8:14; Zechariah 14:16-19; John 1:14; 7:2; Hebrews 11:9,13
the feast of tabernacles
This feast was celebrated in commemoration of the Israelites' dwelling in tents in the wilderness for forty years; and was kept with greater hilarity than any of the other festivals. Hence, in the Talmud, it is often called chag, the feast, by way of excellence; and by Philo, [heorton megisten] the greatest of the feasts; it was therefore more noticed by the heathen than any other. It is probable that Cecrops borrowed from it the law which he made in Athens, "that the master of every family should after harvest make a feast for his servants, and eat together with them who had taken pains with him in tilling his grounds."
Reciprocal: Exodus 23:14 - General; Leviticus 23:39 - when; Deuteronomy 31:10 - General; Judges 21:19 - a feast; 1 Kings 8:2 - at the feast; 1 Kings 8:65 - held; 1 Kings 12:32 - like unto; 2 Chronicles 5:3 - in the feast; 2 Chronicles 7:8 - kept; Nehemiah 9:1 - twenty

Verse 35

On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.
7,8,24,25
Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day; Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do; Nehemiah 10:31 - on the holy day

Verse 36

Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein.
Seven
Numbers 29:12-38
the eighth
2 Chronicles 7:8-11; Nehemiah 8:18; John 7:37
solemn
Heb. day of restraint.
Deuteronomy 16:8; Joel 1:14; 2:15; *marg:
Reciprocal: Leviticus 16:29 - do no; Leviticus 23:39 - on the first; Numbers 15:3 - in your; Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do; Numbers 29:35 - eighth day; Deuteronomy 16:15 - Seven days; 2 Chronicles 7:9 - solemn assembly; Nehemiah 10:31 - on the holy day

Verse 37

These are the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day:
the feasts
2,4; Deuteronomy 16:16,17
every thing
Ecclesiastes 3:1
Reciprocal: Exodus 32:5 - made proclamation

Verse 38

Beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the LORD.
the sabbaths
3; 19:3; Genesis 2:2,3; Exodus 20:8-11
and beside
Numbers 29:39; Deuteronomy 12:6; 1 Chronicles 29:3-8; 2 Chronicles 35:7,8; Ezra 2:68,69
Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:16 - be a vow; Leviticus 22:18 - vows; 2 Chronicles 29:31 - and as many; 2 Chronicles 31:14 - the freewill; Ezekiel 46:12 - a voluntary

Verse 39

Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath.
when
34; Exodus 23:16; Deuteronomy 16:13
on the first
24,36
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 23:31 - in the sabbaths; Nehemiah 9:1 - twenty; Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave; John 7:37 - the last; Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 40

And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.
the boughs
Heb. fruit.
Nehemiah 8:15; Matthew 21:8
of palm trees
Psalms 92:12; John 12:13; Revelation 7:9
rejoice
Deuteronomy 16:14,15; Isaiah 35:10; 66:10; John 16:22; Romans 5:11; Philippians 3:3; 4:4; 1 Peter 1:8
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 12:7 - ye shall; Nehemiah 8:14 - dwell; Job 40:22 - the willows; Hosea 12:9 - as in; Mark 11:8 - cut

Verse 41

And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.
Numbers 29:12; Nehemiah 8:18

Verse 42

Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:
Genesis 33:17; Numbers 24:2,5; Nehemiah 8:14-17; Jeremiah 35:10; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Hebrews 11:13-16
Reciprocal: Jeremiah 35:6 - Ye shall; Jeremiah 35:7 - all

Verse 43

That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.
Exodus 13:14; Deuteronomy 31:10-13; Psalms 78:5,6
Reciprocal: Exodus 20:2 - brought; Jeremiah 35:6 - Ye shall; Jeremiah 35:7 - all; Zechariah 14:16 - and to

Verse 44

And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the LORD.
1,2; 21:24; Matthew 18:20
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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Leviticus 23". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/leviticus-23.html.