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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Leviticus 23

Introduction

Overview

Leviticus 23:1, The feasts of the Lord; Leviticus 23:3, The sabbath; Leviticus 23:4, The passover; Leviticus 23:9, The sheaf of first-fruits; Leviticus 23:15, The feast of Pentecost; Leviticus 23:22, Gleanings to be left for the poor; Leviticus 23:23, The feast of trumpets; Leviticus 23:26, The day of atonement; Leviticus 23:33, The feast of tabernacles.

Verse 1

Reciprocal: Leviticus 23:44 - General 1 Chronicles 23:31 - set feasts 2 Chronicles 2:4 - the solemn feasts 2 Chronicles 8:13 - every day Isaiah 1:13 - the new Ezekiel 44:24 - in all Ezekiel 45:17 - in the feasts Ezekiel 46:11 - in the feasts Galatians 4:10 - General Colossians 2:16 - of an

Verse 2

the feasts: God appointed several festivals among the Jews. The Passover was celebrated on the 14th, or rather 15th day of the first month in the ecclesiastical year, which was the seventh of the civil year, and lasted seven days. The Pentecost was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the passover, in memory of the law's being given to Moses on Mount Sinai, fifty days, or seven weeks after the departure out of Egypt. The word is derived from the Greek word וםפחךןףפח, which signifies the fiftieth. The Hebrews call it the feast of weeks, Exodus 34:22. The feast of trumpets, celebrated on the first day of the civil year, when a trumpet was sounded, to proclaim its commencement, which was in the month Tisri, answering to our September, Leviticus 23:24-25. The new moons, or first days of every month, were, in some sort, a consequence of the feast of trumpets. God ordained that, by giving him the first-fruits of every month they should acknowledge him as the Lord of all their time, and own his providence, by which all times and seasons are ordered. The feast of expiation or atonement was kept on the 10th day of Tisri or September: the Hebrews call it Kippur, i.e., pardon or expiation, because it was instituted for the expiation of their sins. The feast of tents or tabernacles was so called, because the Israelites kept it under green tents or arbours, in memory of their dwelling in their passage through the wilderness. It was celebrated on the 15th day of Tisri, and continued eight days. The first and last days are the most solemn. Besides the feasts mentioned by Moses, we find the feast of lots, or Purim, which was celebrated among the Jews of Shushan on the 14th of Adar, which answers to our February. The feast of the dedication of the temple, or rather, of the restoration of the temple, which had been profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, which is thought to be the feast mentioned in the gospel John 10:22, was celebrated in the winter. Moâdim, properly means assemblies, convened at an appointed time and place. Leviticus 23:4, Leviticus 23:37, Exodus 23:14-17, Isaiah 1:13, Isaiah 1:14, Isaiah 33:20, Lamentations 1:4, Hosea 2:11, Nahum 1:15, John 5:1, Colossians 2:1

proclaim: Exodus 32:5, Numbers 10:2, Numbers 10:3, Numbers 10:10, 2 Kings 10:20, 2 Chronicles 30:5, Psalms 81:3, Joel 1:14, Joel 2:15, Jonah 3:5-9

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Leviticus 23:21 - proclaim Leviticus 23:44 - General Numbers 29:39 - in your set feasts Judges 21:19 - a feast 2 Chronicles 31:3 - the set feasts

Verse 3

Leviticus 19:3, Exodus 16:23, Exodus 16:29, Exodus 20:8-11, Exodus 23:12, Exodus 31:15, Exodus 34:21, Exodus 35:2, Exodus 35:3, Deuteronomy 5:13, Isaiah 56:2, Isaiah 56:6, Isaiah 58:13, Luke 13:14, Luke 23:56, Acts 15:21, Revelation 1:10

Reciprocal: Genesis 2:3 - blessed Exodus 12:16 - first day Exodus 16:30 - General Exodus 31:13 - Verily Leviticus 16:29 - do no Leviticus 23:38 - the sabbaths Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do Nehemiah 10:31 - the people Jeremiah 17:22 - neither do Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 4

Leviticus 23:2, Leviticus 23:37, Exodus 23:14

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:14 - by an ordinance Exodus 32:5 - made proclamation Leviticus 23:21 - proclaim Judges 21:19 - a feast 2 Chronicles 30:5 - to make proclamation Nehemiah 8:15 - And that

Verse 5

Exodus 12:2-14, Exodus 12:18, Exodus 13:3-10, Exodus 23:15, Numbers 9:2-7, Numbers 28:16, Deuteronomy 16:1-8, Joshua 5:10, 2 Chronicles 35:18, 2 Chronicles 35:19, Matthew 26:17, Mark 14:12, Luke 22:7, 1 Corinthians 5:7, 1 Corinthians 5:8

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:6 - fourteenth Exodus 12:11 - it is the Exodus 12:14 - by an ordinance Exodus 12:15 - Seven Exodus 23:14 - General 2 Kings 23:21 - as it is written 2 Chronicles 35:17 - the feast Ezekiel 45:21 - ye shall Luke 2:41 - the Luke 22:1 - General John 6:4 - General

Verse 6

Exodus 12:15, Exodus 12:16, Exodus 13:6, Exodus 13:7, Exodus 34:18, Numbers 28:17, Numbers 28:18, Deuteronomy 16:8, Acts 12:3, Acts 12:4

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:18 - General Exodus 13:10 - General Deuteronomy 16:3 - eat no Joshua 5:11 - unleavened cakes Judges 21:19 - a feast 2 Chronicles 30:21 - the feast Matthew 26:17 - the first Mark 14:12 - the first Luke 22:1 - General 1 Corinthians 5:8 - let

Verse 7

Numbers 28:18-25

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Leviticus 16:29 - do no Leviticus 23:35 - General Luke 6:1 - the second John 6:4 - General John 19:31 - that sabbath

Verse 8

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Exodus 13:6 - General Leviticus 16:29 - do no Leviticus 23:35 - General Numbers 15:3 - in your Numbers 28:18 - General Numbers 28:25 - on the seventh Ezekiel 45:23 - seven days

Verse 9

Reciprocal: Exodus 23:16 - feast of harvest

Verse 10

When: Leviticus 14:34

and shall: Leviticus 2:12-16, Exodus 22:29, Exodus 23:16, Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:22, Exodus 34:26, Numbers 15:2, Numbers 15:18-21, Numbers 28:26, Deuteronomy 16:9, Joshua 3:15

sheaf: or, handful, Heb. omer, the first fruits, This offering was a public acknowledgment of the bounty and goodness of God for the kindly fruits of the earth. From the practice of the people of God, the heathen borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason. Proverbs 3:9, Proverbs 3:10, Ezekiel 44:30, Romans 11:16, 1 Corinthians 15:20-23, James 1:18, Revelation 14:4

Reciprocal: Exodus 23:15 - and none Leviticus 2:14 - a meat offering Leviticus 23:15 - General Leviticus 23:17 - the firstfruits Numbers 18:20 - General Deuteronomy 18:4 - firstfruit Judges 21:19 - a feast Luke 6:1 - the second

Verse 11

Leviticus 9:21, Leviticus 10:14, Exodus 29:24

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:38 - accepted Leviticus 23:15 - General Numbers 6:20 - the priest shall Luke 6:1 - the second

Verse 12

Leviticus 1:10, Hebrews 10:10-12, 1 Peter 1:19

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:5 - a male of the first year Leviticus 9:3 - both Leviticus 23:18 - seven lambs Numbers 15:3 - in your

Verse 13

the meat: Leviticus 2:14-16, Leviticus 14:10, Numbers 15:3-12

the drink: Exodus 29:40, Exodus 29:41, Exodus 30:9, Numbers 28:10, Joel 1:9, Joel 1:13, Joel 2:14

the fourth: Exodus 30:24, Ezekiel 4:11, Ezekiel 45:24, Ezekiel 46:14

Reciprocal: Leviticus 23:18 - seven lambs Numbers 15:4 - a meat Numbers 28:7 - to be poured 1 Samuel 10:3 - three kids 1 Chronicles 29:21 - drink offerings 2 Chronicles 29:35 - the drink Psalms 16:4 - drink

Verse 14

eat: Leviticus 19:23-25, Leviticus 25:2, Leviticus 25:3, Genesis 4:4, Genesis 4:5, Joshua 5:11, Joshua 5:12

it shall be: Leviticus 3:17, Leviticus 10:11, Deuteronomy 16:12, Nehemiah 9:14, Psalms 19:8

Reciprocal: Leviticus 2:14 - a meat offering Leviticus 23:21 - a statute

Verse 15

Leviticus 23:10, Leviticus 23:11, Leviticus 25:8, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:9, Deuteronomy 16:10

Reciprocal: Numbers 28:26 - in the day Luke 6:1 - the second Acts 2:1 - the day 1 Corinthians 16:8 - Pentecost

Verse 16

Acts 2:1

Reciprocal: Exodus 19:1 - the third Exodus 23:14 - General Numbers 15:20 - the heave offering Deuteronomy 16:9 - General 2 Chronicles 31:7 - General

Verse 17

two wave: Numbers 28:26

leaven: Leviticus 7:13, Matthew 13:33

the firstfruits: Leviticus 23:10, Exodus 22:29, Exodus 23:16, Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:22, Exodus 34:26, Numbers 15:17, Numbers 15:19-21, Deuteronomy 26:1, Deuteronomy 26:2, Proverbs 3:9, Proverbs 3:10, Romans 8:23, 1 Corinthians 15:20, James 1:18, Revelation 14:4

Reciprocal: Leviticus 23:20 - wave them Numbers 15:20 - the heave offering Numbers 18:12 - the firstfruits Numbers 18:20 - General Deuteronomy 18:4 - firstfruit Nehemiah 10:37 - the firstfruits Amos 4:5 - offer a sacrifice

Verse 18

seven lambs: Leviticus 23:12, Leviticus 23:13, Numbers 28:27-31, Malachi 1:13, Malachi 1:14

with their: Numbers 15:4-12

Verse 19

one kid: Leviticus 4:23-28, Leviticus 16:15, Numbers 15:24, Numbers 28:30, Romans 8:3, 2 Corinthians 5:21

two lambs: Leviticus 3:1-17, Leviticus 7:11-18

Reciprocal: Leviticus 4:10 - peace offerings Numbers 18:20 - General Numbers 28:27 - two young

Verse 20

wave them: Leviticus 23:17, Leviticus 7:29, Leviticus 7:30, Exodus 29:24, Luke 2:14, Ephesians 2:14

holy to: Leviticus 7:31-34, Leviticus 8:29, Leviticus 10:14, Leviticus 10:15, Numbers 18:8-12, Deuteronomy 18:4, 1 Corinthians 9:11

Reciprocal: Leviticus 2:14 - a meat offering Numbers 15:20 - the heave offering Numbers 18:12 - the firstfruits Numbers 18:20 - General Ezekiel 48:14 - for

Verse 21

proclaim: Leviticus 23:2, Leviticus 23:4, Exodus 12:16, Deuteronomy 16:11, Isaiah 11:10

a statute: Leviticus 23:14, Genesis 17:7, Exodus 12:17, Numbers 18:23

Reciprocal: Exodus 32:5 - made proclamation Leviticus 16:29 - do no Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do Nehemiah 10:31 - on the holy day

Verse 22

Leviticus 19:9, Leviticus 19:10, Deuteronomy 16:11-14, Deuteronomy 24:19-21, Ruth 2:3-7, Ruth 2:15, Ruth 2:16-23, Job 31:16-21, Psalms 41:1-3, Psalms 112:9, Proverbs 11:24, Proverbs 11:25, Isaiah 58:7, Isaiah 58:8, Isaiah 58:10, Luke 11:41, 2 Corinthians 9:5-12, To the institution of the feast of pentecost is annexed a repetition of that law, by which they were required to leave the gleanings of their fields, and the corn that grew on the ends of the butts, for the poor. It may come in here as a thing which the priests must take occasion to remind the people of, when they brought their first-fruits, intimating to them, that to obey even in this small matter was better than sacrifice; and that unless they were obedient, their offerings should not be accepted. It also taught them that the joy of harvest should express itself in charity to the poor, who must have their due out of what we have, as well as God his. They that are truly sensible of the mercy they receive from God, will without grudging shew mercy to the poor.

Reciprocal: Ruth 2:2 - glean ears Nehemiah 13:19 - began to be

Verse 24

In the seventh: Numbers 10:10, Numbers 29:1-6, 1 Chronicles 15:28, 2 Chronicles 5:13, Ezra 3:6, Psalms 81:1-4, Psalms 98:6, Isaiah 27:13, 1 Corinthians 15:52, 1 Thessalonians 4:16

a memorial: Zichron terooâh, here rendered "a memorial of blowing the trumpets" properly signifies a memorial of triumph or shouting for joy. This festival is generally called the feast of trumpets; and, though the Scriptures have not expressly declared the reason of its celebration, yet, as it fell in the seventh month of the sacred year, which was the first of the civil year, that is, the month Tisri, answering to our September, the opinion very generally embraced by both Jews and Christians is, that it was a memorial of the creation of the world, at which "the sons of God shouted for joy," (Job 38:7); and which is supposed, not altogether without reason, to have been at this season of the year. The month Tisri was not only anciently, but still is, reckoned by the Jews the first month of the year; and the feast of tabernacles, kept in this month, was said to be, as it is correctly rendered in the margin, "at the revolution of the year," - Exodus 34:22, importing, that at this season the year had revolved, and was beginning anew. So that this feast was the new year's day, on which the people rejoiced in a grateful remembrance of God's benefits, and implored his blessing for the future year. Leviticus 25:9

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Leviticus 23:2 - the feasts Leviticus 23:35 - General Leviticus 23:39 - on the first Judges 7:8 - trumpets 1 Chronicles 23:31 - in the sabbaths Ezra 3:1 - the seventh Nehemiah 8:2 - the first Nehemiah 8:9 - This day Psalms 81:3 - new Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 25

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Leviticus 23:2 - the feasts Leviticus 23:35 - General Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do Numbers 29:1 - the seventh Psalms 81:3 - new

Verse 27

the tenth: Leviticus 16:29, Leviticus 16:30, Leviticus 25:9, Numbers 29:7-11

afflict: Leviticus 16:31, Numbers 29:7, Ezra 8:21, Psalms 35:13, Isaiah 58:5, Daniel 10:2, Daniel 10:3, Zechariah 12:10, Acts 2:37, Acts 2:38, 2 Corinthians 7:10, 2 Corinthians 7:11, James 4:9

offer: Leviticus 16:11, Leviticus 16:15, Leviticus 16:24

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Exodus 30:10 - Aaron Leviticus 23:29 - that shall Leviticus 23:32 - afflict Numbers 30:13 - to afflict Ezra 3:1 - the seventh Isaiah 58:3 - afflicted Jeremiah 36:6 - upon Jeremiah 36:9 - they Acts 27:9 - the fast Hebrews 10:3 - a remembrance

Verse 28

Leviticus 16:34, Isaiah 53:10, Daniel 9:24, Zechariah 3:9, Romans 5:10, Romans 5:11, Hebrews 9:12, Hebrews 9:26, Hebrews 10:10, Hebrews 10:14, 1 John 2:2, 1 John 4:10, 1 John 5:6

Reciprocal: Leviticus 16:29 - do no Numbers 29:39 - beside your vows Hebrews 10:3 - a remembrance

Verse 29

that shall: Leviticus 23:27, Leviticus 23:32, Isaiah 22:12, Jeremiah 31:9, Ezekiel 7:16

he shall be: Genesis 17:14

Reciprocal: Exodus 30:33 - cut off Leviticus 19:9 - ye reap the harvest Ezra 8:21 - afflict ourselves

Verse 30

Leviticus 20:3, Leviticus 20:5, Leviticus 20:6, Genesis 17:14, Jeremiah 15:7, Ezekiel 14:9, Zephaniah 2:5, 1 Corinthians 3:17

Reciprocal: Exodus 32:33 - sinned

Verse 31

Reciprocal: Leviticus 16:34 - an everlasting

Verse 32

a sabbath: Leviticus 16:31, Matthew 11:28-30, Hebrews 4:3, Hebrews 4:11

afflict: Leviticus 23:27, Psalms 35:13, Psalms 51:17, Psalms 69:10, Psalms 69:11, Psalms 126:5, Psalms 126:6, Isaiah 57:15, Isaiah 57:18, Isaiah 57:19, Isaiah 58:3-7, Isaiah 61:3, Matthew 5:4, 1 Corinthians 11:31

celebrate your sabbath: Heb. rest

Reciprocal: Exodus 31:15 - the sabbath Leviticus 23:29 - that shall Leviticus 25:2 - keep Numbers 30:13 - to afflict Isaiah 30:29 - in the night Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 33

Reciprocal: Numbers 29:12 - the fifteenth day 1 Kings 12:32 - like unto Ezekiel 45:25 - In the seventh Zechariah 14:16 - and to

Verse 34

The fifteenth: Exodus 23:16, Exodus 34:22, Numbers 29:12, Deuteronomy 16:13-15, Ezra 3:4, Nehemiah 8:14, Zechariah 14:16-19, John 1:14, John 7:2, Hebrews 11:9, Hebrews 11:13

the feast of tabernacles: This feast was celebrated in commemoration of the Israelites' dwelling in tents in the wilderness for forty years; and was kept with greater hilarity than any of the other festivals. Hence, in the Talmud, it is often called chag, the feast, by way of excellence; and by Philo, וןספשם לודיףפחם, the greatest of the feasts; it was therefore more noticed by the heathen than any other. It is probable that Cecrops borrowed from it the law which he made in Athens, "that the master of every family should after harvest make a feast for his servants, and eat together with them who had taken pains with him in tilling his grounds.

Reciprocal: Exodus 23:14 - General Leviticus 23:39 - when Deuteronomy 31:10 - General Judges 21:19 - a feast 1 Kings 8:2 - at the feast 1 Kings 8:65 - held 1 Kings 12:32 - like unto 2 Chronicles 5:3 - in the feast 2 Chronicles 7:8 - kept Nehemiah 9:1 - twenty

Verse 35

Leviticus 23:7, Leviticus 23:8, Leviticus 23:24, Leviticus 23:25

Reciprocal: Exodus 12:16 - first day Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do Nehemiah 10:31 - on the holy day

Verse 36

Seven: Numbers 29:12-38

the eighth: 2 Chronicles 7:8-11, Nehemiah 8:18, John 7:37

solemn: Heb. day of restraint, Deuteronomy 16:8, Joel 1:14, Joel 2:15, *marg.

Reciprocal: Leviticus 16:29 - do no Leviticus 23:39 - on the first Numbers 15:3 - in your Numbers 28:25 - ye shall do Numbers 29:35 - eighth day Deuteronomy 16:15 - Seven days 2 Chronicles 7:9 - solemn assembly Nehemiah 10:31 - on the holy day

Verse 37

the feasts: Leviticus 23:2, Leviticus 23:4, Deuteronomy 16:16, Deuteronomy 16:17

every thing: Ecclesiastes 3:1

Reciprocal: Exodus 32:5 - made proclamation

Verse 38

the sabbaths: Leviticus 23:3, Leviticus 19:3, Genesis 2:2, Genesis 2:3, Exodus 20:8-11

and beside: Numbers 29:39, Deuteronomy 12:6, 1 Chronicles 29:3-8, 2 Chronicles 35:7, 2 Chronicles 35:8, Ezra 2:68, Ezra 2:69

Reciprocal: Leviticus 7:16 - be a vow Leviticus 22:18 - vows 2 Chronicles 29:31 - and as many 2 Chronicles 31:14 - the freewill Ezekiel 46:12 - a voluntary

Verse 39

when: Leviticus 23:34, Exodus 23:16, Deuteronomy 16:13

on the first: Leviticus 23:24, Leviticus 23:36

Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 23:31 - in the sabbaths Nehemiah 9:1 - twenty Ezekiel 20:12 - I gave John 7:37 - the last Colossians 2:16 - or of the sabbath

Verse 40

the boughs: Heb. fruit, Nehemiah 8:15, Matthew 21:8

of palm trees: Psalms 92:12, John 12:13, Revelation 7:9

rejoice: Deuteronomy 16:14, Deuteronomy 16:15, Isaiah 35:10, Isaiah 66:10, John 16:22, Romans 5:11, Philippians 3:3, Philippians 4:4, 1 Peter 1:8

Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 12:7 - ye shall Nehemiah 8:14 - dwell Job 40:22 - the willows Hosea 12:9 - as in Mark 11:8 - cut

Verse 41

Numbers 29:12, Nehemiah 8:18

Verse 42

Genesis 33:17, Numbers 24:2, Numbers 24:5, Nehemiah 8:14-17, Jeremiah 35:10, 2 Corinthians 5:1, Hebrews 11:13-16

Reciprocal: Jeremiah 35:6 - Ye shall Jeremiah 35:7 - all

Verse 43

Exodus 13:14, Deuteronomy 31:10-13, Psalms 78:5, Psalms 78:6

Reciprocal: Exodus 20:2 - brought Jeremiah 35:6 - Ye shall Jeremiah 35:7 - all Zechariah 14:16 - and to

Verse 44

Leviticus 23:1, Leviticus 23:2, Leviticus 21:24, Matthew 18:20

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Leviticus 23". "Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/leviticus-23.html.