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Bible Commentaries
Matthew 1

Utley's You Can Understand the BibleUtley Commentary

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Introduction

Matthew 1:0

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS *

UBSNKJVNRSVTEVNJB
The Genealogy of Jesus ChristThe Genealogy of Jesus ChristJesus' Royal DescentThe Family Record of Jesus ChristThe Ancestry of Jesus(2-6)
Matthew 1:1Matthew 1:1-17Matthew 1:1Matthew 1:1Matthew 1:1-16
Matthew 1:2-6aMatthew 1:2-6aMatthew 1:2-6a(2-6)
Matthew 1:6-11Matthew 1:6-11Matthew 1:6-11(6b-11)
Matthew 1:12-16Matthew 1:12-16Matthew 1:12-16(12-16)
Matthew 1:17Matthew 1:17Matthew 1:17Matthew 1:17
The Birth of Jesus ChristChrist Born to MaryJesus' BirthThe Birth of Jesus ChristJoseph Adopts Jesus As his Son
Matthew 1:18-25Matthew 1:18-25Matthew 1:18-25Matthew 1:18-21Matthew 1:18-25
Matthew 1:22-23(23)
Matthew 1:24-25

* Although they are not inspired, paragraph divisions are the key to understanding and following the original author's intent. Each modern translation has divided and summarized the paragraphs. Every paragraph has one central topic, truth, or thought. Each version encapsulates that topic in its own distinct way. As you read the text, ask yourself which translation fits your understanding of the subject and verse divisions. In every chapter we must read the Bible first and try to identify its subjects (paragraphs), then compare our understanding with the modern versions. Only when we understand the original author's intent by following his logic and presentation can we truly understand the Bible. Only the original author is inspiredreaders have no right to change or modify the message. Bible readers do have the responsibility of applying the inspired truth to their day and their lives. Note that all technical terms and abbreviations are explained fully in the following documents: Brief Definitions of Greek Grammatical Structure, Textual Criticism, and Glossary.

READING CYCLE THREE (from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS TO VERSES Matthew 1:1-25

A. The lists of ancestors found in Matthew 1:1-17 and Luke 3:23-38 do not agree. There are two major theories for the discrepancies:

1. Matthew wrote primarily to a Jewish audience and recorded Joseph's lineage to satisfy Jewish legal practices, while Luke wrote to Gentiles and recorded Mary's lineage (Luther). Both trace Jesus back to David, but Luke goes further, all the way back to Adam (probably because he was writing for Gentiles).

2. Matthew recorded the lineage of the kings of Judah succeeding David (or after the Exile, those who would have succeeded), while Luke recorded the actual ancestors.

B. This lineage would serve the purpose of proving Jesus' tribal identity and showing the fulfillment of prophecy (cf. Genesis 49:8-12 and 2 Samuel 7:0). Fulfilled prophecy (cf. Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, Matthew 2:17, Matthew 2:23; Matthew 4:14; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Matthew 13:35; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 27:9, Matthew 27:35) is strong evidence for a supernatural Bible and for God's control of history and time.

C. Verse Matthew 1:17 gives the key to understanding why some ancestors are not listed. The author was using a numerically structured, three-tiered "fourteen generation" approach to Jesus' lineage.

D. In these opening birth narratives there are four OT quotes (cf. Matthew 1:23; Matthew 2:6, Matthew 2:15, Matthew 2:18) which involve different types of prophesy.

Matthew 1:1. Matthew 1:23Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 7:14 is a multiple fulfillment prophecy. A child was born in Isaiah's day, cf. Matthew 1:15-16; however the Hebrew word in Matthew 1:14 is not "virgin" (bethoolah, cf. BDB 143), but "young woman of marriageable age" (almah, cf. BDB 761 II). I believe in only one virgin birth-Jesus!

Matthew 1:2. Matthew 2:6Micah 5:2 is a marvelous, very specific prophecy written 750 years before the event it describes. The place of Jesus' birth was not something He could alter or effect. This kind of predictive prophecy confirms (a) God's knowledge (and His control) of history and (b) the inspiration and uniqueness of the Bible. No other world religion's holy book has predictive prophecy!

Matthew 1:3. Matthew 2:15Hosea 11:1 and Matthew 2:18Jeremiah 31:15 are both typological prophecies. Something that happened in the life of Israel reoccurs in the life of Jesus and the NT author understands it as a prophetic sign.

E. Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament (p. 175), makes a great comment about how Matthew's genealogy is structured.

1. the Patriarchs - first fourteen names

2. Israelite kings - second fourteen names

3. unknown ancestors - third fourteen names

This genealogy is highly structured and selective. It is uncertain why.

1. literary technique (mnemonic)

2. numerical symbolism

a. 7 x 2; Luke lists 77 ancestors

b. the letters of David's Hebrew name add up to 14

3. well known or godly ancestors only

4. women/men; Gentiles/Jews (purposeful inclusion)

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Why does Matthew have such a lengthy genealogy?

2. Why is Luke's genealogy different from Matthew's?

3. Did Isaiah predict a virgin birth in his own time?

Verse 1

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Matthew 1:1 1The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham:

Matthew 1:1

NASB"The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah," NKJV"The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ" NRSV"an account of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah" TEV"This is the family record of Jesus Christ" NJB"roll of the genealogy of Jesus Christ"

The genealogy (cf. Genesis 5:1 or "account," cf. Genesis 2:4) is illustrative of God's hand in history fulfilling His promises to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and David. The NT is the fulfillment of the OT. In some cultures the use of genealogy is evidence for a trustworthy history.

"the son of David" This was a title for the promised Messiah that emphasized His Jewish royal line from the tribe of Judah (cf. Genesis 49:8-12). He was of the seed of woman, Genesis 3:15; the seed of Abraham, Genesis 22:18; the seed of Judah, Genesis 49:10 and the seed of David, 2 Samuel 7:12-14, 2 Samuel 7:16. This phrase was a common Messianic designation in Matthew (cf. Matthew 9:27; Matthew 12:33; Matthew 15:22; Matthew 20:30-31; Matthew 21:9, Matthew 21:15; Matthew 22:42).

"the son of Abraham" Luke's genealogy takes the line back to Adam. Luke was written for Gentiles, so it emphasizes the common human ancestry (cf. Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18). Matthew was written for Jews, so it focuses on the beginning of the Jewish family, Abram. In Matthew's genealogy "Abraham" and " David" are highlighted by its numerical design (i.e., three groups of 14).

Verses 2-6

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Matthew 1:2-6a 2Abraham was the father of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, and Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers. 3 Judah was the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar, Perez was the father of Hezron the father of Ram. 4 Ram was the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, and Nahshon the father of Salmon. 5 Salmon was the father of Boaz by Rahab, Boaz was the father of Obed by Ruth, and Obed the father of Jesse. 6Jesse was the father of David the king.

Matthew 1:2 "Judah" Judah was one of Jacob's children (cf. Genesis 49:10; Deuteronomy 33:7). Verses Matthew 1:2-6 follow the genealogy of 1 Chr. 1-3 in a limited sense.

Matthew 1:3 "Perez and Zerah" Perez and Zerah were twins (cf. Genesis 38:27-30). The Messianic line came through Perez. This section of the genealogy (Matthew 1:3-5) follows Ruth 4:18-22.

"Tamar" Tamar was Judah's daughter-in-law who became pregnant by him (cf. Genesis 38:12ff). It was very unusual to include women in Jewish genealogical lists. Several are included here in Matthew to emphasize that the lineage of the Messiah was not based on nationality or meritorious effort. Three of the women listed-Tamar, Rahab, and Ruth-were Gentiles and the fourth, Bathsheba, was married to a Hittite. The Gentiles, even women, are included for an inclusive theological impact!

Matthew 1:5 "Rahab" Rahab was the Canaanite prostitute who helped the spies (cf. Joshua 2:13; Joshua 6:17, Joshua 6:23, Joshua 6:25). In Jewish and Christian tradition Rahab was an example of the power of repentance (cf. Hebrews 11:31; James 2:25).

"Ruth" Ruth was a Moabitess (cf. Ruth 1:0). Moabites were forbidden from entering the congregation of Israel (cf. Deuteronomy 23:3).

She exemplified the faith of Gentiles and women and God's inclusive love. She was the grandmother of King David.

Matthew 1:6 "who had been the wife of Uriah" This referred to Bathsheba, the mother of Solomon (cf. 2 Samuel 11:0 and 12), who, like Rahab and Ruth, was not Jewish.

Verses 6-11

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Matthew 1:6-11 6bDavid was the father of Solomon by Bathsheba who had been the wife of Uriah. 7Solomon was the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, and Abijah the father of Asa. 8Asa was the father of Jehoshaphat the father of Joram, and Joram the father of Uzziah. 9Uzziah was the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, and Ahaz the father of Hezekiah. 10Hezekiah was the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amon, and Amon the father of Josiah. 11 Josiah was the father of Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time of the deportation to Babylon.

Matthew 1:7-11 This section (with some differences) follows 1 Chronicles 3:10-15.

Matthew 1:7

NASB, NKJV, TEV, NJB"Asa" NRSV"Asaph"

This Judean king was named Asa in 1 Kings 15:9 and 1 Chronicles 3:10. "Asa" is found in MSS L and W and fits the context. The early uncial Greek manuscripts א, B, and C surprisingly have "Asaph." This was the name of a choir director of David (cf. Psalm 50,73,83). Most textual critics assume that this is an ancient copyist error, or just a variant spelling of the name of the king.

Matthew 1:8 Three Judean kings between Joram and Uzziah are omitted (1) Ahaziah (cf. 2 Kings 8:9; 2 Chronicles 22:0); (2) Joash (cf. 2 Kings 11:2; 2 Kings 12:19-21; 2 Chronicles 24:0); and (3) Amaziah (cf. 2 Kings 14:0; 2 Chronicles 25:0).

The reason for their omission is uncertain. Two theories are: (1) Joram was married to and influenced by his wife, Athaliah, the daughter of Jezebel and, therefore, his sin of idolatry was transmitted to the third generation (cf. Deuteronomy 5:9) or (2) Matthew is structuring the genealogy into three sections of 14 ancestors each (Matthew 1:17). This would be the middle section.

Matthew 1:9 "Uzziah was born to Jotham" In 2 Kings 15:1-7 and 1 Chronicles 3:12 Uzziah is called Azariah. He was a godly king who was struck with leprosy because he offered a sacrifice in a wrong manner.

Matthew 1:10 "Hezekiah" Hezekiah was one of the five godly kings of Judah (Asa, Jehoshaphat, Uzziah, Hezekiah, and Josiah). His life is recorded in 2 Kgs. 18-20, 2 Kings 18:2 Chr. 29-32, and Isa. 36-39.

"Manasseh" He was the son of Hezekiah. Manasseh was reputed to be the most evil king in Judah's history (cf. 2 Kings 21:2-7). He also reigned the longest, fifty-five years (cf. 2 Kings 21:0; 2 Chronicles 33:0).

"Amon" He was the son of Manasseh and father of Josiah (cf. 2 Kings 21:18-19, 2 Kings 21:23-25; 1 Chronicles 3:14; 2 Chronicles 33:20-25). Some early uncial Greek manuscripts, א, Bc, and C, have the name, "Amos." This manuscript problem is much like Matthew 1:7.

"Josiah" Another godly king of Judah, Josiah was eight years old when he became king (cf. Matthew 1:2 Kgs. 22-23; 2 Kings 2:0 Chr. 34,35). Many scholars believe that the righteous father, the wicked son of the righteous father, and the righteous son of the wicked father in Ezekiel (cf. Ezekiel 18:5-9, Ezekiel 18:10-13, Ezekiel 18:14-18) were direct references to Hezekiah, Manasseh, and Josiah.

Matthew 1:11 "Jeconiah" He was also called Coniah (cf. Jeremiah 22:24) and Jehoiachin (cf. Matthew 1:2 Kings 24-25). The next to last Davidic king before the Babylonian captivity, Jeconiah was either 8 years old when he ascended the throne (cf. 2 Chronicles 36:9) or 18 years old (cf. 2 Kings 24:8) and reigned only three months (cf. 1 Chronicles 3:16-17; Jeremiah 24:1; Jeremiah 29:2). Ezekiel dates his prophecies from the year of this king's exile by Nebuchadnezzar II in 597 B.C. (cf. Ezekiel 1:1, Ezekiel 1:2; Ezekiel 8:1; Ezekiel 20:1; Ezekiel 24:1; Ezekiel 26:1; Ezekiel 29:1; Ezekiel 30:20; Ezekiel 31:1; Ezekiel 32:1, Ezekiel 32:17; Ezekiel 33:21; Ezekiel 40:1).

"deportation to Babylon" This deportation occurred under Nebuchadnezzar II. Jerusalem was captured by the army of Babylon several times-in 605, 597, 586, and 582 B.C. Several different deportations occurred.

1. deportation of Daniel and his three friends in 605 B.C.

2. the deportation of Jehoiachin, Ezekiel, and ten thousand soldiers and craftsmen in 597 B.C. (cf. Matthew 1:1 Kgs. 24:10-17)

3. the deportation of most of the remaining population (the city of Jerusalem was destroyed) in 587/586 B.C., 2 Kings 25:0

4. the final invasion and deportation of Judah in 582 B.C. in retaliation for the killing of Nebuchadnezzar's appointed governor, Gedeliah, and his Babylonian honor guard

Verses 12-16

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Matthew 1:12-16 12After the deportation to Babylon, Jeconiah became the father of Shealtiel, and Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel. 13Zerubbabel was the father of Abihud, Abihud the father of Eliakim, and Eliakim the father of Azor. 14Azor was the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Achim, and Achim the father of Eliud. 15Eliud was the father of Eleazar, Eleazar the father of Matthan, and Matthan the father of Jacob. 16Jacob was the father of Joseph the husband of Mary, by whom Jesus was born, who is called the Messiah.

Matthew 1:12 "and Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel" Zerubbabel was the leader of the Jews in the second return from Babylonian exile, the first return being under Sheshbazzar (cf. Ezra 1:8; Ezra 5:14). He was of the line of David (cf. Ezra 2-6). In 1 Chronicles 3:16-19, his father is listed as Pedaiah and his grandfather as Shealtiel. Hebrew familial terms were fluid and could refer to several different categories of relatives. In this case, Shealtiel was an uncle. This confusion could be explained if Shealtiel adopted Zerubbabel after his father Pedaiah died (cf. Ezra 3:8; Ezra 5:2; Nehemiah 12:1; Haggai 1:1).

These two names also appear in the Lucan genealogy, but in a much later period.

Matthew 1:13-15 The names from Zerubbabel's son Abihud to Jacob are unknown from OT sources.

Matthew 1:14 "Zadok" This was not the faithful priest of David's day (cf. 2 Samuel 20:25; 1 Chronicles 16:39) because Matthew's Zadok is of the tribe of Judah, not Levi.

Matthew 1:16 "Joseph the husband of Mary" "Begot," which is so prominent in this listing of the other fathers, is left out! Joseph is named as the legal father and his lineage given because this was what the Jews of the first century legally required and recognized. But he was not the true biological father. Jesus was virgin born of the Spirit of God (cf. Matthew 1:23-25; Luke 1:34-35).

"who is called the Messiah" "Christ" (NKJV) was the Greek translation of the Hebrew term Messiah (BDB 603, cf. 1 Samuel 2:10, 1 Samuel 2:35; 2 Samuel 22:51; Psalms 2:2 18:51; Psalms 89:38, Psalms 89:51; Psalms 132:10, Psalms 132:17; Daniel 9:24, Daniel 9:25), meaning "an anointed one." Jesus was YHWH's special Servant (cf. Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 9:1-7; Isaiah 11:1-5; Isaiah 52:13-12), the Coming One, who would establish the new age of righteousness (cf. Isaiah 61, 65-66). See Special Topic at Matthew 8:20.

Verse 17

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Matthew 1:17 17So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; from David to the deportation to Babylon, fourteen generations; and from the deportation to Babylon to the Messiah, fourteen generations.

Matthew 1:17 "generations" This was not a complete historical genealogy. The Hebrew term "generations" was ambiguous and could have meant grandfather or great-great-grandfather or ancestor.

"from the deportation to Babylon to the Messiah, fourteen generations" There are three sections of fourteen ancestors listed (1) Abraham to David, ( 2) David to the Exile, and (3) the Exile to Jesus. Only thirteen names are listed in the third section, so possibly Jehoiachin is counted in both the second and third sections. The number pattern implies that some names were left out (cf. Matthew 1:1 Chr. 1-3). Some commentators believe that these structured lists of fourteen are based on the numerical value of the consonants of David's name in Hebrew (daleth, 4 + waw, 6 + daleth, 4 = 14).

Verses 18-25

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Matthew 1:18-25 18Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: when His mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit. 19And Joseph her husband, being a righteous man and not wanting to disgrace her, wanted to send her away secretly. 20But when he had considered this, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife; for the Child who has been conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 21She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins." 22Now all this took place to fulfill what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet: 23" Behold, the virgin shall be with child and shall bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel," which translated means, "God with us." 24And Joseph awoke from his sleep and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took Mary as his wife,25 but kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name Jesus.

Matthew 1:18 "the birth" There is a Greek manuscript variant between "beginning" [genesis] and "birth" [gennasis]. The term genesis was probably original (cf. MSS P1, א, B, C; UBS4 rated it B). While both terms can mean "birth," the first had wider connotations (creation, generation, i.e., "the new Genesis in Jesus as the second Adam, cf. Romans 5:12-21) and could have meant "begotten." It has been supposed that later scribes changed the first term to "birth" deliberately to counteract later Christological (gnostic) heresies (cf. The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture by Bart P. Ehrman, pp. 75-77).

"betrothed to Joseph" Betrothal was a legally binding Jewish custom, usually lasting about a year before marriage. The parties lived separately but were considered contractually married. Only death or divorce could break the betrothal arrangement.

NASB"she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit" NKJV"she was found with child of the Holy Spirit" NRSV"she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit" TEV"she was going to have a baby by the Holy Spirit" NJB"she was found to be with child through the Holy Spirit"

This refers to the virgin birth, which was not a sexual experience for Mary or the Spirit. This was a prophetic fulfillment of Genesis 3:15 (" And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel"), and in a multiple fulfillment sense, of Isaiah 7:14 (" Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel"). Surprisingly, no apostolic sermons in Acts or the Epistles mention this, possibly because it could have been confused with Greco-Roman mythology (the Mount Olympus gods often took human women and bore children by them).

Matthew 1:19 "being a righteous man" A "righteous man" meant a lawful man by the standards of the Mosaic Law and the oral traditions of his day. It does not imply sinlessness; Noah and Job were righteous in the same sense (cf. Genesis 6:9 and Job 1:1).

"to send her away secretly" Joseph could have accomplished this through two legal procedures: (1) open renunciation in court or (2) the presentation of a written bill of divorce in front of two witnesses (cf. Deuteronomy 24:0). Mary had not shared the vision concerning her pregnancy with Joseph. OT Law demanded the death penalty for sexual unfaithfulness (cf. Deuteronomy 22:20-21, Deuteronomy 22:23-24).

Matthew 1:20 Joseph was informed about the pregnancy of his betrothed wife by an angelic messenger. In Luke 1:26 the angel is identified as Gabriel (cf. Matthew 1:19; Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21).

The word "dream" (onar) occurs five times in the first two chapters of Matthew (cf. Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:12, Matthew 2:13, Matthew 2:19, Matthew 2:22), but not again until Matthew 27:19 and no where else in the NT.

" an angel of the Lord" This phrase is used two ways in the OT.

1. an angel (cf. Genesis 24:7, Genesis 24:40; Exodus 23:20-23; Exodus 32:34; Numbers 22:22; Judges 5:23; 1 Samuel 24:16; 1 Chronicles 21:15ff; Zech. 1:28)

2. as a way of referring to YHWH (cf. Genesis 16:7-13; Genesis 22:11-15; Genesis 31:11, Genesis 31:13; Genesis 48:15-16; Exodus 3:2, Exodus 3:4; Exodus 13:21; Exodus 14:19; Judges 2:1; Judges 6:22-24; Judges 13:3-23; Zechariah 3:1-2

Matthew uses the phrase often (cf. Matthew 1:20, Matthew 1:24; Matthew 2:13, Matthew 2:19; Matthew 28:2), but always in the sense of #1 above. The NT does not use sense #2 except Acts 8:26 and 29, where, "an angel of the Lord" is paralleled to the Holy Spirit.

Matthew 1:21 "you shall call His name Jesus" This name (Hebrew, Joshua) meant "YHWH saves," " YHWH brings salvation," or "YHWH is Savior" (some verb must be supplied, cf. Luke 1:31). See SPECIAL TOPIC: THE NAME OF THE LORD at Matthew 18:20.

The name YHWH means

1. This is the name which reflects deity as the covenant making God; God as savior, redeemer! Humans break covenants, but God is loyal to His word, promise, covenant (cf. Psalms 103:0).

This name is first mentioned in combination with Elohim in Genesis 2:4. There are not two creation accounts in Genesis 1-2, but two emphases: (1) God as the creator of the universe (the physical) and (2) God as the special creator of humanity. Genesis 2:4 begins the special revelation about the privileged position and purpose of mankind, as well as the problem of sin and rebellion associated with the unique position.

2. In Genesis 4:26 it is said "men began to call upon the name of the Lord" (YHWH). However, Exodus 6:3 implies that early covenant people (the Patriarchs and their families) knew God only as El-Shaddai. The name YHWH is explained only one time in Exodus 3:13-16, esp. Matthew 1:14. However, the writings of Moses often interpret words by popular word plays, not etymologies (cf. Genesis 17:5; Genesis 27:36; Genesis 29:13-35). There have been several theories as to the meaning of this name (taken from IDB, vol. 2, pp. 409-11).

a. from an Arabic root, "to show fervent love"

b. from an Arabic root "to blow" (YHWH as storm God)

c. from a Ugaritic (Canaanite) root "to speak"

d. following a Phoenician inscription, a causative participle meaning "the One who sustains," or "the One who establishes"

e. from the Hebrew Qal form "the One who is," or "the One who is present" (in future sense, "the One who will be")

f. from the Hebrew Hiphil form "the One who causes to be"

g. from the Hebrew root "to live" (e.g., Genesis 3:20), meaning "the ever-living, only-living One"

h. from the context of Exodus 3:13-16 a play on the imperfect form used in a perfect sense, "I shall continue to be what I used to be" or "I shall continue to be what I have always been" (cf. J. Wash Watts, A Survey of Syntax in the Old Testament, p. 67

The full name YHWH is often expressed in abbreviation or possibly an original form.

(1) Yah (e.g., Hallelu - yah)

(2) Yahu (names, e.g., Isaiah)

(3) Yo (names, e.g., Joel)

3. In later Judaism this covenant name became so holy (the tetragrammaton) that Jews were afraid to say it lest they break the command of Exodus 20:7; Deuteronomy 5:11; Deuteronomy 6:13. So they substituted the Hebrew term for "owner," "master," " husband," "lord" -adon or adonai (my lord). When they came to YHWH in their reading of OT texts they pronounced "lord." This is why YHWH is written Lord in English translations.

4. As with El, often YHWH is combined with other terms to emphasize certain characteristics of the Covenant God of Israel. While there are many possible combinations of terms, here are some.

a. YHWH - Yireh (YHWH will provide), Genesis 22:14

b. YHWH - Rophekha (YHWH is your healer), Exodus 15:26

c. YHWH - Nissi (YHWH is my banner), Exodus 17:15

d. YHWH - Meqaddishkem (YHWH the One who sanctifies you), Exodus 31:13

e. YHWH - Shalom (YHWH is Peace), Judges 6:24

f. YHWH - Sabbaoth (YHWH of hosts), 1 Samuel 1:3, 1 Samuel 1:11; 1 Samuel 4:4; 1 Samuel 15:2; often in the Prophets)

g. YHWH - Ro'I (YHWH is my shepherd), Psalms 23:1

h. YHWH - Sidqenu (YHWH is our righteousness), Jeremiah 23:6

i. YHWH - Shammah (YHWH is there), Ezekiel 48:35

SPECIAL TOPIC: NAMES FOR DEITY

"for He will save His people from their sin" Jesus came for three distinct purposes.

1. to fully reveal the Father

2. to give humans an example to follow

3. to redeem mankind from sin

Genesis 3:0 affected all life on this planet (cf. Romans 8:20-23). Jesus came to die in our place (cf. Mark 10:45; John 1:29; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Philippians 2:6-11; Isaiah 53:0). The promise of Genesis 3:15 is fulfilled in Him!

Matthew 1:23 Matthew uses the fulfillment of OT prophecy as a major evidence for Jewish people to believe in Jesus as the promised Messiah.

Matthew 1:1. Matthew 1:22Isaiah 7:14

Matthew 1:2. Matthew 2:15Hosea 11:1 and Exodus 4:22-23

Matthew 1:3. Matthew 2:23 ― possibly Isaiah 11:1

Matthew 1:4. Matthew 3:15 ― "fulfill all righteousness"

Matthew 1:5. Matthew 4:14Isaiah 9:1, Isaiah 9:2

6. Matthew 5:17 ― ". . .but to fulfill"

7. Matthew 8:17Isaiah 53:4

8. Matthew 12:17Isaiah 42:1, Isaiah 42:2, Isaiah 42:3, Isaiah 42:4

9. Matthew 13:14Isaiah 6:9, Isaiah 6:10

10. Matthew 13:35Psalms 78:2

1Matthew 1:1. Matthew 21:4Isaiah 62:11 or Zechariah 9:9

1Matthew 1:2. Matthew 27:9; Matthew 27:9Zechariah 11:12, Zechariah 11:13

"virgin" This is a quotation of Isaiah 7:14 from the Septuagint. In Isaiah the Hebrew word used was almah (BDB 761 II), meaning a "chaste young woman of marriageable age." There was a special birth in Ahaz's day (cf. Isaiah 7:15-16). Only one virgin birth has ever occurred, not two; therefore, the historical fulfillment in Isaiah's day was a sign to Ahaz, but not an impregnation by the Holy Spirit. This is an example of a multiple fulfillment of prophecy. The sign to Ahaz was the child's name. See my commentary of Isaiah 1-39 online at www.freebiblecommentary.org.

NASB, NKJV, NJB"Immanuel" NRSV, TEV"Emmanuel" NJB"God-is-with-us"

Immanuel meant "God with us" (BDB 769). This shows that the OT passage pointed beyond its own day. Isaiah 7-12 (the Syro-Ephramitic War) ultimately referred to incarnate Deity, Jesus of Nazareth (cf. John 1:1; John 5:18; John 10:33; John 14:9-10; Philippians 2:6). However, it must be remembered that the Jews did not expect the Messiah to be divine. They would have seen the powerful names from Isaiah 9:6 as metaphors. It is not until the NT that the Messiah as God Incarnate was clearly revealed.

Matthew 1:24-25 These verses reaffirm a truly supernatural virgin birth. They also imply that the couple had a normal married life after the birth of Jesus. The Textus Receptus, following the Greek uncial manuscripts C and D*, K, W add "her firstborn son," implying other children.

Bibliographical Information
Utley. Dr. Robert. "Commentary on Matthew 1". "Utley's You Can Understand the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ubc/matthew-1.html. 2021.
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