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Bible Commentaries

Utley's You Can Understand the Bible

Revelation 6

Revelation 6:1-17

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

UBS4NKJVNRSVTEVNJB
The SealsFirst Seal: the ConquerorThe Opening of the First Six SealsThe SealsThe Lamb Breaks the Seven Seals
Revelation 6:1-2Revelation 6:1-2Revelation 6:1-2Revelation 6:1-2Revelation 6:1-2
Second Seal: Conflict on Earth
Revelation 6:3-4Revelation 6:3-4Revelation 6:3-4Revelation 6:3-4Revelation 6:3-4
Third Seal: Scarcity on Earth
Revelation 6:5-6Revelation 6:5-6Revelation 6:5-6Revelation 6:5-6Revelation 6:5-6
Fourth Seal: Widespread Death on Earth
Revelation 6:7-8Revelation 6:7-8Revelation 6:7-8Revelation 6:7-8Revelation 6:7-8
Fifth Seal: The Cry of the Martyrs
Revelation 6:9-11Revelation 6:9-11Revelation 6:9-11Revelation 6:9-11Revelation 6:9-11
Sixth Seal: Cosmic Disturbances
Revelation 6:12-17Revelation 6:12-17Revelation 6:12-17Revelation 6:12-17Revelation 6:12-17
The 144,000 of Israel SealedThe Sealed of IsraelAn InterludeThe 144,000 People of IsraelGod's Servants will be Preserved
Revelation 7:1-8Revelation 7:1-8Revelation 7:1-8Revelation 7:1-8Revelation 7:1-8
The Multitude from Every NationA Multitude from the Great TribulationThe Enormous CrowdThe Rewarding of the Saints
Revelation 7:9-12Revelation 7:9-17Revelation 7:9-12Revelation 7:9-12Revelation 7:9-12
Revelation 7:13-17Revelation 7:13-17Revelation 7:13Revelation 7:13-17
Revelation 7:14a
Revelation 7:14-17

READING CYCLE THREE (from "A Guide to Good Bible Reading")

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT THE PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects. Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired but it is the key to following the original author's intent which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS

A. This section relates contextually to chapters 4 and 5. Chapters 4 and 5 describe events in heaven, while Revelation 6:1-1 describes the unfolding judgments of God on the earth. As a matter of fact, Revelation 4:1-21 forms one literary unit.

B. The identity of the first rider (cf. Revelation 6:2) is difficult, but assuming it is a symbol of evil, the four riders are symbolic of the persecutions believers face in a fallen, hostile world (cf. Matthew 24:6-7). The term "tribulation" (thlipsis) is used consistently and solely of the persecution of Christians by unbelievers.

The sixth seal beginning in Revelation 6:12 describes God's wrath on unbelievers. Believers are exempt from the wrath (orgç, cf. Revelation 6:16) of God, but they do face the persecution and rage of the unbelieving world.

C. There are three major interpretive problems in this section.

1. how do the seals, trumpets, and bowls relate to each other in history

2. who are the 144,000 of Revelation 7:4 and how do they relate to the second group mentioned in Revelation 7:9

3. to which period of tribulation and which type of tribulation does the group in Revelation 7:14 refer

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

This is a study guide commentary which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

These discussion questions are provided to help you think through the major issues of this section of the book. They are meant to be thought provoking, not definitive.

1. Who are the 144,000? Explain your answer from the text of Revelation.

2. How do the 144,000 relate to the large group in Revelation 7:9?

3. Why are these symbols so hard for us to interpret?

4. What is the major thrust of chapters 6 and 7?

5. What is meant when it is said that chapter 7 is an interlude? Where are other interludes found in the book?

Verses 1-2

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Revelation 6:1-2 1Then I saw when the Lamb broke one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder, "Come." 2I looked, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it had a bow; and a crown was given to him, and he went out conquering and to conquer.

Revelation 6:1 "when the Lamb broke one of the seven seals" This verse shows the connection between chapters 5 and 6. These seals are broken before the book is read, so many interpreters have assumed that they are representative of problems that occur in every age (cf. Matthew 24:6-12). However, because of the growing intensity of the judgments, some see these as immediately preparatory to the end of the age. Here is the interpretive tension between the kingdom as present and future. There is a fluidity in the NT between the "already" and the "not yet." The book of the Revelation itself illustrates this tension. It was written for the persecuted believers of the first century (and every century) and yet prophetically addresses the last generation of believers. Tribulations are common in every age!

The seventh seal is the seven trumpets and the seventh trumpet is the seven bowls. As has been noted, each is more intense than the previous one. The first two are redemptive in purpose. They basically demonstrate that God's judgment is just because unbelievers will not repent, so the last cycle (i.e., bowls) have no opportunity for repentance, only judgment! But it seems to me that the sixth seal and the sixth trumpet describe the end of the age. Therefore, these are synchronous in nature and not chronologically sequential.

The one Second Coming is discussed three times, at the end of the seals (cf. Revelation 6:12-17) and trumpets (cf. Revelation 11:15-18), and not just at the end of the bowls in Revelation 16:17-21 and again in Revelation 19:11-21. This is the structural pattern of the book. It is an apocalyptic drama in several acts! See Introduction to Revelation, C.

"one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder" The four living creatures, like the elders, are levels of angelic creation. This voice, like thunder, is also mentioned in Revelation 6:2 and 19:6.

"'Come'" This term means either "come" or "go forth." The text of the ancient Greek uncial manuscript Sinaiticus (א) adds "and see" (cf. KJV, NKJV, which wold refer to John), but Alexandrinus (A) has only "come" (which would refer to the four horses). UBS4 gives this shorter form a "B" rating (almost certain). In context this command (present imperative) does not refer to John or the church, but to the four horsemen (cf. Revelation 6:3, Revelation 6:5, Revelation 6:7).

Revelation 6:2 "I looked, and behold, a white horse" This context is an allusion to Zechariah 1:8 (the four horses) and Zechariah 6:1-8 (the four chariots). There has been much discussion about the identity of this horseman. The interpretations range all the way from Jesus (Irenaeus) to the anti-Christ. With that kind of confusion, dogmatism is inappropriate. Some believe that it refers to Christ because of a similar description found in Revelation 19:11-21, but the only similarity seems to be the color of the horse. Others see this as a reference to the spreading of the gospel. This is because they see these chapters as paralleling the Olivet discourse of Matthew 24:0; Mark 13:0, and Luke 21:0. Therefore, this is assumed to be a reference to Matthew 24:14 and Mark 13:10.

It has even been proposed, based on Ezekiel 39:0, that this refers to Gog leading his troops against God's people. This would symbolize the end-time anti-Christ (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:0). It seems highly unusual that an angel could command Jesus to come. Although Jesus wears a crown in chapters 6 and 19, the Greek words to describe these crowns are different. There, Jesus is called "faithful and true," but not here. The conquest of the rider is not described at all. The rider is described as having a bow in chapter 6, but in chapter 19, Christ has a double edged sword in His mouth, therefore, the similarity is far overshadowed by the differences. This may be just one of the plagues of the OT. These plagues, which are an allusion to Leviticus 26:0 and Ezekiel 14:21, are spelled out in Revelation 6:8. White was not only a color symbol for righteousness, but also a Roman symbol of military victory. Roman generals who had been victorious in battle rode in a chariot through the streets of Rome pulled by four white horses.

"and he who sat on it had a bow" The bow was the weapon of choice of the feared mounted archers of the Parthian Hordes (who rode on white horses). The bow is often used in the OT to describe YHWH as Warrior (cf. Psalms 45:4-5; Isaiah 41:2; Isaiah 49:2-3; Habakkuk 3:9; Zechariah 9:13 and possibly Genesis 9:13). There are also examples of YHWH judging other nations in the metaphor of His breaking their bow (cf Psalms 46:9; Jeremiah 51:56 and Hosea 1:5).

"a crown was given to him" This is a "stephanos" crown, meaning a victor's crown, while the one mentioned in Revelation 19:11 of Christ is a "diadema," a royal crown.

"he went out conquering and to conquer" The symbols in Revelation 6:1 are of war and conquest. Because the first and second horsemen are described with similar purposes, some see this first one as a war of conquest and the second as a civil war. This is speculation, but the two horses are somehow parallel.

Verses 3-4

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Revelation 6:3-4 3When He broke the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, "Come." 4And another, a red horse, went out; and to him who sat on it, it was granted to take peace from the earth, and that men would slay one another; and a great sword was given to him.

Revelation 6:4 "another, a red horse" This is an allusion to some kind of military slaughter.

"a great sword was given to him" This was the small Roman sword called "machaira." It was worn on the belt of Roman soldiers and was used for capital punishment of Roman citizens (cf. Romans 13:4). The phrase "men would slay one another" is interesting because in the OT this is one of the means YHWH used to defeat His people's enemies (cf. Judges 7:22; 1 Samuel 14:20; 2 Chronicles 20:22).

Verses 5-6

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Revelation 6:5-6 5When He broke the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, "Come." I looked, and behold, a black horse; and he who sat on it had a pair of scales in his hand. 6And I heard something like a voice in the center of the four living creatures saying, "A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius; and do not damage the oil and the wine."

Revelation 6:5 "I looked, and behold, a black horse" This is a symbol of famine (cf. Matthew 24:7) which follows war.

Revelation 6:6 "A quart of wheat for a denarius" A denarius was a day's wage for a soldier or a laborer (cf. Matthew 20:2). We learn from Herodotus that this would purchase the normal amount of food required for one man for one day. This shows the severity of the famine: that a man could work all day and have only enough food for himself.

SPECIAL TOPIC: COINS IN USE IN PALESTINE IN JESUS' DAY

"three quarts of barley for a denarius" Barley was the staple diet of the poor. This Greek word "quarts" is "choinix" and equaled about 1.92 pints.

"and do not damage the oil and the wine" It is amazing how many interpretations there are of this detail. Many try to go back to the Temple scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls to find some allusion to Jewish sacrifice. Oil and wine were staples of the diet of Mediterranean people. The fact that these were not hurt shows a limited famine. This limitation can also be seen in Revelation 6:8. God limits His judgment so that unbelievers will have time to repent (cf. Revelation 16:9). It is also possible that both of these were used for medical purposes.

Verses 7-8

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Revelation 6:7-8 7When the Lamb broke the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, "Come." 8I looked, and behold, an ashen horse; and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following with him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth.

Revelation 6:8

NASB"an ashen horse" NKJV"a pale horse" NRSV"pale green horse" TEV"a pale-colored horse" NJB"deathly horse"

The term "pale" referred to a yellowish green or off-white color. In English we get the word "chlorine" from this Greek word. It was possibly the color of a dead body. Because of the list of the means of death in Revelation 6:8, this may refer to those killed or eaten by wild animals, which was one of the OT curses (cf. Leviticus 26:22; Jeremiah 15:3; Ezekiel 5:17; Ezekiel 14:21).

"he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following" This is an OT allusion to Proverbs 5:5 or Hosea 13:14. It is a personification of the terms for the termination of physical life. These two terms are used three times together in the Revelation (cf. Revelation 1:18; Revelation 20:13-14).

The term "Hades" is synonymous to the OT term "Sheol," which meant "the holding place of the dead." See SPECIAL TOPIC: Where Are the Dead? at Revelation 1:18.

"Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth" Notice the pronoun "them" refers to all four horses and their riders. There is an intensification of the judgment in the trumpets (i.e.,one third, cf. Revelation 8:7, Revelation 8:8, Revelation 8:10, Revelation 8:12); there is complete destruction in the bowls (cf. Revelation 16:1-21). These fractions are a literary device to show that God's judgments had a redemptive purpose (cf. Revelation 9:20-21; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:9, Revelation 16:11), but fallen, rebellious, hardened mankind would not respond (although a few may have, cf. Revelation 11:13).

"to kill with" These four horsemen represent the OT covenant judgments (cf. Leviticus 26:21-26; Jeremiah 15:2-3; Jeremiah 24:10; Jeremiah 27:8; Jeremiah 29:17-18; Jeremiah 32:24, Jeremiah 32:36; Jeremiah 34:17; Ezekiel 5:12, Ezekiel 5:17; Ezekiel 14:21; Amos 4:6-10). The term for "sword" is different from Revelation 6:4. This refers to the large battle sword, hromphaia. All four of the OT judgments of war, famine, plague, and wild animals are listed in Leviticus 26:21-26 and Ezekiel 14:21. These covenant judgments are clearly discussed in Deuteronomy 27-29. Remember, originally their purpose was to cause Israel to repent and turn back to YHWH. They function in that same redemptive sense here (cf. Revelation 9:20-21; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:9, Revelation 16:11).

Verses 9-11

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Revelation 6:9-11 9When the Lamb broke the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been slain because of the word of God, and because of the testimony which they had maintained; 10and they cried out with a loud voice, saying, "How long, O Lord, holy and true, will You refrain from judging and avenging our blood on those who dwell on the earth?" 11And there was given to each of them a white robe; and they were told that they should rest for a little while longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brethren who were to be killed even as they had been, would be completed also.

Revelation 6:9 "I saw underneath the altar" There has been much discussion as to which altar this refers. The term "altar" is used quite often in Revelation (cf. Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:5; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 11:1; Revelation 14:18; Revelation 16:7). Some believe that this refers to the sacrificial altar mentioned in Leviticus 4:7 and by Paul in Philippians 2:17, while others believe that it is the altar of incense in the Holy Place of the Tabernacle (cf. Revelation 8:3-5) or temple of Revelation 11:1. It is probably the altar of sacrifice because

1. the rabbis saw this as a place of great honor

2. it is referring to death (i.e., blood) of the martyrs

One might ask, "Why do martyrs assemble under the altar?" Remember that in the OT "blood" was the symbol of life (cf. Genesis 9:4; Leviticus 17:11, Leviticus 17:14). In the sacrificial system of Israel the blood was not placed on the horns of the sacrificial altar, but poured out at the base (i.e., Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 4:7, Leviticus 4:18, Leviticus 4:25; Leviticus 8:15; Leviticus 9:9). Therefore, the life (i.e., souls) of the slain martyrs was at the base of the altar.

"the souls of those who had been slain" These souls are the disembodied (between death and resurrection) martyred believers (cf. Revelation 13:15; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 20:4). This is surprising because it is more a Greek thought than a Hebrew concept. All Christians are called to be martyrs if the situation demands (cf. Revelation 2:10, Revelation 2:13; Matthew 10:38-39; Matthew 16:24).

There seems to be no connection between those killed by the four horsemen of Revelation 6:1-8 and these martyrs!

NASB"because of the word of God, and because of the testimony which they had maintained" NKJV"for the word of God and for the testimony which they held" NRSV"for the word of God and for the testimony they had given" TEV"because they had proclaimed God's word and had been faithful in their witnessing" NJB"on account of the Word of God, for witnessing to it"

This phrase is a recurrent theme in Revelation (cf. Revelation 1:9; Revelation 12:11, Revelation 12:17; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 20:4). It is very similar in meaning to the phrase "to him who overcomes" (cf. Revelation 2:6, Revelation 2:11, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:26; Revelation 3:5, Revelation 3:12, Revelation 3:21). These were killed because they were active Christians.

Revelation 6:10 "How long. . .will You refrain from judging and avenging our blood" Many commentators view this as being sub-Christian. This is probably because these commentators have never been in severe persecution from unbelievers themselves. These people are not asking for vengeance, but for justice! This may be an allusion to Deuteronomy 32:43 (cf. Revelation 19:2). This request follows Paul's admonition in Romans 12:19.

"O Lord" This term "Lord" (despotçs) describes total authority. We get the English term "despot" from this Greek word. It is used of YHWH in Luke 2:29 and Acts 4:24 and of Jesus in 2 Peter 2:1 and Jude 1:4.

"those who dwell on the earth" This is a very common phrase in Revelation; it always refers to unbelievers (cf. Revelation 3:10; Revelation 8:13; Revelation 11:10; Revelation 13:8, Revelation 13:12, Revelation 13:14; Revelation 17:2, Revelation 17:8).

Revelation 6:11 "there was given to each of them a white robe" This is a metaphor for "rest," "blessedness," or "victory." For some the theological problem involved here is how a disembodied soul could wear a piece of clothing. Be careful of hyper literalism, especially when interpreting an apocalyptic drama! The fact that commentators even discuss this shows how much they misunderstand the genre of the book! Do not push the details in Revelation!

"until the number of their fellow servants and their brethren who were to be killed even as they had been, would be completed also" One of the major truths of this book is that God is in control of all things (cf. Revelation 6:8), even the death of Christian martyrs! All of history is in His hand. God is not surprised by any events, actions, or outcomes. Yet there is still pain, suffering and unfairness in this fallen world. For a good discussion of the problem of evil see John W. Wenham's The Goodness of God.

This concept of a completed number of martyrs (cf. I Enoch 47:4) is a symbolic way of referring to God's knowledge and plan for mankind. This is similar to Paul's concept of "the fullness of the Gentiles" (cf. Romans 11:12, Romans 11:25) which refers to God's knowledge of all the Gentiles who would be saved.

Verses 12-17

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Revelation 6:12-17 12I looked when He broke the sixth seal, and there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth made of hair, and the whole moon became like blood; 13and the stars of the sky fell to the earth, as a fig tree casts its unripe figs when shaken by a great wind. 14The sky was split apart like a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island were moved out of their places. 15Then the kings of the earth and the great men and the commanders and the rich and the strong and every slave and free man hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains; 16and they said to the mountains and to the rocks, "Fall on us and hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; 17for the great day of their wrath has come, and who is able to stand?"

Revelation 6:12 "He broke the sixth seal" This verse is Jewish apocalyptic language for the end of the age (cf. Joel 2:30-31; Joel 3:15-16; Isaiah 13:9, Isaiah 13:10; Isaiah 34:4; Jeremiah 4:23-28; Haggai 2:6; Matthew 24:29; and The Assumption of Moses, Revelation 10:5). Notice the seven items in Revelation 6:12-14. This language is used in the OT for the Lord's Day. Its use here in the sixth seal and later in the sixth trumpet is the one reason, I believe, that each of these series of sevens terminates with the end of the age, the Second Coming of Christ (cf. Revelation 6:12-17; Revelation 11:15-18; Revelation 14:14-20; Revelation 16:17-21; Revelation 19:11-21; Revelation 22:6-16). Revelation is not chronologically sequential. It is a drama of seven acts.

"there was a great earthquake" There are many earthquakes mentioned in this book (cf. Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:13, Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:18). It is interesting to note that there are seven aspects to this end-time, apocalyptic event. There are also seven different categories listed in Revelation 6:15 (see Special Topic: Symbolic Number in Scripture at Revelation 1:4). This is another example of the highly structured, literary pattern of apocalyptic literature (cf. Revelation 5:12).

"the sun became black. . .moon became like blood" This is an OT allusion to judgment day (cf. Isaiah 13:10; Isaiah 24:23; Isaiah 50:3; Ezekiel 32:7; Joel 2:2, Joel 2:10, Joel 2:31; Joel 3:15; Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:24-25; Luke 21:25).

Revelation 6:13 "stars of the sky fell" This metaphor may have two origins:

1. the stability of God's created order (cf. Job 38:31-33; Psalms 89:36-37; Isaiah 13:10; Jeremiah 31:35-36; 37:20-26; Enoch Revelation 2:1) dissolves amidst God's judgments (cf. Matthew 24:29)

2. stars falling is a common intertestamental apocalyptic metaphor (which usually refers to angels, i.e., Revelation 12:4; Daniel 8:10)

In this context #1 fits best.

Revelation 6:14 "the sky was split apart" The ancients viewed the sky as a solid dome of stretched skin (cf. Job 22:14; Psalms 104:2; Proverbs 8:27; Isaiah 40:22). This is a metaphor of deity breaking into the natural order (cf. Isaiah 34:4).

"every mountain and island were moved out of their places" In the OT, whenever God visited His creation, either for blessing or judgment, it convulsed. The description is often painted in apocalyptic terms. Rev. 15-17 describe God's wrath on the unbelieving persecutors (cf. Revelation 16:20). These same descriptions are used in the OT to make physical access to God's presence easier, like the lowering of mountains, the drying up of rivers, etc. (cf. Isaiah 40:4).

Revelation 6:15 "hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains" As God's persecuted people had to hide from the persecutions of unbelievers (cf. Hebrews 11:38), so now the rich and powerful (possible allusion to Psalms 2:2) seek shelter from God's wrath (cf. Isaiah 2:10, Isaiah 2:19, Isaiah 2:21). This verse describes fallen, unbelieving mankind in seven ways. This use of sevens is a basic pattern in John's book (see Special Topic at Revelation 1:4).

Revelation 6:16 "fall on us and hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne" This is an allusion to Hosea 10:8 (cf. Isaiah 2:19, Isaiah 2:21 and Luke 23:30). Notice that the Father's and the Son's wrath are linked as they deplore what is happening to their family of faith. They act in history to vindicate the faithful and punish the rebellious (cf. Galatians 6:7).

"wrath of the Lamb" This is a powerful mixed metaphor. This imagery of a victorious lamb is from Jewish interbiblical literature. For "wrath" (orgç) see note at Revelation 7:14.

Revelation 6:17 Verse Revelation 6:17 seems to be an allusion either to Joel 2:11 or Malachi 3:2. Many commentators believe that Revelation 6:17 sets the stage for the interlude found in chapter 7, which attempts to answer the question, "What about the believers who are on the earth during these apocalyptic events and series of judgments?" There has always been a debate among commentators as to whether the seals in chapter 6 are redemptive or judicial (cf. Revelation 9:20-21; Revelation 14:7-8; Revelation 16:9, Revelation 16:11). Chapter 6 refers to God's judgment on unbelievers who refuse to believe. These judgments start out effecting 1/4 of the world, then 1/3 and finally in the bowls the entire unbelieving world (cf. Zephaniah 1:14-18).

CONTEXTUAL INSIGHTS TO Revelation 7:1-17

A. Chapter 7 forms an interlude between the sixth seal and the opening of the seventh seal (cf. Revelation 8:1, as does Revelation 10:1-13 between the sixth and seventh trumpets). It deals with the question of what is happening to believers during these cycles of God's judgment on unbelievers. The seventh seal becomes the seven trumpets.

B. This interlude deals with two groups of believers

1. The 144,000 from the Twelve Tribes on earth (cf. Revelation 7:1-8, esp. Revelation 7:4)

2. The innumerable host from the tribes of the whole earth who are now in heaven (cf. Revelation 7:9-17, esp. Revelation 7:9)

C. God acts in powerful, protective, assuring ways on behalf of His people. There is no distinction in Revelation between believing Jews and Gentiles (cf. Romans 2:28-29; Romans 3:22; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:28; Colossians 3:11). The OT's racial distinctions have been universalized into believers and unbelievers.

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Bibliographical Information
Utley. Dr. Robert. "Commentary on Revelation 6". "Utley's You Can Understand the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ubc/revelation-6.html. 2021.