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the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
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Revelation 3

Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New TestamentZerr's N.T. Commentary

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Verse 1

Rev 3:1. The Lord identifies himself as the one who has the seven spirits of God. Robinson says the following about this numeral: "The number seven was often put by the Jews for an indefinite round number. Likewise as a sacred number, of good omen, as also among the Egyptians, Arabians, Persians, etc." (See the comments at chapter 1:4.) I know thy works is used in the sense of disapproval for it is directly followed by something that is had. This church was alive as far as its profession and reputation were concerned, but in reality as the Lord saw it the church was dead. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 1. The letter to the church at Sardis--Rev 3:1-6. 1. "Saith he that hath the seven spirits, and the seven stars"--Rev 3:1. In Jesus Christ there is the uniting of these symbols of the spirits and the stars. The office of a spirit is to testify or teach; and the function of a star is to shine. It is a dual symbol which apparently refers to the uniting of the spirit of Christ in each church with the spirit of the congregation itself, that is, in the testimony of the truth, and having it shine as stars, as affirmed of God's servants in Dan 12:3. 2. "Thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead"-- Rev 3:1. The history of the city of Sardis had been one of splendour, but it was generally known at this time to be in a state of decadence and decay. The Lord used this condition of the city to impress the spiritual state of the church-- they had a name like the city in which they were situated, but they were spiritually dead. The religious history of Sardis, like the civil, was in the past.

Verse 2

Rev 3:2. The aforesaid charge of being (lead is relative for dead people cannot do anything. Yet these people are exhorted to do something about that which is ready to die, which shows that some prospect of life was in sight. Not found thy works perfect. The church as a whole had some good qualities but it was not as good as it could and should he considering its opportunities. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 2. 3. "I have not found thy works perfect before God"-- Rev 3:2. There were no works in this church completed; they were works begun but not finished; their deeds were mere fragments of service, partial and imperfect, or incomplete. They were exhorted to "strengthen the things which remained, that are ready to die"--that is, the waning works that yet existed would soon wither and perish if not invigorated and revived. This was a stern letter to Sardis, for they were their own enemies. There were no enemies of false doctrine mentioned; their danger lay in their state of spiritual decadence.

Verse 3

Rev 3:3. Remember . . . received and heard. God holds men responsible according to the information and other advantages they have received (Luk 12:47-48). The church at Sardis had been given Gospel instruction and ought to have known better than think that a mere profession is sufficient. That is why it. is warned to hold fast which means to preserve the talents that were given to it and also to de-velop them (Mat 25:16). Repent. This is another instance where disciples are exhorted to repent of a negative wrong. These people were guilty of not rising above a mere profession or reputation. They must bestir themselves and prove their right to such a name by more spiritual activity. Furthermore if a person does not make the progress or growth he should, he is sure to go the other way and become tainted with the evil things around him and thus defile his garments as most of these disciples had done. Come on thee as a thief. The Lord does not compare himself to a thief, only the hour of His coming is likened to one; for that reason it is important to be watchful. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 3. 4. "I will come upon thee as a thief"--Rev 3:3. The Lord would come as a thief, not as a robber. The robber comes in violence, but the thief comes in the night of sleep. This warning compares to that of Paul in 1Th 5:1-28, and applies to the manner, not to the time, of his coming. While they reposed in their spiritual slumber, the events depicted would unexpectedly overwhelm them. The warning was a picture of their own spiritual state of unpreparedness. It was not a reference to the time of his advent, but it did refer to his coming in the events of judgment, and his coming as a thief meant that they were not alert and ready.

Verse 4

Rev 3:4. Host a few names means there were a few persons in Sardis who had not become defiled. We have already seen that God does not hold anyone responsible for what he cannot prevent. (chapter 2:24); so it was with these few names in Sardis. Walk with me in -white. White is an emblem of purity and is always so used in the Bible when taken figuratively (Psa 51:7; Isa 1:1 S; Revelation 19 : S). This promise looks beyond the day of judgment to the eternal association with Jesus in the home of the soul. However, it does not wait until then for its fulfillment in every sense. It also includes the fellowship with Christ that a faithful disciple may claim and enjoy in this life. "When we walk with the Lord in the light of His word; What a glory He sheds on our way!" (See 1Jn 1:7.) They are worthy. We sometimes hear brethren criticize a familiar phrase "save us if worthy," and they will object that "none of us can ever be worthy." Jesus says we can, but he does not say that it is through the merits of our deeds. The worthiness consists in our relationship with the Lord as shown in the passage cited in 1 John above. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 4. 5. "Thou has a few names even in Sardis . . . that are worthy"--Rev 3:4. The statement that there were a few even in Sardis is a commentary on the condition of the city, as mentioned, and the like condition in the church. Notwithstanding the moral and civic state of the city of Sardis and the spiritual declension of the church, there was even yet a nucleus of faithful members. The garment is the symbol of character, or the vestures of righteousness with which Christians must be clothed. The word "defiled" means contaminated. The term white denotes purity. The word pure means unalloyed, and is inherent; but defilement is contamination from without. There were a few in the Sardis church who had maintained an unalloyed state before Christ, and were undefiled by the degenerate and decadent outside surroundings. This teaches that moral qualities are essential to doctrinal recognition and spiritual acceptance by God and Christ.

Verse 5

Rev 3:5. He that orercometh is the same as being faithful until death. Clothed in white raiment is explained at the preceding verse. Not blot out his name out of the book of life. It is a universal practice for institutions that consist of individual membership to keep a record of its names in a book. The fact is a basis for the figurative idea of a book of life in which the Lord keeps a list of his people (Mal 3:1 G; Luk 10:20; Heb 12:23; Rev 20:15). The point is that all whose names are there may be considered as those who are in good standing with the Lord. But their names are not put there with "indelible ink" but they may and will be blotted out if they are not faithful. Will confess his name is the same promise that Jesus made while on earth (Mat 10:32). Rev 3:6. He that hath an ear is commented upon at Rev 2:7. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verses 5-6. 6. "I will not blot out his name out of the book of life"-- Rev 3:5. This book of life is an allusion to a registry for worthy citizens, but the names of the deceased citizens are erased. This meant exclusion. But there were a few names in Sardis that would not be blotted out of the book of life. It clearly indicates that the names of the unworthy would be blotted out; but a name cannot be blotted out of the book of life, if it had never been recorded in it; so here is positive proof for the possibility of apostasy.

Verse 7

Rev 3:7. The church in Philadelphia was another that did not receive any rebuke in the letters (the one at Smyrna being the other). The most of this verse is used in describing the One who is authorizing this letter. Holy and true may be said of all true servants of God but it is true of Christ in a complete sense. Key of David refers to the authority that was predicted for Christ because he was to come into the world as the most noted descendant of that great ancestor. (See comments at chapter 1:for meaning of key.) That explanation will show why the opening and shutting are:nen-tioned as pertaining to Christ and not to any mere man. Rev 3:8. I know thy works is said in the sense of approval since everything said about this church is good. The open door is figurative and means the door of opportunity to advance the Gospel as it is expressed at 1Co 16:9; 2Co 2:12; Col 4:3. No man can shut it. Man can hinder and persecute the disciples but he cannot actually prevent them from carrying out the Gospel life in the world. Hast a little strength. They are commended for being faithful even though their strength is not great, a condition which they cannot help. Kept my word means they had been true to the commandments in the word of God. Not denied my name means they were not ashamed to confess the name of Christ as explained at verse 5. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verses 7-8. The letter to the church at Philadelphia--Rev 3:7-13. 1. "He that hath the key of David"--Rev 3:7. The word key conveys the meaning of authority, control and possession. In Isaiah's prophecy of the One who should possess the house of David, in Isa 22:22, the prophet said: "And the key of the house of David I will lay upon his shoulders; so he shall open, and none shall shut, and he shall shut, and none shall open." The Lord's statement to the church at Philadelphia was a direct reference to this prophecy, which was fulfilled in him. The key of David was "laid upon his shoulder," which means the burden of government, and in Isa 9:6-7, the prophet said: "Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and of peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice even for ever." This prophecy gives the reason why Jesus Christ said to the Philadelphians that he had the key of David, for he possessed the throne of David, and its government was upon his shoulder, with the authority to order it and establish it. Furthering this point reference should be made to the word of the angel to Mary in Luk 1:31-33 - "And behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord shall give unto him the throne of his father David: and he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end." There is no difference in the terms, the house of Jacob, the house of David, and the throne of David, and they were all spiritually possessed by Jesus Christ. The words of the apostles of Christ add testimony to the fact that the Lord Jesus Christ now possesses the house of David and occupies the throne of David. Quoting from second psalm, in Act 13:33-34, Paul declared that God had fulfilled the promise in giving to them "the sure mercies of David." The quotation reads: "God hath fulfilled the same unto their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. And as concerning that he raised him from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he said on this wise, I will give you the sure mercies of David." At the gathering of the apostles and elders in Jerusalem, the apostle James, in Act 15:13-17, quoted the prophecy of Amo 9:11-15, that the Christ would come to "build again the tabernacle of David . . . and set it up . . . that the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called." If the remnant of the Jewish world and all the Gentiles could then seek after God, it follows that Christ had set up the spiritual tabernacle of David. Added to these prophecies, and their declared fulfillment, is the declaration of the apostle Peter on Pentecost, in Act 2:29-33, that the prophecies of David, that God would raise up one to sit on his throne, were fulfilled in the resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ. Peter declared that the prophecies meant that "he (God) would raise up Christ to sit on his (David's) throne," and that "he seeing this before (foreseeing the fulfillment) spake of the resurrection of Christ." Peter then concluded, "This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we are all witnesses. Therefore being by the right of God exalted, he hath shed forth this which ye now see and hear." Summing it up, Jesus Christ has the throne of David, the tabernacle of David, the house of David, the sure mercies (or blessings) of David, and the key of David, in every spiritual sense of these terms, and there are no other prophecies or promises concerning David and Christ to be fulfilled. These passages teach that the house of David was perpetuated in the kingdom of Christ--his Church. It follows that the theory of the future return of Christ to occupy David's throne in an earthly millennium is the figment of theological fancy, imagination and error. 2. "He that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth"--Rev 3:7-8. Again, this is a reference to Isa 22:22, and to the Philadelphians Jesus Chrfst applied the words no man shutteth to the promise that all the persecutors put together, persecutions combined, could not shut their door-a door which the Lord had opened. When the door of any institution is closed, it is out of business; but the persecutors could not close the door of the Philadelphian church. "I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it." Like "the great door" which had been opened to Paul, which he mentioned in three epistles-- 1Co 16:9; 2Co 2:12 and Col 4:3 --which opposition to him could not close; so in the midst the eventful period of persecution God had set before them an open door which Nero could not shut. Persecution could not destroy that to which Christ had the key, and not having committed this key to any man, no man could open or shut this door.

Verse 9

Rev 3:9. Synagogue of Satan is commented upon at chapter 2:9; say they are Jews and are not is explained at the same place. Worship. This term comes from about 12 different Greek words and has a variety of meanings. A complete extract from the lexicon on the subject may be seen at Mat 2:2 in the first volume of the New Testament Commentary. At our present passage the word refers to an act of courtesy or admiring respect, as if to congratulate another over some favor that has been granted him. That favor is expressed by the words to know that I have loved thee. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 9. 3. "I will make them to come and worship before thy feet"- -Rev 3:9. This statement refers to the Judaizers, who were of "the synagogue of Satan," and who in claiming to be Jews were false pretenders in that they were not true Jews in the Lord's sight. "For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh, but he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not men, but of God." (Rom 2:28-29) These outward Jews had been the chief enemies of the church, and had instigated the persecutions against Christians, who were God's Jews inwardly (spiritually); but these false Jews, the enemies of Christ, would go down in defeat by the persecutions which they themselves had instigated; and in the metaphor of verse 9, they would bow before the Cause upheld by the Philadelphian church. It meant that Judaism would be crushed, and would kneel before the door which no man could shut.

Verse 10

Rev 3:10. Word of my patience denotes that they had endured according to His word. As a reward for their patience the Lord will keep them or preserve them when the hour of temptation (or trial) comes. Such a promise is so far-reaching, that it could refer to the specific siege of persecution that the pagan government was about to wage against the church, or to tribulations from the world in general. Rev 3:11. Behold is an expression to arouse attentive interest. I come quickly would apply to the personal coming of Christ to judge the world, or to the close of their life at which time all opportunity for service will cease. In either case the important thing is to hold that fast which thou hast which means to maintain their present life of faithfulness. That no man take thy crown. Not that one man can literally get possession of a crown that belongs to another. But if a disciple suffers the enemy to mislead him it will cause him to lose his crown. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verses 10-11. 4. "I will also keep thee from the hour of temptation (trial), which shall come upon all the world"--Rev 3:10-11. This promise was made to the Philadelphians in divine reciprocation of their having "kept the word" of Christ. They were not promised exemption from trial, but preservation through the period of trial. The world in Rev 3:10 meant the empire. The hour of trial was the persecution period: in Mat 24:29, the tribulation; in Rom 16:20, the bruising of Satan; in 1Co 7:26, the present distress; in Heb 10:25, the day approaching; in Jas 5:8, the coming of the Lord draweth nigh; in 1Pe 4:7, the end of all things at hand; in 1Jn 2:18, the last time--and in Revelation, the hour of trial, all pointing to the impending events attending the end of the Jewish system and state. The Lord's statement in Mat 24:1-51 was the forecast of the siege of Jerusalem; because of "the present distress," in Corinthians Paul dispensed advice concerning certain jeopardies involved in marriage; in Heb 10:1-39 they were exhorted not to forsake (meaning to abandon, renounce) their first day of the week assembling because of these threats of persecution (as the context of Heb 10:25-39 indicates), and to exhort each other, as the day of persecution approached, not to so renounce and abandon the new covenant; in Jas 5:1-20, the declaration that the coming of Christ was nigh could not have referred to the return of Christ, for it did not occur therefore it was not nigh--it referred to the Lord's coming in these approaching events concerning which all of the apostles were exhorting the members of all the churches in every place; and John, in his epistle mentioned "the last time" in reference to the state of the Jews and of their nation; in the apocalypse he symbolized it as "the hour of trial," and assured the Philadelphians that the Lord would "come quickly," in the judgments and rewards that he had repeatedly promised to render. The foregoing running summary of the expressions in the epistles of the New Testament to these impending events constitutes cumulative proof that the visions of Revelation related to the persecution period of the early church.

Verse 12

Rev 3:12. Him that overcometh is equivalent to being faithful until death. Make a pillar is a figure of speech signifying a fixed or permanent place in the favor of God, and go no more out emphasizes the same thought. Write upon him . . name of the city. Another figure meaning the faithful servant will be recognized as a citizen of the celestial city. (See Php 3:20.) My new name means a name that will signify a victorious life for Christ. (See comments at chapter 2:17.) Rev 3:13. He that hath an ear is explained at Rev 2:7. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verses 12-13. 5. "To him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out"--Rev 3:12. This is undoubtedly a reference to the demolition of the old temple. But the reward promised the Philadelphians for their faithfulness was a residence in the new temple, the spiritual temple, which could never be destroyed; out of which they would never be compelled to go, as in the case of the Jews in the destruction of the old temple of Jerusalem. The church is here conceived as a new building; and in this new temple of God the overcomers of the persecutions would be pillars; that is, to uphold the indestructible Cause of Him who had the key of David. The pillar supports the structure. When Samson pulled down the pillars supporting Dagon's temple, the whole structure collapsed. The faithful constituents in the new building of God would be the supporting pillars to uphold the Cause which would triumph over all persecutions of this approaching "hour of trial." The statement of the latter part of verse 12, referring to the "new Jerusalem," with a new name, simply means that the old Jerusalem, and all for which it stood, would be gone. As stated in chapter 21 of the apocalypse, the old things would pass away, and "behold, I will make all things new." This new temple would not be the restoration of the old house nor the reconstitutions of its ordinances. The emblem of the new name is used to distinguish a new institution, the church, from Judaism completely. It would not be a new dispensation of old ordinances: "The old things are passed away, behold all things are new." The promise to the members of the church at Philadelphia was that in the spiritual temple of the new Jerusalem, in contrast with the old temple of the apostate Jerusalem, the Lord established them as permanent elements of the redeemed society of his church, which nothing could destroy. These principles prevail in the church today, and should ever be a source of strength and encouragement to all of its members.

Verse 14

Rev 3:14. See the comments at chapter 1:20 for significance of Angel. The Amen is given special meaning here by the words the faithful and true witness. This is logical since the word amen means "so be it" or is an endorsement of some stated or implied fact. A true witness would not endorse any declaration that was not correct. The beginning of the creation of God. This is equivalent to the statement in Col 1:15 that Christ is "the firstborn of every creature." The reader will do well to see the comments at that place also on a number of verses following it. The "beginning of the creation" coincides with Joh 1:1-3 where Christ is said to have been "in the beginning," then explains it with the declaration that "all things were made by Him." Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 14. The letter to the church at Laodicea.--Rev 3:14-22. 1. "These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God"--Rev 3:14. The God of Amen means the God of truth, as stated in Deu 7:9 -- "Know ye therefore that the Lord thy God, he is God, the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that love him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations." The repeated expression the faithful and true witness, refers to the things of the apocalypse -the absolute certainty of all the announcements made by his angels and agents in all of the visions. The reminder that he is the beginning of the creation of God is the same in substance as that he is Alpha and Omega, meaning that he is the beginning as well as the end, the first as well as the last. It carries the same affirmation as in Joh 1:3, "all things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made." It means that in the beginning with God he was the active principle in creation, and is the Lord over all creation by primogeniture right--that is, the exclusive right of inheritance belonging to the firstborn. This right possessed by Jesus Christ is also affirmed by Paul in Heb 1:1-14 --"God . . . hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds . . . being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they." In priority of existence, having been the agent of all creation, he is Lord of the new creation, the whole spiritual realm.

Verse 15

Rev 3:15. I know thy works. Again this is used in the sense of disapproval for it is followed immediately with something that is bad. I would thou wert cold or hot. The figure is based upon the idea of food and its agreeableness to the taste. Some articles are supposed to be eaten hot and others cold. If either kind becomes neutral on the subject of temperature it will be objectionable. Also there are some articles of food that are suitable in either condition, but it is not desired that they be between the two states. On that basis as an illustration the Lord desires his disciples not to be neutral. Rev 3:16. No parable or illustration should be strained in the application. This one does not teach that God would be pleased at all with one who is cold in his religious practices--that point is not being considered in the least in this illustration. The only idea is with the comparative preference for something cold over a lukewarm article. When we make the application the reason for this preference is evident. If a professed disciple is cold it will be clearly recognized by the world, and lie will not have much influence in keeping others from the service of Christ through his example. On the other hand, a lukewarm disciple may be a tolerably good man so that others may admire him. Yet lie is not urgent in advising them to be busy in the Master's service and consequently his influence will be detrimental to the cause of Christ and for that reason lie will be rejected. Retaining the same subject matter for his figure, the Lord threatens to treat this church as a man would a piece of food that he took into his mouth and found it had become lukewarm; he will spew (spit) it out of his mouth. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verses 15-16. 2. "Thou art neither cold nor hot; I would thou wert cold or hot"--Rev 3:15-16. While outward rejection may, in some sense, appear to be preferable to cold profession, it does not seem in harmony with the grace of redemption to make this passage mean that God would rather these Laodiceans had never accepted the gospel at first. The purpose of the comparison is to rebuke lukewarmness, which produces nausea. It means that fervency is a condition of fidelity. Fervent heat (2Pe 3:10) means intense heat; and fervent water is boiling water; and in Rom 12:10, Paul admonishes the members of the body to be "fervent in spirit, serving the Lord." The Lord's aversion to the state of lukewarmness is expressed in the warning I will spew thee out of my mouth. The advocates of the absolute and unconditional security of the believer have appropriated the words of Paul in Eph 1:13, that the believer is "sealed with that holy Spirit," to their dogma of the impossibility of apostasy, by claiming that a sealed believer cannot get out. Aside from the fallacy of the argument itself, the Lord's statement to the Laodiceans explains how an unfaithful believer does get out--he is spewed out, by the Lord Jesus Christ himself.

Verse 17

Rev 3:17. The outstanding thought in this verse is to show how much a church can be self-deceived as to its real condition. Doubtless it possessed all of the things named of a temporal nature. One of the evil effects of earthly riches is to mislead their owners into a feeling of independence or self-sufficiency. That is why Jesus speaks of "the deceitfulness of riches" in Mat 13:22. The condition of this church was the opposite to that of Smyrna which was poor in this world's goods but was rich in faith. Our present case is one of complete deception, for the church had concluded that it had need of nothing. We often hear the remark that some man "is independently rich," which is just the state of mind the church at Laodicea was cherishing. The Lord admits that those people did not know (or realize) what their actual condition was from a spiritual standpoint. Wretched is defined by Thayer, "Enduring trials and troubles." They had a good many conflicts because of their lack of spiritual worth, but their confidence in their wealth gave them a false sense of triumph over them all. Miserable virtually refers to the same condition as being wretched and their deception covered their situation also. Poor in faith while rich in the perishable things of this world. Blind means their eyes of faith had become entirely afflicted with a spiritual cataract developed from their corroding wealth, and hence they could not see that they went naked. Rev 3:18. Gold tried in the fire is a figurative name for faith (1Pe 1:7.) White raiment consists of the righteousness of the Lord's people (chapter 19:5), and the People could have such raiment to wear if they would follow a life of righteous conduct. Annoint thine eyes. In 2Pe 1:9 the man who lacked the qualities named in that chapter is said to be "blind," and on that basis the church at Lao-dicea needed to use the anointment of those virtues to remove the cataract from their eyes. Rev 3:19. Love in this place is from the word that signifies the warmest sentiments of affection. It. makes a strong and unusual situation to say that such treatment of loved ones is the very proof of that love. Yet that is a principle that is true whether a human or divine Parent is being considered. (See Hebrew 12:6, 9.) Be zealous therefore. Since these stern rebukes are evidence of the Lord's love for them, it should induce them to repent with zeal which means to be active about it. The fundamental meaning of repentance is a change from one condition to another for the better. These people were relying on their temporal wealth for gratification and were poor in faith. They now should take on a sincere interest in the spiritual things of Christ and begin serving him by righteous living. Commentr by Foy E. Wallace Verses 17-19. 3. "Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing"--Rev 3:17-19. Based on this statement the Lord said: I counsel thee. He informed them, with words of severity, that they were wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked-- which, without any other words to be added, simply meant that they were in utter spiritual destitution. He recommended, in their own dialect of merchandising, that they buy of him a gold of greater value than their material wealth; and the white raiment of righteousness to clothe their nakedness; so that the shame of thy nakedness does not appear: as yet, their nakedness had not been exposed; it was within their membership. This note of judgment was a warning of the divine exposure of their spiritual nakedness. To correct their state of spiritual blindness the Lord admonished them to anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see--to get rid of their self-deception. This figurative language, of course, cannot be literally applied. The eyesalve meant spiritual enlightenment, as in Psa 19:8 --"The commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes." The gold which the Lord persuaded them to buy meant the raiment of righteousness, as in 1Pe 5:5 -- "Be clothed with humility"; and Rev 7:14 -- "These are they . . . which washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." These are strong analogies employed by the Lord counselling the Laodiceans to seek the true riches. There were no charges of the evils of error which existed in some of the churches. The Laodiceans professed the truths of the gospel, but with a materialistic apathy which rendered them unconscious of being out of communion with Christ. To assure them of divine love and concern for their restoration, Jesus said: As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten. The severity of his rebuke was not rejection but a sign of love which seeks to prevent their condition reaching that stage. The mandate, Be zealous and repent, meant the zeal of repentance itself; that it could not be performed in the apathy and passivity of their present attitude. In Mat 12:41, Jesus said that the people of Nineveh "repented at the preaching of Jonah," but in referring to that event in the book of Jonah, it reads: "When God saw their works." That is evidently the meaning of the zeal of repentance. It cannot be performed in nonchalance.

Verse 20

Rev 3:20. The specific subject matter for the various churches seems to have been completed. This verse represents the general attitude of the Lord toward all human beings. The door is that of the heart into which Jesus will enter if given a welcome. He will not force an entrance into a man's life, for the only kind of service that will be pleasing to Him is a willing service. Hence the human heart must respond to the call of the Lord. Sup with him, and he with me. In old times it was one of the surest indications of hospitality for a man to eat with another. It also was a token of recognition and endorsement. (See Mar 2:16; 1Co 5:11.) This mutual supping between Christ and his host is a figure of speech to indicate the great intimacy that He offers to share with a human being if permitted to do so. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 20. 4. "Behold I stand at the door and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me"--Rev 3:20. Here is the note of deep affection in the metaphor of the common meal, which the ancients regarded as a manifestation of fraternal confidence. The old term sup here signifies spiritual communion, which the Lord offered to restore with the Laodiceans. In common parlance today the word fellowship is in vogue. The remedial import of this high light in the Lord's persuasions to Laodicea, is that reconciliation begins with Jesus Christ. He reverses here the order of Mat 7:7 -- "Knock, and it shall be opened unto you." Here the Lord himself knocks, asking that they open unto him. The people of old accompanied their knocking with addressing those inside, in order that they might know who was knocking, and thus whether to open. Jesus here announces himself as the One seeking admission; but he does not force entrance. Here the truth of free moral agency incidentally appears--man can receive or reject divine overtures.

Verse 21

Rev 3:21. Him that overcometh means one who is faithful under all trails and difficulties. Sit with me in my throne is another figurative expression, meaning that such a person will be regarded as having right to that fellowship with Christ in the kingdom, that is stated in 1 Corinthians 4 : S and 1Pe 2:9. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 21. 5. "To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne"--Rev 3:21. Here is the constructive figure of a sitting court to which the faithful would be given admission to sit with Christ in his throne, to be associated with Christ in his spiritual rule. In Rev 2:26 this rule is said to be with "a rod of iron," which, as previously stated, means the invincible power of the truth, or gospel of Christ. In 1Ti 2:11-12, the apostle taught Timothy that this rule is in process now, and that reigning with Christ is concurrent with living with him. This enthronization with Christ simply stated means that as Christians are governed by the rule of Christ, in this compliance with his teaching they become a part of his government. The immediate imagery of this passage therefore is, that the faithful victors over the persecutions, having exemplified obedience to his rule, are seated with Christ the Conqueror in his ruling throne. This picture is culminated in the throne scene of the martyrs Rev 20:4, as shown in the commentary on the verses of that chapter.

Verse 22

Rev 3:22. He that hath an car is commented upon at chapter 2:7. Comments by Foy E. Wallace Verse 22. 6. "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches"--Rev 3:22. What the Spirit said to these seven churches has spiritual application to all churches. The lessons may be summed up as follows: One: the Ephesian church was commended for an outward work and labour and patience, but were censured for having left their first love. By comparison with the Thessalonians--who were said (1Th 1:3) to have had "a work of faith, and labour of love, and patience of hope" --it appears that the missing qualities in the church at Ephesus were faith, or fidelity, in works; and love, or devotion, in labour; and hope, or expectation, in patience. Theirs was an external work, a servile labour, and an impassive hope. They had rejected false teachers and were doctrinally sound; they abhorred the libertine practices of Nicolaitanism, and were maintaining moral rectitude. But the Lord issued the irrevocable directive for immediate resolution to restore the missing qualities, under the pain of the withdrawal of divine presence. Two: The church at Smyrna had attained congregational perfection, for which they received divine approval, but no assurance for the suspension of suffering was given to them; rather, they were exhorted to maintain the same degree of faithfulness in martyrdom that they had manifested in life, and their vouchsafed reward would be the inestimable crown of life. Three: the church at Pergamos had theoretically rejected all forms of idolatry and pagan sensuality, but the harboring of libertines and idolaters within their membership would expose them to the Lord's declaration of war against these heathenisms within the borders of the church, Four: The church at Thyatira had been constant in the possession and practice of the virtues of charity, and service, and patience and works; but the purity of these qualities had been somewhat tinctured by their tolerance of certain wicked influences among them; nevertheless with divine approval of their constancy, they were exhorted to cling to the things that had been approved, with the promise of the Lord's presence in the time of tribulation. Five: the church at Sardis was reproved for the declension of spiritual life and were upbraided for general decadence; but they were extended probation under a mandate for rehabilitation. Six: The par-excellent church at Philadelphia was the object of full divine approval, in nothing blameworthy, and was given the Lord's guarantee of preservation and deliverance from the imminent period of tribulation, the reward for their devoted loyalty to his Word, and faithful allegiance to his Name. Seven: The church at Laodicea was the object of stern rebuke for their failure to evaluate the true riches, and their blindness to their own spiritual deficiencies, and were threatened with expulsion from all communion with Christ, if they further rejected his overtures; but he would extend to them opportunity to open their hearts to his entrance, and he would accept them in mutual communion and fellowship. This concludes the visional prologue, and with the fourth chapter the general apocalypse begins.
Bibliographical Information
Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 3". Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/znt/revelation-3.html. 1952.
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