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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
1 Peter 2

 

 

Other Authors
Verses 1-3

Sanctification: Indoctrination: Spiritual Growth through Partaking of God's Word - The topic of 1 Peter 2:1-3 is on spiritual growth through partaking of God's Word. The previous passage of 1 Peter 2:22-25 has explained that the eternal nature of God's Word transforms our lives. Since our new birth came about when we partook of the eternal, living Word of God ( 1 Peter 1:22-25), then it means our spiritual growth into holiness is accomplished by this same Word of God ( 1 Peter 2:1-3). 1 Peter 2:1-3 will now tell us that this living Word of God will produce spiritual growth as naturally as milk produces human growth ( 1 Peter 2:2). We must have a desire for His Word, which desire comes from tasting the goodness of God ( 1 Peter 2:3). Peter will further expound upon spiritual growth by partaking of God's Word in his second Epistle.

In 1 Peter 2:1-3 Peter tells his readers that since they have tasted and experienced the Father's loving grace in salvation ( 1 Peter 2:3), then they should be willing to lay aside the old man ( 1 Peter 2:1), and be renewed by Word of God ( 1 Peter 2:2). Note a similar verse about laying aside the old man and being renewed in God:

Ephesians 4:22-24, "That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old Prayer of Manasseh , which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts; And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; And that ye put on the new Prayer of Manasseh , which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness."

1 Peter 2:1 Wherefore laying aside all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speakings,

1 Peter 2:1 — "Wherefore" - Comments- The word "wherefore" in 1 Peter 2:1 carries the idea from the previous verses, which have just stated that if we were born again by the Word of God, then we are to grow by the power of this same Word, which is eternal and unfailing. Because of the role of God's eternal Word in our lives, we must yield to its requirement of sanctification.

1 Peter 2:1Comments- 1 Peter 2:1 tells us to lay aside our wicked vices as a way of giving the Word of God a place in our lives to work. This means that it becomes an act of our will to stop these sins, often which have become strongholds and bondages in our lives. Each person has to make the decision to lay aside unclean actions and walk in obedience to God's Word.

1 Peter 2:2 As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:

1 Peter 2:2 — "As newborn babes" - Comments- The phrase "babes in Christ" or "newborn babes" refers to the spiritual development that every child of God must go through. What aspect of our development is this referring to? We know that we have been created as a three-part creature. We are a spirit, we live in a body and we have a soul. We know that our bodies can be full-grown as an adult while still being babes in Christ. This phrase does not refer to our physical development. We know that our spirits are fully recreated by God by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. What God creates, He does perfectly so that our spirits were fully developed the moment we were born again; for Paul said, "And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power," ( Colossians 2:10). A babe in Christ is not a reference to the need for a man's spirit or body to grow. Thus, a babe in Christ is one who is underdeveloped in the soulish realm, the realm of the mind, the will, the intellect and the emotions. This is why the author of Hebrews says that a babe needs to be taught, and why Peter says that they need to study the Word of God, which is a way of developing the mental realm by renewing the mind. Note similar verses that refer to babes in Christ:

1 Corinthians 3:1, "And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ."

1 Corinthians 14:20, "Brethren, be not children in understanding: howbeit in malice be ye children, but in understanding be men."

Hebrews 5:12-14, "For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil."

1 Peter 2:2, "As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:"

1 Peter 2:2 — "desire the sincere milk of the word" - Comments- Anyone who has ever raised children, and the apostle Peter was married and probably had raised children, knows how earnestly a child will cry for milk when it is hungry. This usually happens when a child first wakes up in the morning.

Weymouth, "Thirst, like newly-born infants, for pure milk for the soul, that by it you may grow up to salvation."

This desire is a type and figure of how we must desire the Word of God in our lives in order that we may also grow into mature Christians. However, there are situations when a mother's milk becomes tainted. For example, she may be on antibiotics or other medications because of surgery, or she may be eating spicy foods, so that the taste of her breast milk is changes. In some cases, the infant rejects the milk. Song of Solomon , note how Peter uses the word "sincere milk," or "pure milk." In the spiritual realm, there are new, baby Christians who are fed "tainted milk" from their church and lose their taste for it. Such Christians never grow and become rooted and grounded in the Word. However, if they were fed the pure, untainted milk of the Word of God, they would eagerly desire it and grow thereby.

1 Peter 2:2 — "that ye may grow thereby" - Comments - The UBS3 reads, "that you may grow by it unto salvation." Thus, many modern translations reflect this reading. What would Peter have meant by "growing unto salvation"? We know that we were saved the moment we trusted in Christ Jesus as our Saviour. Thus, we know that the phrase "growing unto salvation" does not refer to our initial salvation, but rather, to our spiritual journey in this life after we are saved. Peter opened this epistle by calling his readers "strangers," or "sojourners," which refers to someone on a journey in a strange land traveling towards his homeland, which Christians call Heaven.

The theme of 1Peter is the perseverance of the saints by the renewal of our minds about the office of God the Father. Thus, the phrase "growing unto salvation" in the context of this epistle refers to the process of sanctification by renewing our minds. As we understand the office of God the Father in our divine election, and by understanding our calling of election, which is to live a holy life ( 1 Peter 1:13-25), we lay aside our old lifestyle and live the way God has called us to live. This is the process of growing unto salvation.

1 Peter 2:2Comments - Note these insightful words from Sadhu Sundar Singh regarding the necessity of a child to work in order to obtain its nourishment. Yet, they suck their mother's breast naturally without having been taught. So it is with a newborn child of God. He naturally knows how to go to God in prayer and in His Word.

"The sustenance which the mother provides is so arranged that it cannot be obtained without some effort on the part of the infant. So also My children whom I bear in My bosom cannot obtain without seeking, the spiritual milk which is able to save their souls. And as the child does not need to be taught, but knows by instinct where and how to obtain its food, so those who are born of the Spirit know by a spiritual instinct, and not from worldly philosophy or Wisdom of Solomon , how to pray and to obtain from Me, their spiritual Mother, the milk of eternal life." 89]

89] Sadhu Sundar Singh, At the Master's Feet, translated by Arthur Parker (London: Fleming H. Revell Co, 1922) [on-line], accessed 26 October 2008, available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/singh/feet.html; Internet, "III Prayer," section 2, part 9.

1 Peter 2:3 If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious.

1 Peter 2:3Comments - Every new believer tastes the goodness of the Lord when their sins are forgiven and God begins to operate in their daily lives. Thus, in 1 Peter 2:3 Peter asks his readers if they have any understanding and revelation of the cost of their redemption by the blood of His son and remember God's goodness towards us when we were first saved.


Verses 4-10

Sanctification: Spiritual Service (Peter Draws a Picture of a Spiritual Church from the Analogy of the Old Testament Priesthood and Temple Service) - Now, just as God called the children of Israel out of Egypt to be a holy nation unto Him, as Peter implies from quoting Leviticus 11:45, so does the Lord require the Church to be set apart and holy in its lifestyle. Thus, Peter calls the Church out to be a separate people in 1 Peter 2:4-10. Just as Peter's revelation and acceptance and confession of Jesus as the Son of God resulted in Jesus separating him and calling him by the name "Peter," "a rock," so does Peter then use this same analogy for his readers in 1 Peter 2:4-8 by calling them "living stones." We as "living stone" corporately makes up a spiritual temple, and we serve God in a holy priesthood. We find this analogy first alluded to by Jesus when He gave Simon his surnamed as Peter, meaning "rock" ( Matthew 16:18). Thus, we can see how important these Old Testament quotes must have meant to Peter when he read and understood them by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

Matthew 16:18, "And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

Peter then uses a number of Old Testament phrases to describe the Church as a holy nation set apart to serve God ( 1 Peter 2:9-10).

As we partake of His Word ( 1 Peter 2:1-3), we come into a deeper understanding of how we are a chosen people of God with a purpose ( 1 Peter 2:4-10). Thus, in 1 Peter 2:4-10 Peter draws a picture of what a mature Church looks like when the believers corporately grow into spiritual maturity through the Word of God, which he exhorts in 1 Peter 2:1-3. Spiritual maturity is inseparable from communal identification, being joined to the community of believers in a unified love for one another.

Peter will then give practical examples of our "spiritual sacrifices" in the lengthy passage of submission. We are to do good works as a testimony to the Gentiles ( 1 Peter 2:11-12) by submitting to those in authority over us, believers to government ( 1 Peter 2:13-17), slaves to their masters ( 1 Peter 2:18-25), wives to husbands ( 1 Peter 3:1-6), and husbands honoring wives ( 1 Peter 3:7). This love walk will mean persecution and suffering ( 1 Peter 3:8-17), but Christ serves as our example ( 1 Peter 3:18-22).

Rejection by the Jews and the Grafting in of the Gentiles- We find in 1 Peter 2:4-10 quotes from Isaiah , Psalm and Hosea prophesying of the Jews rejected their Messiah who was born of the stock of Israel while the Gentiles and some Jews received Him as the Son of God. 1 Peter 2:4-8 discusses how Christ Jesus was the chief cornerstone laid in Zion and rejected by the Jews. Then in 1 Peter 2:9-10 Peter refers to the grafting in of the Gentiles as a result of Jesus' rejection by the Jews. Peter can quote from Isaiah and Hosea in the same passage because their themes are the same. The theme of Hosea supports the theme of Isaiah. While Isaiah emphasizes the redemptive work of Christ Jesus at His first Coming, Hosea includes the calling of the Gentiles as a result of this redemption.

1 Peter 2:4 To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious,

1 Peter 2:4 — "but chosen of God, and precious" - Comments- The Greek literally reads, "but according to God, (He is) elect (and) precious." The phrase ἐκλεκτὸν ἔντιμον (elect, precious) used in 1 Peter 2:4 is taken directly from Isaiah 28:16 in the LXX which he quotes shortly in 1 Peter 2:6.

1 Peter 2:6, "" διότι περιέχει ἐν γραφῇ, ἰδοὺ τίθημι ἐν σιὼν λίθον ἀκρογωνιαῖον ἐκλεκτὸν ἔντιμον καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπʼ αὐτῷ οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ." (UBS3)

1 Peter 2:5 Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.

1 Peter 2:5 — "Ye also, as lively stones" - Comments- Peter became a "living stone" when Jesus changed his name from Cephas to Peter ( Matthew 16:18).

1 Peter 2:5"are built up a spiritual house" - Comments- This spiritual house is the Church. Paul uses the same analogy to describe the Church as a house. Note:

Ephesians 2:20-21, "And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:"

1 Timothy 3:15, "But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth."

Hebrews 3:2-6, "Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house. For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God. And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after; But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end."

1 Peter 2:5 — "an holy priesthood" - Comments- Jesus Christ said that His house shall be called "a house of prayer for all nations." This speaks of intercession for all peoples on earth.

Isaiah 56:7, "Even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people."

Mark 11:17, "And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves."

God's people are a people of prayer and intercession. They are a people of spiritual warfare as discussed in Ephesians 6:10-20. Thus, they are a holy priesthood as stated in 1 Peter 2:5.

1 Peter 2:5 — "to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ" - Comments - These spiritual sacrifices are praise ( Hebrews 13:15), good works and giving ( Hebrews 13:16), and prayer.

Hebrews 13:15-16, "By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that Isaiah , the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name. But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased."

These spiritual sacrifices are also when we offer our bodies in service to the Lord

Romans 12:1, "I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service."

Kenneth Hagin explains that these "spiritual sacrifices" include the way that we offer ourselves during a worship service, by yielding to the Holy Spirit and allowing the gifts of the Spirit to be manifested through our bodies, such as the gifts of utterance or Revelation , dancing in the Spirit, etc. 90]

90] Kenneth Hagin, Plans Purposes and Pursuits (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1988, 1993), 139.

Spiritual sacrifices also include the renewing of the mind. It takes effort and time to renew the carnal mind.

Romans 12:2, "And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God."

At this point in Peter's discussion we begin to find very clear comparisons between Paul's writings in his epistles and Peter's phrases. Peter's discussion of spiritual sacrifices and a building of God ( 1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:11) can also be found in Paul's epistles, such as Romans 12:1-3 and Romans 12:4-5 with 1 Corinthians 3:9. In fact, Peter uses several Greek words and phrases in his first epistle that can only be found here and in Romans 12:1-2. For example the Greek word συσχηματί ζω (G 4964) (to be conformed) is used only two times in the New Testament, being found in Romans 12:2 and 1 Peter 1:14. The Greek word λογικό ς (G 3050) (spiritual, reasonable) is also used only two times, being found in Romans 12:1 and 1 Peter 2:2. The phrase "spiritual sacrifice" in 1 Peter 2:5 can be compared to "living sacrifice" in Romans 12:1.

Thus, it is very likely that Peter was familiar with Paul's epistle to the Romans and was borrowing his thoughts in Romans 12:1-2 and further expounding upon them in his epistle. In fact, Peter refers to his knowledge of Paul's epistles in 2 Peter 3:15-16.

2 Peter 3:15-16, "And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction."

1 Peter 2:5Comments- These Jewish Christians understood this type of literal description for the nation of Israel. Here, Peter is applying it symbolically to the spiritual Israel, the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ. Peter will again use such Jewish language in 1 Peter 2:9.

1 Peter 2:6 Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.

1 Peter 2:6Word Study on "corner stone" - Edward Mack says the cornerstone was the stone laid to begin the foundation of a building. 91]

91] Edward Mack, "Corner-stone," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

1 Peter 2:6Comments - God is the subject of the sentence. He lays the chief cornerstone in Zion. In other words, He is the one that will perform this work of redemption.

The city of Sion, or Zion, represents Jerusalem. The city of Jerusalem represents the nation of Israel. Thus, this phrase is telling us that God sent the Saviour of the World to be born among the people of Israel. He would be a Jew chosen and exalted by God and not by man. Remember when the Jews tried to make Jesus their king when He made His triumphant entry into Jerusalem? Jesus chose the Cross, which was the path that God had called Him to follow rather than being crowned by men as a King. Had not Satan not already tempted Jesus in this area of ruling over nations during His forty days of temptation in the wilderness? Jesus Christ the Messiah laid the foundation of the Church in the midst of the Jews with His twelve Jewish disciples. Thus, He is called the cornerstone of this foundation. His disciples, primarily Paul the apostle, laid the rest of this foundation by establishing the doctrine and order of the Church.

1 Peter 2:6Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - This quote in 1 Peter 2:6 comes from Isaiah 28:16.

Isaiah 28:16, "Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste."

Also, note similar verses in the New Testament:

Ephesians 2:20, "And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;"

Hebrews 3:4, "For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God."

1 Peter 2:7 Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,

1 Peter 2:7 — "the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner" - Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - The quote in 1 Peter 2:7 comes from Psalm 118:22.

Psalm 118:22, "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner."

Peter quoted this same verse in his sermon to the Sanhedrin.

Acts 4:11, "This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner."

1 Peter 2:8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.

1 Peter 2:8 — "And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence" - Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - This quote in 1 Peter 2:8 comes from Isaiah 8:14.

Isaiah 8:14, "And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem."

1 Peter 2:9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:

1 Peter 2:9Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - "a chosen generation" - The phrase "a chosen generation" may have been taken from Isaiah 43:20.

Isaiah 43:20, "The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen."

We also find the concept of God's chosen in Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 10:15.

Deuteronomy 7:6, "For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth."

Deuteronomy 10:15, "Only the LORD had a delight in thy fathers to love them, and he chose their seed after them, even you above all people, as it is this day."

"a royal priesthood" - Peter very likely took the phrase "a royal priesthood, an holy nation" from Exodus 19:6 or Exodus 23:22 (LXX).

Exodus 19:6, "And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel."

Exodus 23:22, "If ye will indeed hear my voice, and if thou wilt do all the things I shall charge thee with, and keep my covenant, ye shall be to me a peculiar people above all nations, for the whole earth is mine; and ye shall be to me a royal priesthood, and a holy nation: these words shall ye speak to the children of Israel, If ye shall indeed hear my voice, and do all the things I shall tell thee, I will be an enemy to thine enemies, and an adversary to thine adversaries." (Brenton) (LXX)

We also find the concept of priesthood in Isaiah 61:6.

Isaiah 61:6, "But ye shall be named the Priests of the LORD: men shall call you the Ministers of our God: ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves."

"a peculiar people" - Peter very likely took the phrase "a peculiar people" from Exodus 19:5; Exodus 23:22 (LXX), Deuteronomy 4:20; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2 or Isaiah 43:21.

Exodus 19:5, "Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:'

Exodus 23:22, "If ye will indeed hear my voice, and if thou wilt do all the things I shall charge thee with, and keep my covenant, ye shall be to me a peculiar people above all nations, for the whole earth is mine; and ye shall be to me a royal priesthood, and a holy nation: these words shall ye speak to the children of Israel, If ye shall indeed hear my voice, and do all the things I shall tell thee, I will be an enemy to thine enemies, and an adversary to thine adversaries." (Brenton) (LXX)

Isaiah 43:21, "This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise."

Deuteronomy 4:20, "But the LORD hath taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day."

Deuteronomy 7:6, "For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth."

Deuteronomy 14:2, "For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God, and the LORD hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth."

"that ye should shew forth the praises of him" - This phrase in 1 Peter 2:9 very likely was taken from Isaiah 43:21. We find a similar phrase in Isaiah 42:12.

Isaiah 43:21, "This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise."

Isaiah 42:12, "Let them give glory unto the LORD, and declare his praise in the islands."

"who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light" - We do not find this exact phrase in the Old Testament Scriptures. However, the concept of God's people coming out of darkness into His light is mentioned in Isaiah 9:2

Isaiah 9:2, "The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined."

1 Peter 2:9Comments- These Jewish Christians understood this type of literal description for the nation of Israel. In 1 Peter 2:9 Peter is applying it symbolically to the spiritual Israel, the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ. Peter has just used such Jewish language in 1 Peter 2:5.

1 Peter 2:10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.

1 Peter 2:10Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - In 1 Peter 2:10 the author appears to be paraphrasing from Hosea 2:23.

Hosea 2:23, "And I will sow her unto me in the earth; and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to them which were not my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God."


Verse 11

Obedience to Christ Jesus (Illustration of Sermon): Perseverance- The Believer's Response is to Decide to Walk in Love and Submission with His Fellow Man in Light of This Blessed Hope - Once we have been enlightened to our blessed hope of the Heavenly Father ( 1 Peter 1:3-12), and exhorted to choose to sanctify ourselves by growing in maturity through the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit ( 1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10), Peter illustrates what a lifestyle of sanctification looks like as we obey to Jesus Christ with good works by submitting to authority and enduring persecution for righteousness sake ( 1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 4:11).

In 1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 4:11 we are told that our obedience to Christ is based upon our willingness to persevere in the midst of persecutions. Obedience requires some degree of suffering. Paul wrote in Hebrews , "Though he were a Song of Solomon , yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered," ( Hebrews 5:8). This is why the opening verse of this next section explains that we serve Him by "abstaining from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul," ( 1 Peter 2:11). The preceding passage ( 1 Peter 2:4-10) explains that we as a people of God have been separated unto a holy calling. Thus, the believer's next response to this blessed hope of election ( 1 Peter 1:3-12) and exhortation to holiness ( 1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10) is to serve Him in obedience. Within the context of 1Peter our souls are "fully hoping in the grace being brought to us at the revelation of Jesus Christ" ( 1 Peter 1:13), so that our minds are to be focused upon our eternal inheritance, rather than worldly lusts. These fleshly lusts mentioned in 1 Peter 2:11 pull our focus away from Heaven and turns our hope towards the cares of this world.

Having exhorted us into a lifestyle of holiness by explaining that we are elected as a chosen people through the purchased blood of Christ ( 1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10), Peter then gives us practical advice on conducting ourselves in the fear of God and love towards mankind ( 1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 4:11). In the previous passage of 1 Peter 2:4-10 Peter has drawn a picture of what a mature Church looks like when the believers corporately grow into spiritual maturity through the Word of God, which he exhorts in 1 Peter 2:1-3. Peter will then give practical examples of our "spiritual sacrifices" in the lengthy passage of submission. We are to do good works as a testimony to the Gentiles of our blessed hope ( 1 Peter 2:11-12) by submitting to those in authority over us: all believers to government ( 1 Peter 2:13-17), slaves to their masters ( 1 Peter 2:18-25), wives to husbands ( 1 Peter 3:1-6), and husbands honoring wives ( 1 Peter 3:7). In summary it is a walk of love from the heart ( 1 Peter 3:8-12). However, this love walk will mean persecution and suffering, but Christ serves as our example of suffering for righteousness sake ( 1 Peter 3:13 to 1 Peter 4:11). Our choice to submit to those in authority is actually our way of entrusting ourselves into the hands of a faithful creator ( 1 Peter 4:19).

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Introductory Remarks — 1 Peter 2:11-12

2. Submission to Authority Within Society — 1 Peter 2:13 to 1 Peter 3:12

3. Walking in Love — 1 Peter 3:13-22

4. Crucifying the Flesh — 1 Peter 4:1-6

5. Exhortation to Watch and Pray — 1 Peter 4:7-11


Verse 11-12

Introductory Remarks about Believers Coexisting with Non-believers in a Pagan Society - In 1 Peter 2:11-12 Peter makes the introductory remarks to live a good lifestyle before the Gentiles in order to cause them to also glorify God. He will follow these remarks by expounding upon this divine principle as he teaches on a life of submission to those in authority over us in 1 Peter 2:13 to 1 Peter 4:11. This lengthy passage on submission within various roles of society ( 1 Peter 2:13 to 1 Peter 4:11) will serve as an application of how to conduct ourselves among the Gentiles with good works ( 1 Peter 2:11-12). These "good works" in the midst of persecutions and slander serve as our "spiritual sacrifices" ( 1 Peter 2:5) that we as a holy priesthood are to continually offer unto God, which analogy Peter makes in 1 Peter 2:4-10.

1 Peter 2:11 Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;

1 Peter 2:11 — "Dearly beloved" - Comments- The term "beloved" establishes our relationship with God the Father when we sanctify ourselves before Him according to the previous exhortation in 1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10. This position of acceptance stands in contrast to our relationship with the world as strangers and pilgrims. It is a choice that we all must make as believers, to be beloved before the Father, or to be friends with the world.

1 Peter 2:11 — "I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims" - Word Study on "strangers" - Strong says the Greek word "strangers" "paroikos" ( πάροικος) (G 3941) means, "having a home near, i.e. a by-dweller, alien resident" The Enhanced Strong says it is used 4times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "stranger 2, sojourn 1, foreigner 1."

Acts 7:6, "And God spake on this wise, That his seed should sojourn in a strange land; and that they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years."

Acts 7:29, "Then fled Moses at this saying, and was a stranger in the land of Madian, where he begat two sons."

Ephesians 2:19, "Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;"

Word Study on "pilgrims" - Strong says the Greek word "pilgrims" ( παρεπί δημος) (G 3927) means, "an alien alongside, i.e. a resident foreigner." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 3times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "pilgrim 2, stranger 1." The other two uses are:

Hebrews 11:13, "These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth."

1 Peter 2:11, "Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;"

Comments- Hebrews 11:13 uses another synonym with παρεπί δημος, which is ξέ νος (G 3581), meaning, "a guest, entertainer" (Strong). The Enhanced Strong says it is used 14times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV, "stranger 10, strange 3, host 1."

Comments- In order to better understand Peter's use of the term "strangers" in his first Epistle, it may help to note his statement in the closing remarks of this same Epistle, in which he sends greetings from "Babylon". It is generally understood that Peter was using the name "Babylon" metaphorically as a designation for the city of Rome. We also note that John the apostle used the term "Babylon" metaphorically of the city of Rome in his book of Revelation ( Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2; Revelation 18:10; Revelation 18:21). Such a term was most likely applied because the city of Rome was the seat of the Roman Empire where the center of widespread opposition and persecution against Christianity began. For the Jews the term "Babylon" represented a place of exile, which would have appropriately applied to the early Church in the hostile environment of the Roman Empire. Thus, Peter could have accurately called his readers "strangers and pilgrims" living in a land of hostility and persecutions.

The two words "strangers" and "pilgrims" refer to those who are passing through a strange land for a time period. These words imply that as strangers the earth is not our home, and as pilgrims we will not be here long.

The previous passage of 1 Peter 2:4-10 has established the fact that we are a chosen people, separated unto God as a holy nation, which necessitates a description of our relationship with this world as strangers and pilgrims, since we no longer belong to this world's system. Rather, our citizenship is in Heaven, from where we look for our Saviour ( Philippians 3:20).

Philippians 3:20, "For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ:"

Also, the epistle of Hebrews describes Abraham as a sojourner in a strange land.

Hebrews 11:9-10, "By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise: For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God.

Scripture References- We find the words "strangers" and "pilgrims," or "sojourners" used together in Psalm 39:12.

Psalm 39:12, "Hear my prayer, O LORD, and give ear unto my cry; hold not thy peace at my tears: for I am a stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were."

1 Peter 2:11 — "abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul" - Comments- 1 Peter 2:11 tells us to "abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." Within the context of 1Peter our souls is "fully hoping in the grace being brought to us at the revelation of Jesus Christ" ( 1 Peter 1:13). In other words, our minds are focused upon our eternal inheritance. These fleshly lusts mentioned in 1 Peter 2:11 pull our focus away from Heaven and turns our hope towards the cares of this world.

1 Peter 2:11 shows us that the battleground is the mind. The fleshly lusts originate from our body and the ungodly, devilish thoughts. This epistle teaches us to focus our attention upon the eternal hope of eternal life, and if we turn our attention to satisfy earthly desires, our lifestyle will follow the ways of this world, and lead us to death.

1 Peter 2:12 Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.

1 Peter 2:12 — "that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers" - Comments- Paul wrote to Titus and said, "Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled." ( Titus 1:15) Thus, we see the mindset of the unbeliever. He looks at the life of a believer and they see a bad motive in it. This is because they measure a believer's motive by their impure motives, thinking that everyone thinks like themselves.

1 Peter 2:12 — "glorify God in the day of visitation" - Comments- A day of visitation is a time when God interrupts the natural flow of worldly events and moves supernaturally to effect His divine purpose and plan of redemption upon earth. It is a day when the physical laws of nature yield to the supernatural, divines laws of grace and mercy.

Within the context of 1Peter with its frequent references to the Second Coming of Christ, the phrase "in the day of visitation" most likely refers to the same event, rather than a divine encounter for one individual.


Verse 13

Submission to Authority within Society- With this mindset of being chosen servants of a holy God to bring the Gentiles into a saving knowledge of God's plan of redemption we will understand why we must submit ourselves to those in authority over us in the fear of God ( 1 Peter 2:13 to 1 Peter 3:12). It is important to note that Peter points out in particular the submissive roles of slaves and women in society, roles that are often abused by those in authority in these pagan societies.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Believers Submit to Government — 1 Peter 2:13-17

2. Slaves Submit to their Masters — 1 Peter 2:18-25

3. Wives Submit to Their Husbands — 1 Peter 3:1-7

4. Charge to All Believers on Submission — 1 Peter 3:8-12


Verses 13-17

Believers Submit to Government - In 1 Peter 2:13-17 Peter exhorts his readers to be submissive to government authorities who rule over them. He was simply expounding upon Jesus' teaching in Matthew 22:15-22 when He said, "Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar"s; and unto God the things that are God"s," ( Matthew 22:21).

Peter's Lesson of Submission to Government- Peter had to learn this lesson of submission to government the hard way. In the Garden, it was Peter who cut off the ear of the servant in his attempt to resist authorities and was rebuked by the Lord Jesus, who then healed the man's ear.

Matthew 26:51-52, "And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest"s, and smote off his ear. Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword."

John 18:10-11, "Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest"s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant"s name was Malchus. Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?"

1 Peter 2:13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord"s sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme;

1 Peter 2:13Word Study on "ordinance" - Strong says the Greek word "ktisis" ( κτί σις) (G 2937) originally means, "formation" BDAG tells us that in this case it refers to "human institutions of civil authorities." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 19 times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as "creature 11, creation 6, building 1, ordinance 1."

1 Peter 2:13Comments- In 1 Peter 2:13 we are told that every governing institution and ordinance that is created by these governing bodies should be observed. It is these institutions that give order to a society. Without such institutions there would be no order and Satan would gain control of societies.

Illustration- The Lord once said to me, "Let all things be done decently and in order and I can control the world. Satan gains control thru chaos and disorder. I gain control when you do things in order." He then quickened to me 1 Corinthians 14:40, "Let all things be done decently and in order."

James 3:15 tells us that the wisdom of this world bring confusion and every evil work.

James 3:15, "This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish. For where envying and strife Isaiah , there is confusion and every evil work."

The Lord spoke to Myles Munroe and said, "I honour faith and order." 92] Faith is what brings the blessings of God into our lives, but order is what manages those blessings. God honours those who are able to properly manage the blessings that He imparts to them, and He will continually give them more blessings to those who are faithful.

92] Myles Munroe,, interviewed by Benny Hinn, This is Your Day (Irving, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

My experience in Uganda, East Africa is that Muslims try to gain control of these weak African nations through bombings and fear. They cause disorder and then blame it on the existing government, in an attempt to overthrow the nation. They know that through chaos and disorder they can gain control over a nation.

1 Peter 2:14 Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.

1 Peter 2:14Comments- We are told in 1 Peter 2:13 to submit ourselves to kings, who represent the supreme authority over our societies. We now read in 1 Peter 2:14 to also submit unto the king's governors. This office represents all of the rule's delegated authorities in a society.

1 Peter 2:15 For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men:

1 Peter 2:15Comments- The phrase "the ignorance of foolish men" in 1 Peter 2:15 is contrasted with the believer's understand and decision to choose holiness, with the emphasis of this Epistle being upon man's mental realm in his choice to persevere. We see a similar phrase "in your ignorance" used in 1 Peter 1:14.

1 Peter 1:14, "As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:"

1 Peter 2:16 As free, and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness, but as the servants of God.

1 Peter 2:16 — "and not using your liberty for a cloke of maliciousness" - Comments- When a pastor moves about in his city and among his people, he is given a lot of respect. He easily has the opportunity to take advantage of these people who have a difficult time saying no to his requests, and thus, favoring him with special opportunities. Such a position is often abused when a pastor uses his office for personal gains.

1 Peter 2:16Comments- When the disciples were asked to pay tribute money in Capernanum, Jesus told them that it was ok to do so. He said that although they were free from this world's system, they should pay the tax in order not to offend others ( Matthew 17:24-27). Paul refers to the believer's liberties when he warns them not to return to the "weak and beggarly elements" of this world ( Galatians 4:3; Galatians 4:9).

Galatians 4:3, "Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:"

Galatians 4:9, "But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?"

1 Peter 2:17 Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

1 Peter 2:17Comments- 1 Peter 2:17 tells us to honor all men. The verse then groups all of those we are subjected to into three groups; the church, the Lord over the Church and the government put over our earthly society. Jesus made a similar statement by saying, "They say unto him, Caesar"s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar"s; and unto God the things that are God"s." ( Matthew 22:21)


Verses 18-25

Slaves Submit to their Masters - In 1 Peter 2:18-25 Peter tells slaves to submit to their masters ( 1 Peter 2:18-21 a), then uses Christ Jesus as the supreme example of suffering under mistreatment ( 1 Peter 2:21 b-24), which frequently happened in slavery.

1 Peter 2:18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

1 Peter 2:18Comments- Slavery was a big part of the fabric of Roman society. J. Vernon McGee says that there were approximately sixty million slaves in the Roman Empire, which held a total population of one hundred and twenty million. 93] Thus, half of the population was bound in slavery. The cruel Roman government enforced this bondage because the success of its economy was dependent upon the sweat of slave labour. Thus, Paul had to be careful not to appear as if he was calling for a revolution of emancipation of slavery. He would have quickly been thrown in prison. Yet, his Jewish background found him against it. His understand of the Gospel led him to the understanding that slavery was not God's will for mankind. Thus, every time Paul addresses this issue, he does it with carefulness by drawing attention to the spiritual laws of freedom in Christ and servanthood to one another.

93] J. Vernon McGee, The Epistle to Philemon , in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Introduction."

1 Corinthians 7:21, "Art thou called being a servant? care not for it: but if thou mayest be made free, use it rather."

Ephesians 6:5-9, "Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ; Not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; With good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men: Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free. And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him."

Colossians 3:22, "Servants, obey in all things your masters according to the flesh; not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but in singleness of heart, fearing God:"

1 Timothy 6:1-2, "Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed. And they that have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren; but rather do them service, because they are faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort."

1 Peter 2:19 For this is thankworthy, if a man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.

1 Peter 2:19Comments- The Greek word used for "thankworthy" in 1 Peter 2:19 is χάρις (G 5485) (charis). When we endure suffering wrongfully, we find "favor" in God's eyes. In other words, He recognizes such acts of faith and trust in Him. Peter uses this same Greek word "charis" again in 1 Peter 2:20 when he says "this is acceptable with God."

1 Peter 2:20 For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently? but if, when ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God.

1 Peter 2:21 For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:

1 Peter 2:21 — "For even hereunto were ye called" - Comments- 1 Peter 1:6-9 shows us that suffering is a part of our divine election. We understand from the context of this Epistle that it refers to suffering for righteousness.

1 Peter 2:21"because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps" - Comments- Note Paul's statement to the Corinthian church explaining how our sufferings are used by God to bring comfort to others ( 1 Corinthians 1:3-5). Jesus Christ understood that His sufferings would be used by His Heavenly Father to comfort many others who put their faith in Him.

2 Corinthians 1:3-5, "Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort; Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also aboundeth by Christ."

1 Peter 2:22 Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:

1 Peter 2:22Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - Peter is quoting from Isaiah 53:9

Isaiah 53:9, "And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth."

1 Peter 2:23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:

1 Peter 2:23"but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously" - Comments- David experienced the same. Note:

Psalm 56:11, "In God have I put my trust: I will not be afraid what man can do unto me."

1 Peter 2:23Comments- We find verses reminiscent of 1 Peter 2:23 in Isaiah 53:7-8.

Isaiah 53:7-8, "He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken."

1 Peter 2:24 Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.

1 Peter 2:24 — "Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree" - Comments- On two other occasions Peter described Jesus' crucifixion as being hung on a tree ( Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39).

Acts 5:30, "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree."

Acts 10:39, ‘And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree:"

1 Peter 2:24 — "that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness" - Comments- Romans 6:1-10 explains our identification with Christ's death and resurrection. Our old man was crucified with him, destroying our sinful bodies, freeing us from sin, so that our new life would be lived for Him.

1 Peter 2:24 — "by whose stripes ye were healed" - Word Study on "stripes" - Strong says the Greek word "molops" ( μώλωψ) (G 3468) means, "a mole (black eye), a blow-mark." BDAG says it means, "a welt, bruise, wound caused by blows." This Greek word is used only once in the New Testament.

Comments- Peter is quoting from Isaiah 53:5, "But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed." The prophet Isaiah was speaking prophetically in the present tense, "calling things which be not as though they were." ( Romans 4:17), looking forward to the Passion and resurrection of Christ. Peter was looking back at the Cross, telling us that at this point in redemptive history, our healing was paid through the scourging he took before being nailed to the Cross. Thus, Kenneth Copeland says that we are not sick people trying to be healed, but we are healed people in which sickness is trying to take our healing. 94]

94] Kenneth Copeland, Believer's Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

Illustration- For example, if someone goes to the bank to get a loan, he may or may not find favor with the loan office and receive the needed money, but if a customer of the bank comes to make a withdrawal on his account that has plenty of money, there is no doubt about the fact that he will get the money he needs. In a similar way, healing is on our spiritual bank account. It belongs to every believer.

1 Peter 2:24Comments- Just as we look to Christ's redemptive work on Calvary in faith to receive the forgiveness of our sins, so do we look to the redemptive work brought about by Jesus' scourging to receive our healing by faith. Both are received by faith, because Jesus Christ paid the price for both our sins and our sicknesses.

A person can cry out to God for help, but without him putting his faith in the atonement that Jesus accomplished on the Cross, their sins are not forgiven and God cannot help. Likewise, without us putting our faith in Jesus' scourging as payment for our healing, God cannot heal us. Everything God does for us is done through the atonement, which took place at the whipping post and on the Cross, one for our physical healing and the other for our sins.

1 Peter 2:25 For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.

1 Peter 2:25Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - Peter is paraphrasing from Isaiah 53:6, "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned everyone to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all."

Comments- The book of Isaiah portrays Israel as sheep going astray. We also find this analogy of a shepherd and his sheep in Zechariah 13:7 and quoted by Jesus in Matthew 26:31.

Zechariah 13:7, "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones."

Matthew 26:31, "Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad."

John's Gospel makes a number of analogies of God's people being sheep, particularly in John 10:1-30.

John 10:11, "I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep."

1 Peter 2:21-25Comments- Christ's Example of Suffering - Peter must have had Isaiah 53:1-12 in mind when he wrote 1 Peter 2:21-25; for in this short passage he quotes from at least five verses in Isaiah ( Isaiah 53:5-9). This was certainly one of the Old Testament prophecies that the prophets of old inquired about, as Peter explains in 1 Peter 1:10-12.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 1 Peter 2:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/1-peter-2.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, October 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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