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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
2 Timothy 1

 

 

Verse 1-2

The Salutation - 2 Timothy 1:1-2 is called the salutation and is found in all thirteen of Paul's New Testament epistles and is used to open his letters. Paul wrote his salutations as a signature of authenticity ( 2 Thessalonians 3:17) just like we place our signature today at the end of a document. He may have personally handwritten entire epistles as indicated in Galatians 6:11 and Philemon 1:19. However, there are indications in six of his epistles that Paul used an amanuensis to write most of his letters (see Romans 16:22, 1 Corinthians 16:21, Galatians 6:11, Colossians 4:18, 2 Thessalonians 3:17, Philemon 1:19).

Romans 16:22, "I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord."

1 Corinthians 16:21, "The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand."

Galatians 6:11, "Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with mine own hand."

Colossians 4:18, "The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace be with you. Amen."

2 Thessalonians 3:17, "The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is the token in every epistle: so I write."

Philemon 1:19, "I Paul have written it with mine own hand, I will repay it: albeit I do not say to thee how thou owest unto me even thine own self besides."

In 2 Timothy 1:1-2 Paul the apostle gives Timothy a warm and tender greeting that briefly reflects upon his own divine calling and future hope for being faithful to this calling.

2 Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,

2 Timothy 1:1 — "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ" - Comments- To those churches and individuals in which Paul displayed his apostleship over them in order to give correction and doctrine, he introduces himself as "an apostle of Jesus Christ" ( Romans 1:1, 1 Corinthians 1:1, 2 Corinthians 1:1, Galatians 1:1, Ephesians 1:1, Colossians 1:1, 1 Timothy 1:1, 2 Timothy 1:1 and Titus 1:1). To the Philippians Paul describes himself as a "servant". This is because within the context of this epistle Paul will give examples of himself ( 2 Timothy 1:12-18), of Jesus Christ ( 2 Timothy 2:1-11), of Timothy ( 2 Timothy 2:19-24) and of Epaphroditus ( 2 Timothy 2:25-26) as servants who laid aside their own wills and in order that to fulfill the will of those in authority over them. For this is the message and theme of Paul's epistle to the Philippians. To Philemon Paul declares himself as a "prisoner of Jesus Christ," because his message to Philemon was about a slave, or prisoner, who was serving Philemon. In his two letters to the church of Thessalonica Paul defers the use of a title in order to equate himself as co-workers with Silas and Timothy. He will refer to his apostleship in 1 Thessalonians 2:6, but he will be mindful to use it in the plural form as a co-worker with Silas and Timothy. This is because he emphasizes their need to labour together until Jesus returns.

2 Timothy 1:1"according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus" - Comments- That Isaiah , in this Epistle Paul is looking at his divine calling from the view of its fulfillment of eternal life in Heaven. Paul the elder is about to be martyred; thus, the promise of eternal life in Christ Jesus was more on his mind at this time than in any other period in his life. This theme is woven throughout the epistle. Paul opens this epistle with a reference to the Gospel of Jesus Christ as the Gospel of Life. Paul will refer to his message as the Gospel of eternal life again in 2 Timothy 1:10.

2 Timothy 1:10, "But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:"

Paul has been preaching the revelation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ since his conversion over thirty years ago. He has proclaimed it as the Gospel of Salvation to the church at Rome ( Romans 1:16). To the Corinthians it was the Gospel of the power and wisdom of God ( 1 Corinthians 1:25). For the Galatian churches it was proclaimed as the Gospel of Liberty ( Galatians 5:1). It was a Gospel that revealed the mystery hidden from the ages to the Ephesian church ( Ephesians 6:19). Paul told the Philippians that it was the Gospel of partnership and divine provision ( Philippians 1:5; Philippians 4:15-19).

When Paul looks at the Gospel of Jesus Christ through the eyes of one who is about to face physical death, it becomes a Gospel of Eternal Life in Christ Jesus. For he knows and is fully persuaded ( 2 Timothy 1:12) that this same Gospel that saved him (Romans) and set him free from this world's corruption (Galatians) and that wrought both wisdom and miracles (1,2Corinthians) and that showed him God's will and plan for his life and for the Church as the hidden mystery revealed (Ephesians) and that provided for him throughout his entire ministry (Philippians) is the same Gospel that will usher him into the presence of God.

2 Timothy 1:2 To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.

2 Timothy 1:2 — "To Timothy, my dearly beloved son" - Comments- Any pastor knows the loyalty of a "son in the faith" ( 1 Timothy 1:2) referring to a person who was brought into the kingdom of God under his ministry and raised up in that ministry. This bond is stronger than that of a hired associate pastor or church member who has joined the church after their conversion experience. The bond between Paul and Timothy was stronger than that of Paul and Barnabas or Paul and Silas or even Paul and Luke; for Timothy was brought into the kingdom of God directly under Paul or under Paul's ministry. Both had several things in common. Both had Gentile fathers and Jewish mothers. Both traveled together and suffered for the kingdom of God. For these reasons, there was no one that bonded closer to Paul during his life and ministry than did Timothy.

Paul calls him "my own son in the faith" ( 1 Timothy 1:2), and "my dearly beloved son" ( 1 Corinthians 4:17, 2 Timothy 1:2). Paul also tells the Corinthians that he is "faithful in the Lord" and able to bring them into remembrance of his ways ( 1 Corinthians 4:17); for few people understood Paul as did Timothy, who laboured beside him for years. Paul tells the Philippians a few years later that as a son with a father Timothy had served with Paul in the Gospel ( Philippians 2:22). It was in the closing days of his life that Paul summoned Timothy by his side to share his most intimate needs (2Tim).

1 Corinthians 4:17, "For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved Song of Solomon , and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church."

Philippians 2:22, "But ye know the proof of him, that, as a son with the father, he hath served with me in the gospel."

Timothy's role as Paul's son in the faith places him under spiritual authority and in subjection to the charges that Paul is about to give him. Thus, Paul addresses him in this manner, so that his charge will be spoken in love to this young minister, but with a tone of seriousness. The phrase "my own son in the faith" ( 1 Timothy 1:2) may also reveal Paul's intent to hand over the reins of his ministry to Timothy upon his death.

2 Timothy 1:2 — "Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord" - Comments (The Pauline Greeting) - Scholars discuss the meaning of Paul's epistolary greetings from two different angles, either an historical approach or a theological approach.

(1) The Historical Approach - The historical approach evaluates the history behind the use of the words "grace" and "peace" in traditional greetings, with this duet of words limited in antiquity to New Testament literature. J. Vernon McGee says the word "grace" in Paul's greetings was a formal greeting used in Greek letters of his day, while the word "peace" was the customary Jewish greeting. 2] More specifically, John Grassmick says the Greek word χαίρειν was a common greeting in classical Greek epistles (note this use in Acts 15:23; Acts 23:26, James 1:1), so that χάρις was a "word play" Paul used in conjunction with the Hebrew greeting "peace." 3] Thus, Paul would be respectfully addressing both Greeks and Jews in the early Church. However, Paul uses these same two words in his epistles to Timothy, Titus and Philemon , which weakens the idea that Paul intended to make such a distinction between two ethnic groups when using "grace" and "peace." Perhaps this greeting became customary for Paul and lost its distinctive elements.

2] J. Vernon McGee, The Epistle to the Romans , in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments on Romans 1:1.

3] John D. Grassmick, "Epistolary Genre," in Interpreting the New Testament Text, eds. Darrell L. Bock and Buist M. Fanning (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 2006), 232.

(2) The Theological Approach- Another view is proposed by James Denny, who explains the relationship of these two words as a cause and effect. He says that grace is God's unmerited favor upon mankind, and the peace is the result of receiving His grace and forgiveness of sins. 4] In a similar statement, Charles Simeon says the phrase "‘grace and peace' comprehended all the blessings of the Gospel." 5]

4] James Denney, The Epistles to the Thessalonians, in The Expositor's Bible, eds. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (New York: Hodder and Stoughton, n.d.), 15-16.

5] Charles Simeon, 2 Peter , in Horae Homileticae, vol 20: James to Jude (London: Holdsworth and Ball, 1833), 285.

Comments (The Pauline Blessing) - In a similar way that the early apostles were instructed by Jesus to let their peace come upon the home of their host ( Matthew 10:13), so did Paul the apostle open every one of his thirteen New Testament epistles with a blessing of God's peace and grace upon his readers. Matthew 10:13 shows that you can bless a house by speaking God"s peace upon it.

Matthew 10:13, "And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you."

This practice of speaking blessings upon God's children may have its roots in the Priestly blessing of Numbers 6:22-27, where God instructed Moses to have the priests speak a blessing upon the children of Israel. We see in Ruth 2:4 that this blessing became a part of the Jewish culture when greeting people. Boaz blessed his workers in the field and his reapers replied with a blessing.

Ruth 2:4, "And, behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem, and said unto the reapers, The LORD be with you. And they answered him, The LORD bless thee."

We also see this practiced by the king in 2 Samuel 15:20 where David says, "mercy and truth be with thee".

2 Samuel 15:20, "Whereas thou camest but yesterday, should I this day make thee go up and down with us? seeing I go whither I may, return thou, and take back thy brethren: mercy and truth be with thee."

This word of blessing was a part of the Hebrew and Jewish culture. This provides us the background as to why Paul was speaking a blessing upon Timothy, especially that God would grant him more of His grace and abiding peace that he would have otherwise not known. In faith, we too, can receive this same blessing into our lives. Paul actually pronounces and invokes a blessing of divine grace and peace upon his readers with these words, "Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord." I do not believe this blessing is unconditional, but rather conditional. In other words, it is based upon the response of his hearers. The more they obey these divine truths laid forth in this epistle, the more God's grace and peace is multiplied in their lives. We recall how the children of Israel entered the Promised Land, with six tribes standing upon Mount Gerizim to bless the people and six tribes upon Mount Ebal to curse the disobedient ( Deuteronomy 27:11-26). Thus, the blessings and curses of Deuteronomy 28:1-68 were placed upon the land. All who obeyed the Law received these blessings, and all who disobeyed received this list of curses. In the same way Paul invokes a blessing into the body of Christ for all who will hearken unto the divine truths of this epistle. We see this obligation of the recipients in the translation by Beck of 2 Peter 1:2, "As you know God and our Lord Jesus, may you enjoy more and more of His love and peace."


Verses 3-5

Paul's Thanksgiving to God for Timothy's Faith- The theme of 2Timothy is the Paul's charge for young Timothy to deliver the uncompromised Word of God to faithful men who will in turn deliver it to others. In 2 Timothy 1:3-5 Paul gives us the basis for such an appeal. He gives Timothy the example in 2 Timothy 1:3 of how faithfully the Jewish forefathers watched over the Word of God for generations in order to hand it down to their generations without alterations. Paul then reminds him of how the same Word of God was handed down to him through the faithfulness of his grandmother and mother. He later reminds Timothy of his godly heritage in 2 Timothy 3:15.

2 Timothy 3:15, "And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus."

The Jews as Custodians of God's Word for Generations- Regarding Paul's reference to how the Word of God was faithfully handed down through the generations by faithful men, we must look back on the ancient Jewish tradition of handing down their Sacred Scriptures; for in our modern civilization we have lost the history of how detailed the Jews were in copying and handling the Word of God. E. W. Bullinger tells us the Jewish tradition how that after the Babylonian captivity, Ezra and Nehemiah began the task of setting the Old Testament Scriptures in order. We see this in Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:11 and Nehemiah 8:8. They created an order of scribes called the Sopherim (from the Hebrew word "saphar," which means, "to count or number"). Their task was to set the original text in order. This means, that they counted each line, each word and each letter of the books of the Old Testament. They devised the way each page of Scripture was to have a certain column of text with the known amount of words and letters on each particular page. These pages could then be copied without error using this counting system because each page would always look the same. This meant that each letter was locked into same place on its designated page in the Scriptures and could never be moved. Only the order of the Sopherim had the authority to revise the original text or to move text to a new place. Jewish tradition tells us that the men of "the Great Synagogue" as they were known, took about one hundred years to complete this work, from the time of Nehemiah to Simon the first (410-300 B.C.).

After the text was set, the order of the Massorites was established. This title comes from the Hebrew word "masar," which means, "to deliver something into the hand of another, so as to commit it to his trust." They became the custodians of the Sacred Scriptures. Their job was to preserve the Scriptures so that no changes took place. A look at an ancient Hebrew manuscript reveals how this was done. In the upper and lower margins of these ancient manuscripts and between and along the outside of the columns of Sacred Text, you can see small writings by these Massorites that contain a counting system for the text. These side notes are not commentaries, but rather information about the text on that particular page, such as the number of times the several letters occur in the various books of the Bible; the number of words, and the middle word; the number of verses, and the middle verse; the number of expressions and combinations of words, etc. It even listed the one hundred thirty-four (134) passages in which the Hebrew word "Adonai" was substituted for the original "YHWH." This is the context within the statement of Jesus Christ when He said that one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

When the Hebrew Bible came into print in the fifteenth century, only the Sacred Text was printed and all of the marginal notes were disregarded. This is why we are not familiar with this ancient Hebrew tradition today. 6]

6] E. W. Bullinger, Appendix 30: Massrah, in The Companion Bible Being The Authorized Version of 1611With The Structures And Notes, Critical, Explanatory and Suggestive And With 198 Appendixes (London: Oxford University Press, c 1909-22), 31.

Paul's Bond to Timothy - 2 Timothy 1:3-5 serves as an introductory thanksgiving to Paul's second epistle to Timothy. No other passage in the Holy Scriptures so clearly depicts the close bond of love held between Paul the apostle and young Timothy. He considered him as his very own son. Timothy's conversion was most likely a result of Paul's missionary journeys. The fact that Paul calls him "my beloved son" ( 1 Corinthians 4:17), "my own son in the faith" ( 1 Timothy 1:2) and "my dearly beloved son" ( 2 Timothy 1:2) indicates that he was one of Paul's own converts.

1 Corinthians 4:17, "For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church."

1 Timothy 1:2, "Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord."

2 Timothy 1:2, "To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord."

What is it that made Timothy special above all other converts in the eyes of Paul the apostle? One factor may lie in the common background that each of them held. Both of them grew up in the same region of Asia Minor. Paul was from Tarsus and Timothy was from Derbe or Lystra.

In addition, it is possible that Paul as well as Timothy was born of a Greek father and a Jewish mother. This could explain how Paul gained his Roman citizen.

Acts 22:3, "I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day."

Acts 16:1, "Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and, behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek:"

Paul the apostle was both a Roman citizen through his father and a Jew by his mother. He was born in Tarsus, the chief city of Cilicia, where Greek culture predominated. In this city was a great university, which Strabo, writing about A.D 19, tells us was a school known for its enthusiasm for learning, especially in the area of philosophy. Strabo placed this university ahead of those at Athens and Alexandria in its zeal for learning (Geography 14513). 7]

7] Strabo writes, "The inhabitants of this city apply to the study of philosophy and to the whole encyclical compass of learning with so much ardour, that they surpass Athens, Alexandreia, and every other place which can be named where there are schools and lectures of philosophers." See The Geography of Strabo, vol 3, trans. H. C. Hamilton and W. Falconer (London: George Bell and Sons, 1889), 57.

Paul's claim to be a Roman citizen from Tarsus tells us that his family was one of wealth and standing. The fact that he was born in Tarsus, but brought up in the city of Jerusalem ( Acts 22:3) implies that he did not reach university level before leaving Tarsus, although his early education took place in this Greco-Roman environment. Thus, he was strongly influenced by its teachings, and very familiar with the Greek's deep dependence upon human reason. In his quest for education, he found himself seeking a meaning in life that went beyond his reasoning. Because of his Jewish heritage, he was later trained in the strictest of sect of the Jews, that of a Pharisee, and in this training, he sat under the most well-known Hebrew teacher of his day, a man called Gamaliel ( Acts 22:3).

Acts 22:3, "I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day."

It is from this upbringing that we see why Paul was a man of zeal and great achievement; for he was raised in an atmosphere of physical and mental achievement. However, in these two educational environments, he was yet to find a purpose in life. Yes, he came closer to find purpose at the feet of Gamaliel than at the University of Tarsus; but it did not answer the most important question in life, "What is the meaning of life, and why am I here?"

Thus, we see how the elder Paul found Timothy, a young man just like himself, struggling with the same issues early in life that Paul himself had struggled with. Who was better able to understand and relate to Timothy than Paul the apostle? Thus, the strong bond of affection arose between the two. It was this background of mixed cultures that God used when He called Paul as an apostle to the Gentiles.

2 Timothy 1:3 I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;

2 Timothy 1:3 — "I thank God" - Word Study on "I thank God" - The Greek construction ( χάριν ἔχω τῷ χριστῷ ἰησοῦ) or ( χάρις τῷ θεῷ) 8] or some variation of this phrase is found no less than thirteen times in the Greek New Testament ( Luke 17:9, Romans 6:17; Romans 7:25, 1 Corinthians 10:30; 1 Corinthians 15:57, 2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 8:16; 2 Corinthians 9:15, Colossians 3:16, 1 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:3, Philemon 1:7 [t.r.], Hebrews 12:28). It is properly translated in a variety of ways; "I am grateful to God," or "I thank God," "Let's give thanks," or "with thanks to the Lord."

8] Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, The Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology) (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993, 2006), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), 2 Timothy 1:3.

2 Timothy 1:3 — "whom I serve from my forefathers" - Comments- We may paraphrase this to say, "whom I serve as my ancestors served," or, "whom I serve as men of God who preceded us have served." Thus, Paul is reflecting upon the spiritual heritage of his people the Jews. We see a similar phrase used in Hebrews 1:1, "unto the fathers," reflecting Israel's spiritual heritage, and which epistle was probably authored by Paul also.

Hebrews 1:1, ‘God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,"

Paul will then remind Timothy of his own spiritual heritage in 1 Timothy 1:5, of how his sincere faith was handed down from his grandmother, to his mother, and then to himself. In the epistle of 2Timothy Paul will exhort Timothy to fulfill his calling as an evangelist ( 2 Timothy 4:5). Song of Solomon , Paul opens this Epistle with a testimony that he has faithfully served in his calling. We can note how Paul will charge Timothy in 2 Timothy 2:2 by saying, "And the things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also." Thus, we see a theme emerging that runs throughout 2Timothy, which is the principle of handing down sound doctrine to other faithful men.

2 Timothy 1:3 — "with pure conscience" - Comments- The voice of our hearts, or spirits, is our conscience. Paul was a man that walked with a pure conscience. Note:

Acts 23:1,"And Paul, earnestly beholding the council, said, Men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day."

Acts 24:16, "And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and toward men."

Thus, Paul reveals in Acts 24:16 that he learned how to follow his conscience rather than the voice of his mind, which is human reason, or the voice of his physical body, which are our senses, or our feelings. Paul tells us in this verse that he exercised himself, or trained himself, to follow his conscience, which is the same as being led by the Spirit. For the Holy Spirit speaks to us and guides us through our spirits.

2 Timothy 1:3"that" - Comments- BDAG tells us that the Greek relative pronoun ὡς has at least four distinct uses. (1) It can be used as a comparative particle, showing how something proceeds, and is translated "like, as." (2) It can be used "as a conjunction denoting comparison," and is translated " Song of Solomon , in such a way." (3) It can be used to introduce "the characteristic quality of a person or thing," and is translated "as one who, because." (4) It can be use as a "temporal conjunction," and is translated, "while, when, as long as." In 2 Timothy 1:3 the context may support the temporal idea, and read, "whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, while (during this time) without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day." That Isaiah , Paul is a many of prayer while serving the Lord. It can also support the special use of a consecutive conjunction, and read, "whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, with the result that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day." That Isaiah , Paul's life of serving the Lord with a pure conscience results in him being a man of unceasing prayer since the Holy Spirit is able to quicken to his heart on a regular basis certain people and things to pray about.

2 Timothy 1:3 — "without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day" - Comments- Paul was a man of prayer, a prayer warrior. He learned how to keep his mind on the Lord during the day and pray whenever a person or a need was brought to his remembrance. There is also an aspect of the work of the Spirit reveals in 2 Timothy 1:3; for it is the Holy Spirit who brings certain people and needs to Paul's remembrance for prayer. Dutch Sheet refers to this aspect of intercessory prayer brought on by the Holy Spirit. 9] Thus, one primary way that Paul serves the Lord is by discipling Timothy to carry on Paul's work after he has departed, in much the same way a father raises his son to become a faithful heir. Note that Paul has opened this epistle by calling Timothy "a beloved child." Paul is going to hand over some or all of his ministry to Timothy at his departure, as a father hands over his assets to his son. Paul's unceasing prayers for Timothy are a part of this process of discipleship and preparation for managing this inheritance.

9] Dutch Sheets, Intercessory Prayer (Ventura, California: Regal Books, 1996), 118-119.

2 Timothy 1:4 Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy;

2 Timothy 1:4 — "Greatly desiring to see thee" - Comments- Paul's desire to see Timothy in 2 Timothy 1:4 moved him later to request that he make all effort to come see him in the closing passage of this epistle.

2 Timothy 4:9, "Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me:"

2 Timothy 1:4 — "that I may be filled with joy" - Illustration - My sister-in-law immigrated to the U.S. from the Philippines, leaving her two sons behind. She expressed the emptiness she feels in her heart in longing for them. Although she is a person who is generally happy and easy to get along with, her joy is not complete until she is reunited with her two sons. Likewise, Paul was a man who knew the joy of serving the Lord; yet, a part of him felt empty in Timothy's absence.

2 Timothy 1:5 When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.

2 Timothy 1:5 — "the unfeigned faith" - Comments- The word "unfeigned" ( ἀνυπόκριτος) (G 505) literally reads, "unhypocritical." It means, "a sincere faith" (Strong). One of the greatest challenges that I have faced in the mission field is the need to discern a person's true motives. Local people often seek to befriend missionaries for the wrong motive. Therefore, they pretend to be a committed Christian as a way of approaching those whom they seek to take advantage of. The word "hypocrite" accurately describes this type of conduct.

In contrast, Paul describes Timothy's faith as "unhypocritical," as genuine, coming from a sincere heart because Timothy did not embrace Paul for ulterior motives.

2 Timothy 1:5Comments- Perhaps Paul met Timothy's mother and grandmother in early his missionary trip through Derbe and Lystra.

Acts 16:1, "Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and, behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek:"


Verses 3-8

Paul Explains Timothy's Spiritual Journey to Those in Divine Service- After giving Timothy a warm greeting ( 2 Timothy 1:1-2) Paul immediately begins to exhort Timothy to fulfill his divine calling while using himself as an example of a faithful minister of Christ Jesus. He does this by basing his exhortation and charges upon the spiritual journey that every minister of God must complete. This spiritual journey begins with the foreknowledge of God the Father, justification through Jesus Christ the Song of Solomon , and the sanctification of the Holy Spirit that will one day bring us into glory in Heaven. Timothy's spiritual journey began before his birth with the foreknowledge of God the Father, who called him, saved him and imparted into him spiritual gives that must be stirred up ( 2 Timothy 1:3-18). Paul then exhorts him to be strong in the Lord in order to deliver sound doctrines to faithful men ( 2 Timothy 2:1-14). Paul next reflects upon Timothy's divine calling from the perspective of being a faithful servant of Christ Jesus ( 2 Timothy 2:15-26). Paul then reflects upon the part of the journey called perseverance, in which Timothy is exhorted to continue in what he has been taught ( 2 Timothy 3:1-17). Finally, Paul focuses upon the future glorification that awaits every faithful minister when they enter into Heaven. Based upon this future hope Timothy is exhorted to preach the Word in all seasons ( 2 Timothy 4:1-8).

Thus, Paul begins this charge to Timothy by having him look back on the faithfulness of his mother and grandmother in training him up in the Holy Scriptures. Paul will conclude by having him look towards eternity as he describes the crown of righteousness for those who are faithful. Thus, Paul draws a broader picture of Timothy's life in which his temporal earth-life is but a moment.

Outline- Note the proposed outline:

1. Justification by Faith thru Divine Foreknowledge — 2 Timothy 1:3-18

2. Sanctification by Holy Spirit: Indoctrination — 2 Timothy 2:1-14

3. Sanctification by Holy Spirit: Divine Service — 2 Timothy 2:15-26

4. Sanctification by Holy Spirit: Perseverance — 2 Timothy 3:1-17

5. Glorification — 2 Timothy 4:1-8

Analogies of a Minister of Christ- Note the illustrations used by Paul to Timothy in this passage of Scripture: the soldier ( 2 Timothy 2:3), an athlete ( 2 Timothy 2:5), the husbandman ( 2 Timothy 2:6), the workman ( 2 Timothy 2:15), a vessel ( 2 Timothy 2:21), a servant ( 2 Timothy 2:24).


Verses 3-18

Justification by Faith in Christ Jesus through Divine Foreknowledge- Paul first reflects upon Timothy's salvation through faith in Christ Jesus based upon the foreknowledge of God the Father ( 2 Timothy 1:3-5). He tells him of how his own salvation is a fulfillment of God's divine plan since the time of their forefathers, the patriarchs of Israel ( 2 Timothy 1:3) and reminds Timothy of his spiritual heritage in his ancestry ( 2 Timothy 1:4-5). Just as Paul's forefathers passed down the knowledge of God's salvation to him, Timothy's mother and grandmother passed this same knowledge down to him. Timothy is exhorted to stir up the gift of God within him ( 2 Timothy 1:6-7). Paul then uses himself as an example of one saved and called according to the Father's divine purpose and grace before the world began, but made manifest through Christ Jesus ( 2 Timothy 1:8-12). He then exhorts Timothy to hold fast to this salvation by the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit ( 2 Timothy 1:13-14). Paul then warns Timothy by giving him examples of some who have been unfaithful to God's offer of salvation as well as examples of loyalty ( 2 Timothy 1:15-18). Timothy is to respond to this exhortation and example by stirring up the gift of God that is within him ( 2 Timothy 1:6). Thus, we see the underlying theme of serving God faithfully in a divine calling reflected in this opening passage of Scripture.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Paul's Thanksgiving to God for Timothy's Faith — 2 Timothy 1:3-5

2. Paul Exhorts Timothy to Stir Up His Gifts — 2 Timothy 1:6-7

3. Paul's Example of Justification — 2 Timothy 1:8-12

4. Paul Exhorts Timothy to be Faithful to God's Word — 2 Timothy 1:13-14

5. Paul Gives Timothy Living Examples of Faithfulness — 2 Timothy 1:15-18

Paul's Exhortation to Young Timothy- The theme of this epistle is the hope of eternal life that is in Christ Jesus. Paul is exhorting young Timothy to lay hold on eternal life and to fulfill his calling. The context of this chapter is: In the midst of a great host of people in Asia turning back to the world (verse 15), Timothy is exhorted not to compromise (verse 13), nor to become silent (verse 8) to the proclamation of God's Word. To drive home the point clearly, Paul uses two examples in verses 15-18 of people well known by Timothy of their past faithfulness and now their terrible end (verse 15). Then, Paul gives Timothy one example of a faithful man (verses 16-18), as well as giving himself as an example (verses 11-12).


Verse 6-7

Paul Exhorts Timothy to Stir Up His Gifts - In 2 Timothy 1:6-7 Paul exhorts Timothy to stir up the gifts of the Holy Spirit within him so that he can fulfill his office and ministry.

2 Timothy 1:6 Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.

2 Timothy 1:6 — "Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God" - Comments- The word "stir up" ( ἀναζωπυρέω) (G 329) literally means, "to rekindle" (Strong), like a dwindling fire and its coals being stirred up again into a hot flame. Bill Hamon uses the word "to activate." 10] Paul is telling young Timothy to activate the gift of God that dwells within him.

10] Bill Hamon, (Santa Rosa Beach, Florida: Christian International Ministries), interviewed by Benny Hinn, This is Your Day (Irving, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

What was the gift that Paul was referring to here? Kenneth Hagin says that it has a two-fold application. First of all, he says that it refers to the impartations given by the Holy Spirit when God sets people aside for service. Special gifts were imparted into Barnabas and Saul when they were prayed over and set apart:

Acts 13:2, "As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them."

Timothy also received an impartation when he was set apart for the ministry:

1 Timothy 4:14, "Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery."

However, Kenneth Hagin says that the second application of the gift refers to the gift of the Holy Spirit, or being filled with the Holy Spirit when hands were laid upon them. This gift, which refers to the presence of the Holy Spirit, can be stirred up, as this verse says here, on the inside us by praying in tongues. 11]

11] Kenneth Hagin, Plans Purposes and Pursuits (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1988, 1993), 125-6.

The gifts of the Spirit are for serving others, and not for personal use. When we are not serving, we are not going to see the gifts operate through us. The way Timothy is going to stir up the gifts that are within him is by submitting to Paul's charges in this epistle and do what he is being asked to do, which is to serve as a minister of God's Word. Thus, Paul is telling Timothy that God has anointed him for the task that is being committed unto him within this epistle.

2 Timothy 1:6 — "which is in thee by the putting on of my hands" - Comments- 1 Timothy 4:14 and 2 Timothy 1:6 refer to an event in Timothy's life when the elders of the church laid hands upon him, very likely a reference to his ordination service. With the gifts of utterance and the laying on of the hands of the church elders, a gift was imparted unto young Timothy. 2 Timothy 4:5 reveals the office and ministry that Timothy was called into. It was this gift as an evangelist that was probably confirmed when Paul and other church elders laid hands upon him and prophesied over him.

2 Timothy 4:5, "But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry."

2 Timothy 1:6, "Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands."

2 Timothy 1:7 For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.

2 Timothy 1:7 — "For God hath not given us the spirit of fear"- Comments- This cowardice and fear of what others think about us often causes us to quench the moving of the Holy Spirit in us.

2 Timothy 1:7 — "but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind" - Comments- We can see the three-fold make-up of man in this phrase. The Holy Spirit empowers our soulish realm to give us a sound mind. He lives in our heart and fills it with love. He dwells in our physical body to strengthen us and empower us to serve the Lord.

2 Timothy 1:7Comments- We receive from God through faith in His Word. We receive from Satan through fear. This fear is believing something that is negative and in contradiction to God's holy Word.

We can compare 2 Timothy 1:7 to Joshua 1:6 when the Lord told Joshua to "be strong and of good courage."

Joshua 1:6, "Be strong and of a good courage: for unto this people shalt thou divide for an inheritance the land, which I sware unto their fathers to give them."


Verses 8-12

Paul's Example of Justification through the Father's Foreknowledge - In 2 Timothy 1:8-12 Paul portrays himself to Timothy in this epistle as a living example of one saved by God the Father's divine foreknowledge and called as a preacher, apostle, and teacher, as one who is willing to stand strong as a witness of the Lord Jesus Christ during the greatest trial in his life, one that will end in his death. He will refer to suffering and hardship three times in this second Epistle ( 2 Timothy 1:8; 2 Timothy 2:3; 2 Timothy 4:5).

2 Timothy 2:3, "Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ."

2 Timothy 4:5, "But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry."

2 Timothy 1:8 Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;

2 Timothy 1:8 — "Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord" - Comments- In other words, do not deny Jesus Christ ( 2 Timothy 2:2). Also, Paul sets the example in 2 Timothy 1:12, "I am not ashamed."

2 Timothy 2:12, "If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:"

2 Timothy 1:8 — "nor of me his prisoner" - Comments- Paul was a "prisoner of the Lord" in the sense that God had allowed this imprisonment. Paul understood divine providence, so he accepted this difficult time in his life as something God was allowing. Thus, Paul yielded to this suffering because saw the Lord's hand in it.

2 Timothy 1:8 — "but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel" - Word Study on "partaker" - Strong says the Greek word "partaker" ( συγκακοπαθέ ω) (G 4777) means, "to suffer hardship in company with." It is used only one time in the New Testament. However, some Greek manuscripts use this same word a second time in 2 Timothy 2:3 in the place of ( κακοπαθέ ω) (G 2553).

2 Timothy 2:3, "Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ."

Comments- Anyone who has been an athlete or a soldier knows the importance of encouraging one another as a teammate in competition or in the heat of battle. Living for God and exercising His gifts brings afflictions ( 2 Timothy 3:12). Paul was enduring hardship when he wrote this second epistle to Timothy and he was encouraging Timothy to do the same; for we know that no one can win this battle alone.

2 Timothy 3:12, "Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution."

2 Timothy 1:8 — "according to the power of God" - Comments- The uncompromising Gospel of Jesus Christ is a gospel of God's power to work in our lives. Our sufferings for Jesus Christ are met with an outpouring of God's power to strengthen us. The Lord once said to me that every time Paul was imprisoned, his anointing increased.

Paul mentioned the power of the Gospel in Romans 1:16.

Romans 1:16, "For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek."

2 Timothy 1:8Comments- Christians had a valid reason to be timid about their faith in Jesus Christ during this early period of Church history. Rome's first wave of persecutions against the Church had begun under Nero, who will put to death Peter and Paul in Rome, according to Church tradition. In 2 Timothy 1:8 Paul is exhorting Timothy to be strong and remain a witness of Jesus Christ in order to propagate the Gospel. Paul believes Timothy will remain faithful because of his godly heritage.

2 Timothy 1:9 Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,

2 Timothy 1:9 — "Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling" - Scripture Reference- Note:

1 Thessalonians 4:7, "For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness."

2 Timothy 1:9"not according to our works" - Comments- God does not save a man and call him because of the good life he lived before salvation, since the carnal mind is enmity against God ( Romans 8:7) and all of our deeds are as filthy rags in the sight of God.

Isaiah 64:6, "But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away."

Ephesians 2:8-9, "For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast."

Titus 3:5, "Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;"

Romans 8:7, "Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be."

2 Timothy 1:9Comments- We see in 2 Timothy 1:9 several phases of God's divine plan of redemption for mankind. As Paul is exhorting Timothy to persevere in his calling, Paul reminds him that God predestined and called him to salvation before the foundation of the world because of His purpose and outpouring of grace in Christ Jesus, and not because of Timothy's works. Timothy's justification and calling into divine service was an act of God's grace. Thus, we have predestination, calling, and justification reflected in 2 Timothy 1:9. The final phase of glorification will be reflected in the phrase "against that day" in 2 Timothy 1:12.

2 Timothy 1:10 But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:

2 Timothy 1:10 — "But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ" - Comments- According to the Passover feasts mentioned in the Gospel of John , Jesus Christ walked on this earth approximately three and a half years. This statement of His manifestation in 2 Timothy 1:10 would refer primarily to His Crucifixion and His Resurrection; for it is this event that most clearly revealed to us God's eternal plan to redeem mankind.

2 Timothy 1:9-10Comments- The Foreknowledge of God the Father- Even though God's purpose and grace is becoming apparent to us now, it has always existed before our birth, even from the foundation of this world. This phrase tells us that God saw beforehand the fall of man in His eternal plan of Creation and therefore, in His love, made provision. But this part of His plan was not revealed to us until Jesus Christ was manifested. Note a similar verse:

Ephesians 1:4, "According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:"

2 Timothy 1:11 Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.

2 Timothy 1:11Comments- In 2 Timothy 1:11 Paul lists the three callings and offices that he held as a minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, referring to his own callings as a preacher, an apostle and a teacher. Compare an almost identical verse in 1 Timothy 2:7, "Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity." It is possible that Paul's callings as a preacher, apostle and teacher are listed in the order in which he received them, since the theme of the callings of the Church provides the structure of the epistle of 1Timothy. However, Kenneth Hagin says that these offices are listed according to their priority in Paul's life as a minister of the Gospel, saying, "Even though Paul was an apostle and a prophet, he considered himself first a preacher of the Gospel. In these cases where Paul mentions his ministry, he puts his preaching ministry first." 12] This issue of priorities is illustrated in Acts 20:24, "But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry, which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God." Hagin illustrates the important of a minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ keeping his priorities balanced by explaining that a prophet does not prophesy every time he stands behind a pulpit. He must wait until the Spirit gives him a word to speak. Otherwise, he should preach or teach until such a prophecy comes forth, so that he does not stray into error by making his own prophecies. Another danger is seen in Hagin's illustration in his own life. There was a time when he was not obedient to the office of a prophet and spent most of his time teaching. He fell and broke his arm, then received a visitation from Jesus. The Lord explained that he must put the office of the prophet as his priority and then the office of a teacher. 13]

12] Kenneth Hagin, He Gave Gifts Unto Men: A Biblical Perspective of Apostles, Prophets, and Pastors (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1992, 1993), 93-94.

13] Kenneth Hagin, The Ministry of a Prophet (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1968, 1983), 9-10.

"a preacher" - Paul's early years began by evangelizing the regions of Syria and Cilicia as a preacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ ( Galatians 1:21). A preacher is someone who proclaims the Gospel of Jesus Christ on a regular basis. Paul began as a preacher of the Gospel and was faithful. He refers to his preaching ministry in Galatians 2:1-2. Therefore, God later called him and anointed him in other areas, such as an apostle and a teacher.

Galatians 1:21, "Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia;"

Galatians 2:1-2, "Then fourteen years after I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and took Titus with me also. And I went up by Revelation , and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain."

If one is sent by God, then he is sent to preach the Gospel, "And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!" ( Romans 10:15) God has ordained that it is the foolishness of preaching saves those who believe, "For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe." ( 1 Corinthians 1:21) Kenneth Hagin comments on 1 Timothy 1:11, "Notice Paul didn't say, ‘I am first ordained an apostle.' No, Paul said first, ‘I am ordained a preacher,' because he was first and foremost a preacher of the good news. He was a sent one for the purpose of preaching and teaching the gospel." 14]

14] Kenneth Hagin, He Gave Gifts Unto Men: A Biblical Perspective of Apostles, Prophets, and Pastors (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1992, 1993), 46, 175-181.

"and an apostle" - After a number of years of preaching the Gospel in Syria and Cilicia, Acts 13:1-3 records how God set Paul and Barnabas apart as apostles to the Gentiles.

"and a teacher" - Paul went often to the synagogues of Greek and Roman cities during his missionary journeys to reason with the Jews about the Word of God concerning Jesus, both before and after his calling as an apostle to the Gentiles ( Acts 13:1-3). It is easy to see Paul standing in the office of a teacher during such dialogues. It is possible that Paul stood in the office of a teacher before an apostle, since Acts 13:1 lists Paul among the prophets and teachers in Antioch.

Acts 13:1, "Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul."

"of the Gentiles" - In 1 Timothy 2:7 and 2 Timothy 1:11 Paul declares that he is a preacher, an apostle, and a teacher to the Gentiles. If we examine his upbringing, it is easy to see how God prepared Paul for this ministry to the Gentiles from the time he was born.

Paul the apostle was both a Roman citizen through his father and a Jew by his mother. He was born in Tarsus, the chief city of Cilicia, where Greek culture predominated. In this city was a great university, which Strabo, writing about A.D 19, tells us was a school known for its enthusiasm for learning, especially in the area of philosophy. Strabo placed this university ahead of those at Athens and Alexandria in its zeal for learning (Geography 14513). 15]

15] Strabo writes, "The inhabitants of this city apply to the study of philosophy and to the whole encyclical compass of learning with so much ardour, that they surpass Athens, Alexandreia, and every other place which can be named where there are schools and lectures of philosophers." See The Geography of Strabo, vol 3, trans. H. C. Hamilton and W. Falconer (London: George Bell and Sons, 1889), 57.

Paul's claim to be a Roman citizen from Tarsus tells us that his family was one of wealth and standing. The fact that he was born in Tarsus, but brought up in the city of Jerusalem ( Acts 22:3) implies that he did not reach university level before leaving Tarsus, although his early education took place in this Greco-Roman environment. Thus, he was strongly influenced by its teachings, and very familiar with the Greek's deep dependence upon human reason. In his quest for education, he found himself seeking a meaning in life that went beyond his reasoning. Because of his Jewish heritage, he was later trained in the strictest of sect of the Jews, that of a Pharisee, and in this training, he sat under the most well-known Hebrew teacher of his day, a man called Gamaliel ( Acts 22:3).

Acts 22:3, "I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day."

It is from this upbringing that we see why Paul was a man of zeal and great achievement; for he was raised in an atmosphere of physical and mental achievement. However, in these two educational environments, he was yet to find a purpose in life. Yes, he came closer to finding purpose at the feet of Gamaliel than at the University of Tarsus; but it did not answer the most important question in life, "What is the meaning of life, and why am I here?"

Paul could have easily reasoned with the greatest Greek minds to these Greek converts; for he says, "And I, brethren, when I came to you, came not with excellency of speech or of Wisdom of Solomon , declaring unto you the testimony of God…. And my speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man"s wisdom" ( 1 Corinthians 2:1; 1 Corinthians 2:4). We see Paul quoting from the Greek poet Aratus in Acts 17:28 while preaching in Athens, and from the Cretan prophet Epimenides in Titus 1:12, revealing that Paul was schooled to some degree in Greek rhetoric, philosophy, sophistry, and literature. He had seen man's wisdom at its best as he studied Greek philosophy; and he had seen man's religion at its best as he studied under Gamaliel. It is this heritage that prepared Paul to become the apostle as well as a preacher and teacher of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles.

It is also important to comment on Paul's wisdom in walking in these offices throughout the course of his ministerial career. His primary calling was as an apostle to the Gentiles, which he states in Romans 11:3, "For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office." In addition, he opens his New Testament epistles with this apostolic title. However, in his efforts to serve as an apostle, he developed an anointing in the office of a teacher. This anointing developed as he taught new believers during church plantings and as he taught believers at Antioch when he went on furlough in between his missionary journeys. However, he never abandoned his missionary efforts as an apostle in pursuit of his new anointing as a teacher. In contrast, many ministers today become tired of their callings after a number of years and look for new opportunities to move into different aspects of the ministry. They interpret the development of these secondary offices and anointings as "new callings," in which some pursue at the cost of abandoning their primary calling. Bob Nichols says that the signature of a man's calling is what he has already accomplished, rather than what he hopes to accomplish. 16] In other words, a minister can look back on what God has already used him to accomplish as a testimony of his calling. Any new pursuits are at the risk of abandoning the work that God desires to fulfill in a minister's life.

16] Robert Nichols, Lighthouse Television Annual Directors' Meeting, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3November 2008.

2 Timothy 1:12 For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.

2 Timothy 1:12 — "For the which cause" - Comments - The Greek phrase διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν (for which cause) is used earlier in this passage of Scripture, where it is translated in the KJV as "wherefore" ( 2 Timothy 1:6). In 2 Timothy 1:12 it means that Paul has a reason to endure and fulfill his ministry, in that he was given a divine commission from the Lord. In the same way, Timothy has a cause to endure and fulfill his ministry as well, which calling has come through divine providence and divine intervention in his mother and grandmother. Therefore, Paul says to Timothy in 2 Timothy 1:6, for this cause "I put then in remembrance…" Thus, both Paul and Timothy have a reason for pressing ahead in the ministry.

2 Timothy 1:6, "Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands."

2 Timothy 1:12 — "I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed" - Comments- In 1 Timothy 1:8 Paul has just told young Timothy not to be ashamed of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, "Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;" In 1 Timothy 1:12 Paul is using himself as an example of what it means to be unashamed of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Paul knew that Timothy would suffer as he served God and used the divine gifts that were deposited within him because he himself had suffered because of being faithful to his calling. Paul will then tell Timothy in 2 Timothy 1:14 to stand fast with his "commitment," using the same Greek word "paratheke" ( παραθήκη) used in 2 Timothy 1:12 to describe this commitment, or deposit.

2 Timothy 1:14, "That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us."

Scripture Reference- Note a similar verse:

Romans 1:16, "For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek."

2 Timothy 1:12 — "and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him" - Word Study on "committed" - The phrase used in the KJV "that which I have committed" is actually one Greek word, which can simply be defined as "a deposit," or "an entrustment." Strong tells us that the Greek word "committed" "paratheke" ( παραθήκη) (G 3866) means, "a deposit, i.e. (figuratively) trust," thus it means, "a trust or thing consigned to one's faithful keeping." Strong says it comes from the Greek word ( παρατίθημι) (G 3908), which literally means, "to place beside, present," and figuratively it mean, "to deposit (as a trust or for protection)." BDAG defines it as "property entrusted to another." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used three times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as "that which is committed to thy trust" ( 1 Timothy 6:20), "that which I have committed" ( 2 Timothy 1:12), and "that which was committed ( 2 Timothy 1:14).

Comments- We must commit our souls to a faithful God.

1 Peter 4:19, "Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator."

Comments - The Greek word ( παραθήκη) (G 3866) is translated into modern English versions as "that which I have committed unto Him," and "that which He has committed unto me." There are a number of views as to the meaning of this word within the context of this passage of Scripture: (1) Strong tells us that this word refers to the Church doctrine that was committed unto Paul the apostle, which must protected and be handed down in pure form from generation to generation, as Paul says in 2 Timothy 2:2. (2) Vincent says in 2 Timothy 1:12 that Paul is convinced that God is strong to enable him to be faithful to his apostolic calling, in spite of the sufferings which attend it, until the day when he shall be summoned to render his final account. (3) BDAG says παραθήκη refers to "the spiritual heritage entrusted to the orthodox Christian." (4) In addition, it could also mean the eternal rewards that Paul has deposited in Heaven from a lifetime of Christian service. We would find a reference to this heavenly deposit in Paul's statement about a "crown of righteousness" laid up for him after death ( 2 Timothy 4:8).

2 Timothy 4:8, "Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judges , shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing."

I take Vincent's interpretation, believing that it refers to the immediate context of offices and callings and anointings listed in the previous verse as "a preacher, an apostle and a teacher" that was "deposited" within him during his faithful service to God. Of course, with these callings Paul received revelation of the Gospel, and so Paul received the Gospel and Church doctrine as a result of his calling. I believe that the reason Paul used the Greek word "paratheke," or deposit, is because of the way God imparts His anointings. Paul will use this same Greek word "paratheke" in 2 Timothy 1:14 to refer to "that which was deposited" within Timothy by the Holy Ghost, and is his first epistle to Timothy when he warns him to "guard what was committed to his trust" ( 1 Timothy 6:20). As an illustration of such divine deposits, Kenneth Hagin describes the time when he received the anointing and office as a teacher. He was walking along and felt something drop into his spirit, and knew in his heart that he had just received the anointing to teach. He then began to test this calling out and found that people also recognized this anointing in him as he taught. 17]

17] Kenneth Hagin, He Gave Gifts Unto Men: A Biblical Perspective of Apostles, Prophets, and Pastors (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1992, 1993), 175-6.

2 Timothy 1:12 — "against that day" - Comments - In 2Timothy 1:9-12we see in God's divine foreknowledge several phases of His divine plan of redemption for mankind. We see His predestination and calling in 2 Timothy 1:9, Paul's divine commission and perseverance in 2 Timothy 1:11, and now we see a reference to our future glorification in 2 Timothy 1:12


Verse 13-14

Paul Exhorts Timothy to be Faithful to God's Word - In 2 Timothy 1:13-14 Paul exhorts Timothy to hold fast to this salvation by the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit.

2 Timothy 1:13 Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.

2 Timothy 1:13Word Study on "form" - Strong says the Greek word "form" ( ὑποτύπωσις) (G 5296) literally means, "typification under (after)," and figuratively, "a sketch." BDAG says it means, "a model, an example…a prototype ( 1 Timothy 1:16)…a standard ( 2 Timothy 1:13)."

2 Timothy 1:13Comments- As we consider what "sound words" and doctrine Paul the apostle entrusted Timothy to hold fast to, we ask what were these words, and are they recorded anywhere. We need look no further than the nine Pauline Church Epistles to find the doctrines of the New Testament Church that Paul laid down in writing.

2 Timothy 1:14 That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.

2 Timothy 1:14 — "That good thing which was committed unto thee" - Comments- Paul knew that Timothy had been entrusted with his ministry by prophecies and other manifestations of the Holy Spirit ( 1 Timothy 1:18).

1 Timothy 1:18, "This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare;"

2 Timothy 1:14 — "keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us" - Comments- 2 Timothy 1:7 describes the effects of the work of the Holy Spirit in our lives, bringing to us a spirit of power, love and a sound mind. The Holy Spirit is working in our lives daily, moment by moment; to accomplish God"s will in our lives ( Galatians 6:9, Philippians 2:12-13. 1 Peter 4:19).

Galatians 6:9, "And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not."

Philippians 2:12-13, "Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure."

1 Peter 4:19, "Wherefore let them that suffer according to the will of God commit the keeping of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful Creator."


Verses 15-18

Paul Gives Timothy Living Examples of Faithfulness and Loyalty - In 2 Timothy 1:15-18 Paul warns Timothy by giving him examples of some who have been unfaithful to God's offer of salvation as well as examples of loyalty. In 2 Timothy 1:15-18 Paul describes a falling away of several in Asia who once followed the faith. This falling away may be a reference to the Neronian persecutions that arose during this later period of Paul's ministry, which resulted in his martyrdom (approximately A.D 64). One indication of this first major persecution of the Church is hinted at in 2 Timothy 1:17 when Paul says that Onesiphorus was not ashamed of his bonds in Rome, which implies that those in Asia may now be ashamed, and turning away from their association with Paul in order to save their own lives.

2 Timothy 1:15 This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.

2 Timothy 1:15Comments- We see in Acts 19 that Paul abode in Ephesus for at least two years and spread the Word of God throughout the province of Asia. Revival even broke out in this region. The Roman province of Asia included the seven churches of Revelation 2-3. But how quickly men seem to turn away from the truth ( Galatians 1:6, Philippians 2:21). Many of the believers were frightened when Paul was imprisoned, fearing that the Roman government would also turn on them. Paul mentions two names to Timothy, Phygellus, and Hermogenes, people whom Timothy probably knew.

Galatians 1:6, "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:"

Philippians 2:21, "For all seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ"s."

However, we cannot measure eternal results by earthly circumstances. If Paul"s eternal treasures were being determined by earthly results, Paul would not have received a large eternal reward. In this epistle, written just before Paul"s death, he seems to feel that his ministry had become a failure in some areas of the Empire. Some churches turned to apostasy. His friends forsook him ( 2 Timothy 4:10). Although he declared that he had finished his course, Paul could not see his fruit in the temporal realm ( 2 Timothy 4:7). Yet, Paul's was one of the greatest works ever accomplished in the body of Christ.

2 Timothy 4:10, "For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia."

2 Timothy 4:7, "I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith:"

2 Timothy 1:16-18Comments - The Love Walk- Although the average believer recognizes obvious abuses of love in his Christian life, there is a deeper walk with the Lord where we become much more sensitive to walking in love with others. In 1 Thessalonians 4:10 Paul exhorts the believers to strive to grow in their love walk by saying "that ye increase more and more." John the apostles defines this type of mature love as "perfect love" ( 1 John 4:18). John explains that it means a believe can come to the place where he no longer makes decisions based on the fear of Prayer of Manasseh , but he strives to please God in pure love and devotion to Him as all costs. We find an excellent example of mature, self-less love in the life of Onesiphorus ( 2 Timothy 1:15-18). In contrast to Phygellus and Hermogenes, who were ashamed of Paul's bonds and hid their faith in Christ for fear of Roman persecutions, Onesiphorus boldly kept the faith in the face of possible persecutions, even going as far as visiting Paul during his Roman imprisonment, which Luke mentions in general in Acts 28:30. Onesiphorus walked in self-less love, while many others in Asia were self-centered because they were moved by fear ( 1 John 4:18).

1 John 4:18, "There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love."

We find another example in Hebrews 10:32-34, where the author describes the persecutions endured by these believers because of their faith in Christ. Their goods were plundered by those who were persecuting them (Note Jesus' commandment on this issue of the spoiling of their goods in Luke 6:30.) Despite such persecutions, these Hebrew saints were not ashamed of Paul's bonds.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 1:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/2-timothy-1.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, December 7th, 2019
the First Week of Advent
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