corner graphic   Hi,    
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to

Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Exodus 28



Verses 1-4

An Introductory Description of the Garments of the Priesthood - Exodus 28:1-4 serves as an introductory description of the garments of the priesthood.

Verses 1-43

Exodus 28:1-43 — The Garments for the Priesthood - Exodus 28:1-43 gives a description of the making of the garments for the priesthood.

Exodus 28:1-4


Exodus 28:5-14

The Ephod

Exodus 28:15-30

The Breastplate of Judgment

Exodus 28:31-42

The Robe, Mitre, Girdle and Linen Breeches

Exodus 28:43


Verses 5-14

The Ephod - Exodus 28:5-14 describes the making of the ephod as a piece of the priestly garment.

Exodus 28:6Word Study on "ephod" - Strong says the Hebrew word "ephod" ( אֵפוּד) (H 646) means, "a girdle, specifically, the ephod or high priest's shoulder piece." Holladay says it means, "a metallic sacral robe, like a culrass (a piece protecting breast and back)."

Verses 15-30

The Breastplate of Judgment - Exodus 28:15-30 describes the making of the breastplate of judgment as a piece of the priestly garment.

Exodus 28:15 And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.

Exodus 28:16 Foursquare it shall be being doubled; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof.

Exodus 28:17-20 — The Precious Stones of the Breastplate- We see a similar covering with precious stones described in the book of Ezekiel when discussing Lucifier's apparel in Heaven.

Ezekiel 28:13, "Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created."

Exodus 28:30Word Study on "the Urim and Thummim" - The Hebrew word "urim" (H 224) literally means "lights," or "revelation." The Hebrew word "thummim" (H 8550) literally means "perfection," or "truth."

Exodus 28:30Comments- The Urim and Thummim were stones kept in a pouch on the high-priest's breastplate, used in determining God"s decision in certain questions and issues. Adam Clarke cites the Latin poet Ovid, who writes of just such a casting of stones. In the ancient custom of casting lots, two stones of black and white were used in casting a vote. The white stone was a symbol of good fortune or of innocence while the black stone symbolized bad luck or guilt.

"It was the custom in ancient times to use white and black pebbles, the black for condemning prisoners, and the white for freeing them from the charge. At this time also the fatal vote was taken in this way; and every pebble that was dropped into the pitiless urn was black! But when the urn was turned and the pebbles poured out for counting, the colour of them all was changed from black to white; and Song of Solomon , by the will of Hercules, the vote was made favourable, and Alemon"s son was freed." (Metamorphoses 1541) 92]

92] Ovid, Metamorphoses, vol 2, trans. Frank J. Miller, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann Ltd, 1958), 367-368. See Adam Clarke, Revelation , in Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), notes on Revelation 2:17.

Listed are all uses of the Urim and Thummim in the Holy Bible:

Exodus 28:30, "And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron"s heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually."

Leviticus 8:8, "And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the

breastplate the Urim and the Thummim."

Numbers 27:21, "And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of Urim before the LORD: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both Hebrews , and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation."

Deuteronomy 33:8, "And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;"

1 Samuel 28:6, "And when Saul enquired of the LORD, the LORD answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets."

Ezra 2:63, "And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and with Thummim."

Nehemiah 7:65, "And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim."

Verses 31-42

The Robe, Mitre, Girdle and Linen Breeches - Exodus 28:31-35 describes the making of the robe of the ephod, the mitre or headpiece, the girdle and the linen breeches as a piece of the priestly garment.

Exodus 28:33-35 — The Helm of the Robe ( Exodus 39:24-26) - Windell Parr suggests that the pomegranates were placed between the bells so that each bell would have its own distinct sound. If two bells clanged together, their sounds would conflict with each other so that neither bell would sound clearly. He suggests that the pomegranates symbolize the fruit of the Holy Spirit while the bells symbolize the gifts of the Spirit. 93]

93] Windell Parr, "Sermon," Calvary Cathedral International, Fort Worth, Texas.

Exodus 28:33Word Study on "pomegranates" - Strong says the Hebrew word "rimmown" ( רִמֹּון) (H 7416) means, "a pomegranate," either as a tree or as a fruit, and as pomegranate shaped ornaments in Temple. He says this word is derived from the primitive root ( רָמַם) "ramam" (H 7426), which means, "to be exalted, be lifted up." Enhanced Strong says it is used 32times in the Old Testament, being translated "pomegranate 31, pomegranate tree 1."

Comments- Webster says that the pomegranate refers to the fruit of the tree Punica Granatum; as well as the tree itself, which is native in the Orient, but is successfully cultivated in many warm countries, and as a house plant in colder climates."

Exodus 28:36-38 — The Nameplate of the Mitre - Exodus 28:36-38 describes the golden nameplate that is to be fastened to the front of the mitre, or turban, which is the headpiece of the priestly garment.

Verse 43

Concluding Statement - Exodus 28:43 serves as a concluding remark about all of the pieces of the priestly garment.


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Exodus 28:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, December 6th, 2019
the First Week of Advent
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology