corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.05.25
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Hebrews 1

 

 

Other Authors
Verses 1-4

Prologue: Opening Claim that Jesus Christ is the Son of God- The opening passage of Hebrews 1:1-4 is a single sentence in the original Greek text. In this lengthy sentence, the author makes the claim that God has in these last days spoken through the office of divine Sonship, after having spoken for the previous centuries through the office of the prophet. God used the office of the prophets of the Old Testament to reveal various aspects of God's plan of redemption to the Hebrew nation called Israel. As the Son of God, Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of and superior to all Old Testament prophecies. In Hebrews 1:1-4 the author claims that Jesus Christ is deity, as the Son of God, and that His office and ministry supersedes and fulfills all divine revelation that has gone before Him. The verses that follow ( Hebrews 1:5-14) provide a doctrinal argument to support this claim. The author's exhortations and doctrinal discourses will all build upon this opening claim of the deity of Jesus Christ. However, it is important to note that of the seven divine attributes given to the Son of God in this opening passage, the phrase "when he had by himself purged our sins" in the Greek text is structured in a unique manner that indicates this attribute will be developed more fully in the epistle, while the other six attributes are considered only briefly; for this is the only clause that does not begin with a pronoun or participle, but rather with the phrase "a purging of sins" beginning, or fronting, this clause for emphasis, with the participle coming at the end.

God Has Spoken Through His Song of Solomon - The voice of God speaking today through His Son Jesus ( Hebrews 1:1-4) will echo throughout the epistle of Hebrews. The author of Hebrews introduces most of his Old Testament citations by saying God or the Holy Spirit spoke these words ( Hebrews 1:5-8; Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 2:12-13; Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 3:15; Hebrews 4:4-5; Hebrews 4:7; Hebrews 5:6; Hebrews 6:13-14; Hebrews 8:10-13; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:5-9; Hebrews 10:15-16; Hebrews 11:3; Hebrews 11:7-8; Hebrews 11:18; Hebrews 12:19; Hebrews 13:5), with Jesus Himself speaking in the voice of two Old Testament citations ( Hebrews 2:12-13; Hebrews 10:15-16). In contrast, other New Testament writes introduce their Old Testament citations by referring to the voice of the prophets.

Jesus Christ is Superiority to the Old Covenant - The author will argue his statement of Jesus' superiority over the Old Covenant throughout the rest of this epistle and its application to our Christian life with the emphasis placed upon the perseverance of the saints. This means that Hebrews 1:1-4 is somewhat of a concise summary of the epistle of Hebrews. Based upon Jesus' deity, the author can now logically build his argument to prove that Jesus Christ is qualified as our Great High Priest, which argument is contained within the body of this epistle to the Hebrews. Such a style of argument is typically Pauline.

All Revelation is Complete in Jesus Christ- It is important to note from this passage of Scripture in Hebrews 1:1-4 that the author makes an opening statement of the superiority of Jesus Christ over the Old Covenant, because a full and complete revelation of redemption has now come through His Son. All former revelations came by men in pieces through many times and places, while Jesus, who is God, gave us a complete revelation by His Word. The author implies that there will be no new revelations outside His Song of Solomon , and that all former prophetic revelations are fulfilled in His Son. All of God's former revelations culminate in Christ Jesus.

The words that God has now spoken through his Son are full and complete, being contrasted with the opening verse that all of God's former revelations to mankind came in incomplete pieces at various times. With the coming of the revelation of His Son Jesus Christ there will come no further Revelation , for it is completed in Him. The claim of the deity of Jesus Christ, and His fulfillment of all Old Testament prophecy, and the Scripture's claim to God's complete revelation through divine inspiration have been the source of controversy since the time of the early Church fathers. For example, in the seventh century A.D, Muhammad claimed to have received a different and superior revelation of God's redemption in writing the Koran. In the 1800's Joseph Smith claimed to have received a more complete revelation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 123] However, Hebrews 1:1-4 is saying that in Christ Jesus all revelation is complete, that He is the fullness of God, and that this revelation of the Son is not going to be coming in pieces over many centuries. It is full and complete, and the canon of Scriptures is closed with the writings of the apostles of the Lamb because God's plan of redemption for mankind is now fully revealed. We may come to a deeper revelation of our Saviour while in Heaven, but there will never be a new and different plan of redemption.

123] The Mormons do not believe that the canons of the Old and New Testaments have been closed, which means they allow additional revelations to carry an equal weight of authority as the Bible. James Talmage writes, "The beliefs and prescribed practices of most religious sects are usually set forth in formal creeds. The Latter-day Saints announce no creed as a complete code of their faith; for while they hold that the precepts of eternal life are unchangeable, they accept the principle of continuous revelation as a characteristic feature of their belief... These [articles of the Mormon faith] include the more essential and characteristic features of the gospel, as accepted by this Church; but they are not complete as an exposition of our belief, for by one of the Articles it is declared, ‘We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important things pertaining to the Kingdom of God.'" James E. Talmage, The Articles of Faith: A Series of Lectures on the Principle Doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Desert News, 1889), 4-5.

All Prophetic Revelation is Fulfilled in Jesus Christ- Another message implied in this introductory passage to Hebrews is the understanding that all former prophetic revelation given by God at various times and in many ways by the prophets have always pointed to Christ Jesus as the Son of God. The author will quote many of these revelations in this first chapter of Hebrews. The author will quote from a number of Old Testament Scriptures ( Psalm 2:7, 2 Samuel 7:14, Deuteronomy 32:43, Psalm 104:4, Psalm 45:6-7, Psalm 102:25-27 and Psalm 110:1) as prophetic passages that point to the superiority and deity of God's Son over all creation.

Reflections of the Triune Office of Jesus Christ as Prophet, Priest, and King - The opening statement of the epistle of Hebrews echoes the triune office and redemptive ministry of Jesus Christ as the prophet, priest, and king. Jesus' words are superior to those of the Old Testament prophet ( Hebrews 1:1-2); He made a cleansing of our sins ( Hebrews 1:3), and He has sat down at the right hand of God ( Hebrews 1:3).

Man is Crowned with Glory and Honor- While the epistle of Hebrews opens with a description of how God crowned Jesus Christ, His Song of Solomon , with glory and honor ( Hebrews 1:1-4; Hebrews 2:9), the author will also discuss how God created man and crowned him with glory and honor and gave him dominion over the earth ( Hebrews 2:5-8 a). Jesus Christ came to restore mankind to his rightful place of dominion. He has become the Author of our salvation and restoration to dominion upon the earth ( Hebrews 2:8 b-18). This explains why man's depravity is so worthy of eternal damnation, since he carries the image of God in himself.

Reflections on the Theme of Perseverance - Hebrews 1:1-4 serves as an introduction to the book of Hebrews. This passage of Scripture introduces Jesus Christ as the Son of God whom God is using in these last days to speak to mankind and to bring redemption to him. In the Greek text Hebrews 1:1-4 is one, long sentence. The base line sentence of these four verses is "God has spoken to us by (His) Son" ( Hebrews 1:2 a). Hebrews 1:2 b to 4modifies the word "Son": that Isaiah , these verses explain who the Son is that God has now spoken to us by. Here we see the redemptive work of Christ Jesus on Calvary from the perspective of His being presently seated at the right hand of the Father after having purged our sins ( Hebrews 1:3). In other words, in this passage we look down from the throne of God at the past accomplishment of Calvary; and it was this position of Jesus Christ being seated at the right hand of the Father that is called later in the Epistle "the joy set before Him" ( Hebrews 12:2). It is this hope of joy with the Father that gave Jesus Christ the strength to persevere until His work on earth was accomplished and to endure the Cross. Thus, this opening passage reflects the underlying theme of Hebrews , which is the perseverance of the saints. Throughout this great epistle believers are encouraged to look unto Jesus Christ, our Great High Priest, in order to receive their help in times of need. Our ability to come boldly unto this throne of grace will establish us in the faith so that we can persevere.

Prologue: The Author's Rhetorical Use of Alliteration - Alliteration is a rhetorical device that repeats the beginning sound of a word. Luke and the author of Hebrews employ alliteration in the prologues of their writings by using words that begin with the Greek letter " π." Within the opening sentences of Luke's prologue to his Gospel and to the book of Acts and in the epistle of Hebrews are found five words whose lexical form begins with the letter " π." David Allen cites this "signature" in Luke -Acts to argue for Lucan authorship to the epistle of Hebrews as well. 124]

124] David L. Allen, "Class Lecture," Doctor of Ministry Seminar, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 25 July to 5 August 2011.

Hebrews 1:1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,

Hebrews 1:1Comments- The Old Testament is a progressive revelation of God and of His redemptive plan for mankind through Jesus Christ. This divine revelation did not come all at one time. Instead, it came bit-by-bit, and piece-by-piece, at many times, and in many ways and manners over a period of many years. Isaiah 28:9-13 tells us that God's revelation comes "precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little."

Isaiah 28:9-13, "Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts. For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little: For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people. To whom he said, This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear. But the word of the LORD was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken."

"sundry times" - The Greek word "sundry times" ( πολυμερως) (G 4181) literally means, "many portions" (Strong), thus, "many parts, pieces, or times." The Holy Bible is made up of about forty authors writing over a period of sixteen hundred years. All of these writings were compiled together into the unity of the Scriptures.

"in divers manners" - The Greek word "in divers manners" ( πολυτρόπως) (G 4187) means, "in many ways" (Strong). Note how many ways God spoke to the prophets of old. He spoke to the patriarchs by dreams. He spoke to Moses face to face. He spoke to the nation of Israel from a fiery mountain and then by the written Law. He then spoke to them by His prophets and by divine judgment when they ignored His prophets. He spoke through the Psalm and by proverbs and by parables. He spoke by signs and wonders. He spoke to Balaam by the mouth of a donkey. Finally, He spoke to His people and to us by the recorded history in Scripture. In every way and manner God speaks to His people because of His great love for us.

Jacob - By a dream

Moses - Face to face

Israel - By the written law

Israel - By Prophecy- Exodus and 1Chronicles 21, by Elijah

Kingdom of Israel- By the Prophets- Numbers 12:6-8

Psalm - By Poetry

Psalm - By Song

Proverbs , Ecclesiastes - By Wisdom Literature

Balaam - By a donkey's mouth

Pharaoh - By Signs & wonders

Genesis , Samuel, Kings, Chronicles- By History

"in time past" - The Greek word "in time past" ( πάλαι) (G 3819) refers to the history of the Jews when they were under the old covenant of the Law, before Jesus Christ came to earth.

"unto the fathers" - The phrase "unto the fathers" is a reference to the Jews as a nation rather than to particular patriarchs. The author will make several more references to the Jews ( Hebrews 3:9; Hebrews 8:9). Thus, the recipients of this Epistle are also Jews, or Hebrews.

Hebrews 3:9, "When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years."

Hebrews 8:9, "Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord."

Paul the apostle used a similar phrase in 2 Timothy 1:3.

2 Timothy 1:3, "I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;"

"spake in time past…by the prophets" - God used the office and ministry of the prophet to speak to the Jewish fathers. Therefore, the phrase "spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets" refers to the entire Old Testament canon. Although later Jewish scribes, such as Ezra , edited and compiled the Sacred Scriptures, the words recorded are essentially words spoken through prophetic utterance and written by divine inspiration. Prophecy became most prominent during period of Kingdom. Prophets moved the people to an inward relationship to God. They prophesied of repentance, judgment, and of the coming of Jesus Christ, the Messiah.

Unfortunately, during the period of the kingdom, the message from God did not come through the priests and kings. Corruption spoiled this means of delivering God's message to His people. It was the lineage of prophets whom God raised up a various times from various cities and from various genealogies and in various ways to deliver His messages and prophecies. God found men who would not fear the face of men to speak His Word. God literally raised up a lineage of prophets from Enoch until Malachi. There were periods when there were no prophets to prophesy ( 1 Samuel 3:1), but God was always faithful to search for men would represent Him.

1 Samuel 3:1, "And the child Samuel ministered unto the LORD before Eli. And the word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision."

When the prophets ceased to prophesy, the Old Testament canon was closed. This is confirmed by Josephus, who says, "It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time." (Against Apion 18). In addition, the opening verses of the epistle of Romans and of Hebrews state that the Old Testament was delivered to us by His prophets, thus revealing the fact that the Old Testament prophets were the ones who kept the canon open.

Romans 1:2, "(Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)"

Hebrews 1:1-2, "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Song of Solomon , whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;"

Just as the New Testament canon closed when the twelve apostles dies, so did the Old Testament canon close when the prophets ceased.

Who were these prophets that spoke in times past?

1. Abraham

Genesis 20:7, "Now therefore restore the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine."

Psalm 105:15, "Saying, Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm."

2. Aaron

Exodus 7:1, "And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet."

3. Miriam

Exodus 15:20, "And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances."

4. Moses

Deuteronomy 18:15, "The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;"

Deuteronomy 34:10, "And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face,"

Acts 7:37, "This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear."

5. Deborah

Judges 4:4, "And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, she judged Israel at that time."

6. Samuel

1 Samuel 3:20, "And all Israel from Dan even to Beersheba knew that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the LORD."

7. David

Mark 12:36, "For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool."

Acts 1:16, "Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus."

8. Gad

1 Samuel 22:5, "And the prophet Gad said unto David, Abide not in the hold; depart, and get thee into the land of Judah. Then David departed, and came into the forest of Hareth."

9. Nathan

2 Samuel 7:2, "That the king said unto Nathan the prophet, See now, I dwell in an house of cedar, but the ark of God dwelleth within curtains."

10. Ahijah

1 Kings 14:2, "And Jeroboam said to his wife, Arise, I pray thee, and disguise thyself, that thou be not known to be the wife of Jeroboam; and get thee to Shiloh: behold, there is Ahijah the prophet, which told me that I should be king over this people."

11. Jehu

1 Kings 16:12, "Thus did Zimri destroy all the house of Baasha, according to the word of the LORD, which he spake against Baasha by Jehu the prophet, "

12. Elijah

1 Kings 18:36, "And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said, LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that thou art God in Israel, and that I am thy servant, and that I have done all these things at thy word."

13. Elisha

2 Kings 6:12, "And one of his servants said, None, my lord, O king: but Elisha, the prophet that is in Israel, telleth the king of Israel the words that thou speakest in thy bedchamber."

14. Jonah

2 Kings 14:25, "He restored the coast of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain, according to the word of the LORD God of Israel, which he spake by the hand of his servant Jonah , the son of Amittai, the prophet, which was of Gathhepher."

15. Shemaiah

2 Chronicles 12:5, "Then came Shemaiah the prophet to Rehoboam, and to the princes of Judah, that were gathered together to Jerusalem because of Shishak, and said unto them, Thus saith the LORD, Ye have forsaken me, and therefore have I also left you in the hand of Shishak."

16. Iddo

2 Chronicles 13:22, "And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his sayings, are written in the story of the prophet Iddo."

Also, 16 latter prophets: Isaiah ,, Jeremiah ,, Ezekiel ,, Daniel ,, Hosea ,, Joel ,, Amos ,, Obadiah ,, Jonah ,, Micah ,, Nahum ,, Habakkuk ,, Zephaniah , Haggi, Zechariah , Malachi.

33. Anna

Luke 2:36, "And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser: she was of a great age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her virginity;"

34. Huldah

2 Kings 22:14, "So Hilkiah the priest, and Ahikam, and Achbor, and Shaphan, and Asahiah, went unto Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shallum the son of Tikvah, the son of Harhas, keeper of the wardrobe; (now she dwelt in Jerusalem in the college;) and they communed with her."

35. Isaiah"s wife

Isaiah 8:3, "And I went unto the prophetess; and she conceived, and bare a son. Then said the LORD to me, Call his name Mahershalalhashbaz."

36. The later prophets: Isaiah ,, Jeremiah ,, Ezekiel ,, Daniel ,, Hosea ,, Joel ,, Amos ,, Obadiah ,, Jonah ,, Micah ,, Nahum ,, Habakkuk , Zephania, Haggai ,, Zechariah , Malachi.

Thus, we hear the voices of the Old Testament prophet delivered in many forms over many centuries. We hear the humble words of Moses as God exalts him in front of the children of Israel. We hear the song of Moses as the Israelites stood on the far banks of the Red Sea. Our understanding fails us as we hear Job cry out to God in the midst of his suffering. We are moved as we hear the sweet words of David worshipping on his harp on the hills around Judah. We are touched by the poetic and seductive words of Solomon. We are shocked as we read about Israel's repeated backsliding and rebellion towards God. We hear the southern accent of Amos as he rebukes the cities of Israel. We weep as we hear the lament of Jeremiah crying out the utterances given to him by God, knowing his impending persecutions from the kings, priests, and other prophets. We hear the Ezra the scribe teaching the Jews the historical books, while in the background the wailings of those who remembered Jerusalem prior to its Babylonian destruction rises and falls.

Hebrews 1:1Comments- Hebrews 1:1 is a concise summing up of the canon (inspired books) of the entire Old Testament, in which God the Father intervened in the affairs of mankind in order to bring to pass His divine plan of redemption. He spoke through the office of the prophet in order to proclaim this plan to mankind. Therefore, this opening verse also reflects the underlying theme of the books of the Old Testament, which is the foreknowledge of God the Father as He worked to bring redemption to Israel, and now to the Gentiles.

Hebrews 1:1Comments - The author of Hebrews begins his epistle using a rhetorical device called alliteration. Five of the first twelve words in the Greek text begin with the letter " π." In fact, the opening phrase πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι in Hebrews 1:1 is so similar in rhetorical structure to the opening phrase ἐπειδήπερ πολλοὶ ἐπεχείρησαν in Luke 1:1 that some scholars use it to support an argument for Lucan authorship of the epistle of Hebrews.

Hebrews 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Song of Solomon , whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Hebrews 1:2 — "Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son" - Comments- "Hath in these last days" - The last days began with the coming of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ:

Mark 1:15, "And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel."

Galatians 4:4, "But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Song of Solomon , made of a woman, made under the law,"

Note other references to the Last Days:

Deuteronomy 4:30, "When thou art in tribulation, and all these things are come upon thee, even in the latter days, if thou turn to the LORD thy God, and shalt be obedient unto his voice;"

Acts 2:16-17, "But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:"

2 Timothy 3:1, "This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come."

1 Peter 1:20, "Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,"

2 Peter 3:3, "Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts,"

1 John 2:18, "Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time."

Jude 1:18, "How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts."

"by his Son" - The Greek text literally reads, "by son." While God has spoken in the past through the office of the prophet, He has in these last days spoken to mankind through the office of Sonship, or by the character and nature of Sonship. While the prophetic revelations came in old time through the utterance of words, God has now spoken to us by the revelation of the person of Jesus Christ His Song of Solomon , with John the Baptist called to herald in His public appearance to mankind. The Jews placed a strong emphasis on the Shema, which declared in Deuteronomy 6:4 that there was one God, and upon which all Jewish theology is based. Therefore, the author of Hebrews opens his epistle to these believing Jews by revealing divine "Sonship" as an important redemptive aspect of the Godhead. In other words, the author appears to hang these opening words of Hebrews 1:1-4 regarding God now speaking through "Sonship" upon the Shema as a Jewish reference point, revealing God as triune. Having spoken through the office of the prophet in the Old Testament, He has now spoken through the office of Sonship by revealing His Son in human form and by the words spoken by His Son. In fact, when the author of Hebrews cites from the books of Psalm and Isaiah ( Hebrews 2:11-13) throughout the epistle, he cites these passages as utterances of Jesus Christ, thus elevating the Old Testament Scriptures to equal authority as the revelation of His Son Jesus Christ. The Old Testament Scriptures, the revelation of Jesus Christ, and the record of His words are now held in equal authority as God's Word to mankind. Every doctrinal discourse in the epistle of Hebrews and every Old Testament citation the author makes will now be described as God or His Son speaking to mankind, rather than saying, "It was spoken by the prophet …" In other words, the Old Testament Scriptures have become the voice of His Son.

It is interesting to note that the name of Jesus is not mentioned in the book of Hebrews until Hebrews 2:9 and Hebrews 3:1. This is because the emphasis in these opening passages is on the office of His Sonship with the Father, and hence, His deity. Jesus is referred to as the Son of God on twelve occasions throughout this Epistle ( Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 1:8; Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 5:5; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 6:6; Hebrews 7:3; Hebrews 7:28; Hebrews 10:29; Hebrews 11:24). However, the name of Jesus will be used fourteen times in this Epistle, and His divine titles of "Christ" is used thirteen times, and the title of "Lord" is used six times.

Comments- In these last days, God has made a new and a better convent with mankind through His Son Jesus Christ.

John 1:17, "For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ."

John 14:8-10, "Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works."

When Jesus spoke to us, He always spoke with divine authority, "But I say unto you."

Matthew 5:21-22, "Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire."

Hebrews 1:2 — "whom he hath appointed heir of all things" - Comments- A son is an heir. As the Son of God, Jesus is qualified to be heir of all things. Since God is over all things, He has the power to delegate to His Son the authority over all things. Jesus was foreordained to be the heir of the world, before it was founded ( 1 Peter 1:20). By His inheritance, Jesus Christ will rule over all of creation and bring the world in subjection to Himself.

1 Peter 1:20, "Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,"

Note also:

Psalm 2:7-8, "I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession."

Matthew 21:38, "But when the husbandmen saw the Song of Solomon , they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance."

Hebrews 1:2 — "by whom also he made the worlds" - Word Study on "worlds" - The Greek word αἰ ώ ν (G 165) has a variety of English translations. In the KJV the word is translated, "world (to come), (for)ever (more), course, age(s), eternal." David Allen translates this word as "universe," explaining that it refers to the entire "space-time-matter continuum" of everything God created, "the totality of all things existing in time and space," so that it includes both the existing "material universe" and "the vast periods of time and all that transpires in them." 125]

125] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 111.

Comments - We would expect the author to list Jesus' divine attributes in chronological order by saying, "whom also he made the worlds, whom he hath appointed heir of all things," since He made the worlds prior to His inheritance of all things. The reason Jesus' inheritance precedes His role in creation is because of emphasis. The focus of the epistle of Hebrews is on His high priesthood, which centers on His present exaltation rather than His past creation. 126]

126] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 113.

Scripture References- Note other passages in the Scriptures where the world was created through Jesus Christ, the Word of God:

Genesis 1:1-3, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth...And God said, Let there be light: and there was light."

Psalm 33:6, "By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth."

John 1:1-3, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made."

Romans 11:36, "For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen."

Colossians 1:16-17, "For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: And he is before all things, and by him all things consist."

Hebrews 11:3, "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear."

2 Peter 3:5, "For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water:"

Revelation 19:13, "And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God."

Revelation 4:11, "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created."

Hebrews 1:2Comments- Hebrews 1:2 sums up the three-fold office and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. (1) Present- He mentions His current office and ministry by saying, "Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son." (2) Future- It refers to His future and final ministry as Lord of Lords and King of Kings when God's plan of redemption is fulfilled by saying, "whom he hath appointed heir of all things." (3) Past- It refers to His initial office and ministry as the Word of God through whom God created all things by saying, "by whom also he made the worlds."

Hebrews 1:3 Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

Hebrews 1:3 — "Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person" - Comments - The Scriptures clearly describe man as a triune being: spirit, soul, and body. However, Hebrews 1:3 reveals that God is two-fold: His glory and His being. His being consists of His eternal nature and character and essence of who He is. His glory is the visible radiance that He sometimes reveals to mankind. Exodus 33:19-23 refers to this two-fold aspect of God when He appeared to Moses on Mount Sinai, for God's glory passed by then God revealed His back parts to Moses.

Exodus 33:20-23, "And he said, Thou canst not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live. And the LORD said, Behold, there is a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock: And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a clift of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by: And I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face shall not be seen."

"Who being the brightness of his glory" - Comments- We might better understand God's "brightness" by comparing it to the sun. We see the sunlight and its sunrays with our eyes, but we are not able to see the sun itself, because of its intense, splendid glory. In a similar way, Jesus is the brightness of God"s glory. Those who have been to Heaven and come back describe the throne of God as intense brightness that cannot be looked into because of such brightness. Jesse Duplantis describes how Jesus Christ steps into this brightness of God's throne, and reemerges. 127] Thus, the Scriptures say, "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Song of Solomon , which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him." ( John 1:18) Song of Solomon , we cannot actually see God the Father, but we can see the brightness of His glory as we only see the brightness of the sun, and not the sun itself. When we see Jesus Christ, we see the image of God the Father, but not actually God the Father who is dwelling within "the brightness of His glory."

127] Jesse Duplantis, Heaven: Close Encounters of the God Kind (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Harrison House, c 1996), 115-118.

The word "glory" means, "radiant beauty, or splendor, great honour and admiration, worshipful adoration and praise" (Webster). The glory in the Old Testament signified God's actual presence on earth ( Exodus 16:7). This glory was manifested in the in the Holy of Holies, in the Tabernacle, in the wilderness and in the Temple. In the New Testament, Jesus also represented God's presence, or glory, on earth ( Isaiah 35:2; Isaiah 40:5, John 1:14).

Exodus 16:7, "And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us?"

Isaiah 35:2, "It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing: the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon, they shall see the glory of the LORD, and the excellency of our God."

Isaiah 40:5, "And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it."

John 1:14, "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth."

Comments- The Holy Bible tells us that God is light. Jesus is the light of the world. We as Christians made in the image of God are also called the light of the world because we have Christ, the brightness of His glory, dwelling within us.

Jesus:

John 1:9, "That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world."

John 8:12, "Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life."

God:

1 John 1:5, "This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all."

The Church:

Matthew 5:14, "Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid."

"and the express image of his person" - Word Study on "person" - Strong says the Greek word ὑπόστασις (G 5287) literally means, "a setting under, a support." It also carries the figurative meaning, "essence, assurance." BDAG says it means, "substantial nature, essence, actual being, reality." The Enhanced Strong says this word is used 5 times in the New Testament, being translated in the KJV as "confidence 2, confident 1, person 1, substance 1." Note the other four uses:

2 Corinthians 9:4, "Lest haply if they of Macedonia come with me, and find you unprepared, we (that we say not, ye) should be ashamed in this same confident boasting."

2 Corinthians 11:17, "That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord, but as it were foolishly, in this confidence of boasting."

Hebrews 3:14, "For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;"

Hebrews 11:1, "Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen."

Comments- Not only does Jesus Christ serve as the brightness of God's glory, but He also reflects the very image and being of God the Father Himself. In other words, when we look at the throne of God we see only a bright light that tells us where God dwells. 1 Timothy 6:16 tells us that God "dwells in the light which no man can approach unto." Jesus Christ is also the very image of God who dwells within that bright and glorious light. He is the "the exact representation of God's divine character," so that through Jesus Christ, we saw God manifested in the flesh. Note other verses that state this fact.

John 1:14, "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth."

John 14:8-9, "Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father?"

Colossians 2:9, "For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily."

1 Timothy 3:16, "And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory."

In summary, Jesus is the expression of God's glory and of His actual being, His essence, His nature.

John 9:37, "And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee."

Hebrews 1:3"and upholding all things by the word of his power" - Word Study on "upholding" - Windell Gann says the Greek word "upholding" "phero" ( φέ ρω) (G 5342) in Hebrews 1:3 does not mean that Jesus is bearing up the world like a burden on His back. Rather, it means that Jesus Christ is the Creator God who guides the course and destiny of His creation by the power of His Word through divine providence. 128] David Allen defines this word to mean that Christ is "moving creation to its designed goal." 129]

128] Windell Gann, Hebrews , in Walking Thru the Bible [on-line]; accessed 7 October 2010; available from http://fly.hiwaay.net/~wgann/walk/hebrews.pdf; Internet.

129] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 124.

Comments- The word "power" is used like an adjective in Hebrews 1:3, but with more sharpness and distinctness expressed than by using a regular adjective. Thus, it is translated, "bearing all things by His mighty word." Jesus bears creation by the power in His very words. He sustains things as well as creates them. Note:

Psalm 33:6, "By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth."

Hebrews 11:3, "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear."

His Word bears, or sustains, our eternal life:

John 1:4, "In him was life; and the life was the light of men."

John 6:63, "It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life."

Nothing is more powerful that God's Eternal Word. It is the most powerful force known. It is the power that created the world ( Hebrews 11:3). It is more powerful that the forces of an atomic bomb, which are now able to destroy the earth. But all of heaven and earth will one day melt with a fervent heat by the power of God's Word.

Hebrews 11:3, "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear."

Hebrews 1:3"when he had by himself purged our sins" - Comments - The phrase "when he had by himself purged our sins" literally reads "a cleansing of sins having made" in the Greek text. This is the only one of the clauses modifying the Son of God in Hebrews 1:1-4 that begins with a noun, rather than a pronoun or participle. The word "cleansing" stands in front of this clause as emphasis in order to call attention to the fact that this theological truth will be further developed throughout the epistle of Hebrews. In other words, it is the most important attribute in this list as far as the author of Hebrews is concerned. Although all attributes are equally important from a theological perspective, the act of cleansing of man's sins in the theme that author needs to develop in this epistle.

When Jesus died on Calvary, even the Holy Spirit forsook Him. That is why He cried, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" He did this by Himself, with no help from anyone. Thus, the Scriptures say, "when he had by himself purged our sins."

Note Romans 5:12-21, especially verse 18:

Romans 5:18, "Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life."

Scripture References- Note other reference verses.

Hebrews 7:27, "Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people"s: for this he did once, when he offered up himself."

1 John 2:2, "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world."

Hebrews 1:3"sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high" - Comments - Structurally, the phrase "sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high" receives secondary emphasis in the opening sentence of Hebrews 1:1-4, being subordinate only to the base-line sentence that declares "God hath spoken to us by (His) Son." The motif of Jesus' exaltation (as a requirement of His High Priesthood) undergirds the exhortations and doctrinal teachings throughout the epistle of Hebrews. Jesus Christ is not on the same level of the prophets who spoke in time past, but He fulfills their prophecies and is superior the office of the prophets.

Jesus, in the flesh, now sits at right hand of Father on High. This is a key phrase used throughout the book of Hebrews ( Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 12:2) due to Jesus' priestly role as our Great High Priest, which is emphasized in this book. In fact, this phrase is used in the climax of the epistle of Hebrews ( Hebrews 12:1-3).

Jesus is now seated at the right hand of God. Jesus has won the victory and is worthy of all glory and honor ( Revelation 4:11). Patty Everett comments that He sat down because His work of redemption on Calvary is finished ( John 19:30). 130] He reigns, Satan is defeated, and we have victory. Amen and Amen.

130] Patty Everett, marginal notes in Holy Bible People's Parallel Edition: King James Version, New Living Translation (Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishing, Inc, 1997), comments on Hebrews 1:3.

Revelation 4:11, "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created."

John 19:30, "When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost."

"on high" - In other words, God dwells "on high." This is a Hebrew phrase to one who is familiar with the books of Psalm ( Psalm 93:4; Psalm 113:4-5).

Psalm 93:4, "The LORD on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea."

Psalm 113:4-5, "The LORD is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens. Who is like unto the LORD our God, who dwelleth on high,"

Scripture References- Note other verses referring to Jesus' position at the right hand of God.

Psalm 110:1, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool."

Mark 16:19, "So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God."

Acts 7:55-56, "But Hebrews , being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God."

Ephesians 1:20, "Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places,"

Hebrews 8:1, "Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens;"

Hebrews 10:12, "But this Prayer of Manasseh , after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;"

Hebrews 12:2, "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God."

Hebrews 1:3Comments- Hebrews 1:3 gives us a definition of who Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is by declaring His divinity (3a), then stating His initial role in creation as the Word of God (3b), and His recent role as the Apostle of our faith who was sent to Calvary to pay for the sins of mankind (3c), and His current role in man's redemption as our Great High Priest (3d). We see that Jesus has never finished and left His previous office and ministry of being the Word of God through whom God created all things; for it is by Him that all of creation is upheld and exists. Here we see the omnipotence of Christ Jesus in that He is a part of the God-head. It is important to note that the present-day ministry of Jesus Christ is referred to in Hebrews 1:3 c when He sits at the right hand of the Father and intercedes for the saints. This statement a reflection of the underlying theme of this Epistle, which is the perseverance of the saints. It is Jesus' position at the right hand of the Father, ever living to make intercession for the saints, that maintains our position of justification with the Father so that we can persevere and obtain eternal rest.

Hebrews 1:3Comments- What is the difference between the pre-incarnate Jesus before He became a Prayer of Manasseh , and Jesus after He partook of flesh and blood?

1. Jesus is now our intercessor and has sent His spirit into our hearts crying, "Abba Father".

Hebrews 4:15-16, "For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need."

2. He has given us His Spirit.

John 14:16-17, "And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you."

Hebrews 1:4 Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.

Hebrews 1:4"as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they" - Note the names of Jesus used in the following Old Testament quotes.

1. Thou art my Song of Solomon - Verse 5

2. The first-begotten- Verse 6

3. O God- Verse 8

The Father's name is Holy.

Matthew 6:9, "After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name."

Hebrews 1:4Comments- Jesus was highly exalted at the right hand of the Heavenly Fathers. He became superior to the angels to the degree that His name, which He inherited, was superior to the angels. Jesus" name is above every name ( Ephesians 1:21, Philippians 2:9).

Ephesians 1:21, "Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:"

Philippians 2:9, "Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name:"


Verses 1-14

Predestination: The Supreme Revelation of Jesus Christ as the Son of God - Hebrews 1:1-14 discusses the supreme revelation of Jesus Christ as the Son of God ( Hebrews 1:1-4), predestined to be heir of all things, which reflects first phase of redemption that Jesus Christ fulfilled in securing our eternal redemption as an heir by His Sonship. His divine attributes and His death, burial and resurrection brought Him exaltation at the right hand of God far above the ministries of all heavenly angels, which statement the author expounds upon using a number of Old Testament passages regarding Jesus' deity ( Hebrews 1:5-14).

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Opening Claim: Jesus the Son of God — Hebrews 1:1-4

2. Scriptural Support for Opening Claim — Hebrews 1:5-14


Verses 5-14

Scriptural Support for Opening Claim- The Old Testament prophets have declared Jesus Christ to be the pre-incarnate Son of God and rightful heir to the throne of God. The author of Hebrews supports his claim of Jesus' deity and superiority to the prophets by contrasting His calling and office to the office of the heavenly angels, who are described as servants rather than sons. He draws a distinction between Jesus' deity and His superiority over the angels ( Hebrews 1:5-14). The author uses these Old Testament passages to contrast the preeminence of the Lord Jesus Christ as God, who is seated at the throne of God, with the office of God's angels, who are described as servants. That Isaiah , this passage explains why Jesus' name is more excellent than the angels and why Jesus Himself is superior. The author proves that since the birth of Jesus Christ, He has been declared the pre-incarnate Son of God, who is now seated at the throne of God.

The opening passage of the book of Hebrews ( Hebrews 1:1-4) has introduced Jesus Christ as the Son of God, being superior to the angels and fulfilling all Old Covenant prophecies. In the rest of this passage of Scripture ( Hebrews 1:5-14) the author explains and justifies his opening statement, or claim, by using a number of Old Testament prophecies to reveal the predestination of Jesus Christ as the Son of God and heir to His throne. Each of the prophecies in Hebrews 1:5-14 supports one of the divine attributes of Jesus Christ listed in Hebrews 1:1-4, and they are presented in that same order. For example, the first set of Old Testament prophecies declaring Jesus' Sonship ( Hebrews 1:5-6) support the first divine attribute of Jesus Christ, which says, "has in these last days spoken to us by His Son" ( Hebrews 1:2). The second Old Testament prophecy declaring Jesus as Heir of all things ( Hebrews 1:8-9) supports His second divine attribute, which says, "whom He has appointed heir of all things" ( Hebrews 1:2). The third Old Testament prophecy declaring Jesus' Christ' role in the creation of all things ( Hebrews 1:10-12) supports His third divine attribute, which says, "through whom also He made the worlds" ( Hebrews 1:2). The fourth Old Testament prophecy declaring Jesus' lordship over all things ( Hebrews 1:13) supports His final divine attribute, which says, "sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high" ( Hebrews 1:3). The Old Testament references to angels ( Hebrews 1:7; Hebrews 1:14) supports his final statement in Hebrews 1:4 declaring Jesus Christ's superiority over all angelic creatures. The author could have chosen to support his declaration of the other three divine attributes of Jesus Christ listed in Hebrews 1:1-4 through Old Testament Scripture, but he chose not to do so because of the divine principle that a matter is confirmed in the mouth of two or three witnesses ( Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15, Matthew 18:16, 2 Corinthians 13:1. 1 Timothy 5:19, Hebrews 10:28), so that the three witnesses he presented from the Old Testament of Jesus' divinity are sufficient to support all seven divine attributes contained within his opening claim that Jesus Christ is the Son of God ( Hebrews 1:1-4). In addition, the author chose these four testimonies supporting the three aspects of the deity of Jesus Christ the Son of God because they are necessary for Him to fulfill His role as our Great High Priest. He is the Son and heir of all things ( Hebrews 1:5-6), rules in righteousness ( Hebrews 1:8-9), He is eternal ( Hebrews 1:10-12), and He sits at the right hand of God ( Hebrews 1:13). Thus, he will discuss these divine attributes further in his epistle.

Divine Attribute O. T. Testimony

The Son of God

1. Appointed heir of all things Hebrews 1:8-9

2. By whom also he made the worlds Hebrews 1:10-12

3. Who being the brightness of his glory

4. The express image of his person

5. Upholding all things by the word of his power

6. He by himself purged our sins

7. Sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high Hebrews 1:13

This passage serves as the author's initial explanation for his opening statement in Hebrews 1:1-4 of Jesus' fulfillment and superiority to all previous revelation to mankind through the office of the Old Testament prophets. This superior office of Jesus makes the revelation of the Gospel superior to the office and ministry and messages of heavenly angels. The author deals with the office of angels first, since the Jews understood their ministry as the most superior revelation of God known to them.

The Office of Jesus Christ is Contrasted with the Office of Angels- Throughout the Holy Scriptures, the Old Testament prophets have declared Him to be the pre-incarnate Son of God and rightful heir to the throne of God. The author builds his argument by contrasting His calling and office to the office of the heavenly angels, who are described as servants rather than sons. He draws a distinction between Jesus' deity and His superiority over the angels ( Hebrews 1:5-14). The author uses these Old Testament passages to contrast the preeminence of the Lord Jesus Christ as God, who is seated at the throne of God, with the office of God's angels, who are described as servants. That Isaiah , this passage explains why Jesus' name is more excellent than the angels and why Jesus Himself is superior. The author proves that since the birth of Jesus Christ He has been declared the pre-incarnate Son of God, who is now seated at the throne of God.

Hebrews 1:5-14 establishes the Sonship of Jesus ( Hebrews 1:5-7), which becomes the basis for His Lordship over all creation ( Hebrews 1:8-14). Jesus alone is called the Son of God ( Hebrews 1:5), to be worshipped by angels ( Hebrews 1:6). While the angels were created to serve ( Hebrews 1:7), Jesus was appointed to reign over all of creation ( Hebrews 1:8-9). Jesus Christ is the Creator, pre-incarnate and eternal ( Hebrews 1:10-12) who will rule over his enemies ( Hebrews 1:13), while the angels are to serve those who partake of the salvation wrought by Jesus Christ ( Hebrews 1:14). Thus, this office of the Son is contrasted with the office of the heavenly angels, who are described as servants rather than sons.

This passage serves as the author's initial explanation for his opening statement in Hebrews 1:1-4 of Jesus' fulfillment and superiority to all previous revelation to mankind through the office of the Old Testament prophets. This superior office of Jesus makes the revelation of the Gospel superior to the office and ministry and messages of heavenly angels. The author deals with the office of angels first since the Jews understood their ministry as the most superior revelation of God known to them.

This passage in Hebrews 1:5-14 clearly establishes the fact that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that He is also the eternal God. In the opening sentence of Hebrews 1:1-4 you can immediately sense the superiority of God speaking through His Song of Solomon , Jesus Christ. Jesus is the long-awaited earthly king of the Jews. The revelation that this King would also be God Himself must have been beyond natural reason for the Jewish mind who was hoping for an earthly king, the Son of David, who would deliver from the oppressive Roman government. They fully understood the authority of the Word of God in their lives. They understood the Old Testament Scriptures to have been delivered by the prophets of Old. They understood how angels often visited men in the Old Testament and delivered the Word of God to them. Thus, the author of Hebrews explains Jesus' superiority over both the words of prophets ( Hebrews 1:1-4) and the words given by angels ( Hebrews 1:5-14). In Hebrews 2:2 the authority of the words given by angels is mentioned when it says, "For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward…" Thus, the author is contrasting superiority of Jesus Christ to the prophets and angels, whom God used to speak the words of authority under the Old Covenant.

Hebrews 1:5 For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Song of Solomon , this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?

Hebrews 1:5 — "For unto which of the angels said he at any time" - Comments - The Greek conjunction γὰρ (for) always introduces a subordinate clause. In this case, it introduces a doctrinal discourse to support the author's claim made in Hebrews 1:1-4. In other words Hebrews 1:5-14 supports the claim made in Hebrews 1:1-4.

Hebrews 1:5"Thou art my Song of Solomon , this day have I begotten thee?" - Comments- This quote comes from Psalm 2:7, "I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee."

Paul cites Psalm 2:7 as a prophecy of the resurrection of Jesus Christ ( Acts 13:33). Thus, this passage refers to the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and not the first birth of Jesus Christ by His mother Mary.

Acts 13:33, "God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second Psalm , Thou art my Song of Solomon , this day have I begotten thee."

Jesus was made a Priest by God Himself at this time of His resurrection, as the author tells us in Hebrews 5:5, "So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Song of Solomon , to day have I begotten thee."

Hebrews 1:5"And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?" - Scripture References- Note:

2 Samuel 7:14, "I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men:"

1 Chronicles 17:13, "I will be his father, and he shall be my son: and I will not take my mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee:"

1 Chronicles 22:10, "He shall build an house for my name; and he shall be my Song of Solomon , and I will be his father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever."

1 Chronicles 28:6, "And he said unto me, Solomon thy Song of Solomon , he shall build my house and my courts: for I have chosen him to be my Song of Solomon , and I will be his father."

Psalm 89:26, "He shall cry unto me, Thou art my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation."

Hebrews 1:5Comments- Hebrews 1:5 refers to Jesus' physical birth in the statement "Thou art my Song of Solomon , this day have I begotten thee," and to His deity in the words "I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son." When Jesus claimed that God was His Father, the Jews sought to kill Him, because it made Jesus Christ equal to God, that Isaiah , it established the fact that Jesus Christ was deity.

John 5:18, "Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God."

Hebrews 1:6 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him.

Hebrews 1:6"And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world" - Comments- Jesus is the first one to experience eternal resurrection, so that He is called "the first born."

Psalm 89:27, "Also I will make him my firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth."

Romans 8:29, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Song of Solomon , that he might be the firstborn among many brethren."

1 Corinthians 15:20-23, "But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ"s at his coming."

Colossians 1:15, "Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:"

Colossians 1:18, "And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence."

Revelation 1:5, "And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,"

Revelation 3:14, "And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;"

Hebrews 1:6"he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him." - Comments- This quote bears a close resemblance to Psalm 97:7.

Psalm 97:7, "Confounded be all they that serve graven images, that boast themselves of idols: worship him, all ye gods."

The LXX gives us a closer translation of this text from Psalm 97:7 by using the word "angels" instead of "gods":

Brenton reads, "Let all that worship graven images be ashamed, who boast of their idols; worship him, all ye his angels." ( Psalm 97:7)

It can also be a quote from Deuteronomy 32:43 :

Deuteronomy 32:43, "Rejoice, O ye nations, with his people: for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will render vengeance to his adversaries, and will be merciful unto his land, and to his people." (KJV)

However, this exact phrase is not found in the Hebrew text. But it is found in the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls of Deuteronomy 32:43.

Brenton reads, "Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels of God worship him; rejoice ye Gentiles, with his people, and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him; for he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will render vengeance, and recompense justice to his enemies, and will reward them that hate him; and the Lord shall purge the land of his people." ( Deuteronomy 32:43)

Therefore, most scholars agree that Hebrews 1:6 is a quote from the LXX. Most likely, the author was quoting from a version other than the Massoretic text.

Hebrews 1:6Comments- Hebrews 1:6 refers to the time of Jesus' birth when it says, "when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world." At the birth of Jesus we read in Luke 2:13-14 how all the heavenly host praised God, worshiping His Son. Jesus is to be worshipped by angels.

Luke 2:13-14, "And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men."

Hebrews 1:7 And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.

Hebrews 1:7Comments- Hebrews 1:7 is a quote from Psalm 104:4. Here, the author is not speaking to the angels. Rather, he is quoting on Old Testament Scripture in regards to the angels" works and their divine function, or task.

Psalm 104:4, "Who maketh his angels spirits; his ministers a flaming fire."

"And of the angels" - Comments- We can translate this phrase to read, "in reference to the angels." There are numerous references to angels speaking to and ministering to men in the Scriptures. The angels rescue Lot and his daughters ( Genesis 18:1 to Genesis 19:22). The angel visited Zechariah ( Luke 1:11-20) and Mary, the mother of Jesus ( Luke 1:28-38).

When angels confront man in the Bible, man gives them much respect. Their works are supernatural and awesome in man's eyes. David spoke to the Lord when he saw an angel:

2 Samuel 24:17, "And David spake unto the LORD when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done wickedly: but these sheep, what have they done? let thine hand, I pray thee, be against me, and against my father"s house."

Yet, these angels worship the Song of Solomon , Jesus Christ.

"Who maketh his angels spirits" - Comments- Angels dwell in the spiritual realm and move about supernaturally. BDAG translates the word "spirit" as "winds." Note examples of angels being seen in the form of wind:

2 Samuel 5:24, "And let it be, when thou hearest the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees, that then thou shalt bestir thyself: for then shall the LORD go out before thee, to smite the host of the Philistines."

1 Kings 19:11-12, "And he said, Go forth, and stand upon the mount before the LORD. And, behold, the LORD passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the LORD but the LORD was not in the wind: and after the wind an earthquake; but the LORD was not in the earthquake: And after the earthquake a fire; but the LORD was not in the fire: and after the fire a still small voice."

"and his ministers a flame of fire" - Word Study on "ministers" - Vine tells us the Greek word λειτουργός (G 3011) refers to "one who discharged a public office at his own expense," and generally, "a public servant, minister." In other words, it refers to a minister who represents a government or royal official rather than a household servant.

Comments- Note examples of angels being seen in the form of fire:

Genesis 15:17, "And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp that passed between those pieces."

Exodus 3:2, "And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed."

Acts 7:30, "And when forty years were expired, there appeared to him in the wilderness of mount Sina an angel of the Lord in a flame of fire in a bush."

Perhaps angels are in Revelation 9:15-18, when the four angels destroy one third of mankind with fire, smoke, and brimstone issuing from their mouth.

In addition, angels were used in God's hand of destruction.

2 Samuel 24:17, "And David spake unto the LORD when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done wickedly: but these sheep, what have they done? let thine hand, I pray thee, be against me, and against my father"s house."

2 Chronicles 32:21, "And the LORD sent an angel, which cut off all the mighty men of valour, and the leaders and captains in the camp of the king of Assyria. So he returned with shame of face to his own land. And when he was come into the house of his god, they that came forth of his own bowels slew him there with the sword."

Comments - The role of Jesus Christ as the eternal Ruler over all creation the next verse ( Hebrews 1:8) will be contrasted with the angels and their role as heavenly servants in Hebrews 1:7.

Hebrews 1:8-9Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament- Hebrews 1:8-9 is a quote from Psalm 45:6-7. William Lane notes that this quote has only minor variations from the LXX. 131]

131] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 1:8-9.

Psalm 45:6-7, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." (KJV)

Brenton, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a sceptre of righteousness. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity: therefore God, thy God, has anointed thee with the oil of gladness beyond thy fellows." ( Psalm 45:2-3)

Hebrews 1:8 But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.

Hebrews 1:8"But unto the Son he saith" - Comments- This phrase could read two different ways:

1. "with reference to the son" (NIV), or

2. "speaking to the Son" (KJV).

Hebrews 1:8"Thy throne" - Comments- Note other Old Testament passages that refer to Jesus' throne:

Psalm 93:2, "Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting."

Isaiah 9:6-7, "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this."

Hebrews 1:8 — "O God" - Comments- Jesus is called God in Psalm 45:6-7. He is fully divine, fully God.

Hebrews 1:8 — "is for ever and ever" - Comments- Jesus will rule and reign forever.

Hebrews 1:8 — "a sceptre" - Comments- A scepter is "a ruler's staff" (BDAG). In the book of Revelation this same Greek word is translated as "rod," which is a token of authority.

Hebrews 1:8 — "of righteousness" - Comments- All of his rule will be done in the righteousness, and not wickedly like so many earthly kings.

Hebrews 1:8Comments - The role of Jesus Christ as the eternal Ruler over all creation ( Hebrews 1:8) is contrasted with the angels and their role as heavenly servants in the previous verse ( Hebrews 1:7).

Hebrews 1:9 Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

Hebrews 1:9"Thou hast loved righteousness" - Scripture Reference- Note a similar verse:

Psalm 33:5, "He loveth righteousness and judgment: the earth is full of the goodness of the LORD."

Hebrews 1:9"and hated iniquity" - Comments- God has and will always hate sin. From the fall of Satan until Jesus" eternal reign, sin has always been punished and dealt with. God's holiness will always remain.

Hebrews 1:9"therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee" - Comments- Jesus has been anointed by God for this title.

Isaiah 61:1, "The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound;"

Note New Testament verses on Jesus" anointing:

Luke 4:18, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,"

Acts 4:27, "For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together,"

Acts 10:38, "How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him."

Hebrews 1:9"with the oil of gladness" - Comments- A reference to the Holy Ghost. One of the outward manifestations of the anointing of the Holy Spirit is joy and gladness.

Hebrews 1:9 — "above thy fellows" - Word Study on "fellows" - Strong says the Greek word "fellows" "metochos" ( μέτοχος) (G 3353) means, "a participant, a sharer." And it comes from the verb ( μετέχω) (G 3348), which means, "to share, to participate, to belong." The noun is used six times in the New Testament, with the other five uses listed below.

Luke 5:7, "And they beckoned unto their partners, which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink."

Hebrews 3:1, "Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;"

Hebrews 3:14, "For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;"

Hebrews 6:4, "For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,"

Hebrews 12:8, "But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons."

Is the author referring to us, or the angels, or both in Hebrews 1:9 as "fellows"? The context of the verses listed above using the word μετέχω, along with the context of the following chapters in this Epistle reveals that the word "thy fellows" is a reference to believers, rather than to the angels, which are not equal to Him. In Hebrews 2:10-13 we are called "brethren." The emphasis of the epistle of Hebrews is that Jesus is our brother leading us to our salvation.

Comments- Jesus' anointing with the Holy Ghost was without measure, beyond our anointing, or that of angels, so that His work by the Holy Ghost exceeds ours.

John 3:34, "For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him."

NIV says, "....gives the Spirit without limit."

NASB says, "...gives the Spirit without measures."

BDAG says, "not from a measure, without measure" (see μέτρον 2b).

Colossians 1:19, "For it pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell;"

Jesus has the Holy Ghost without limits; but, we have received the Spirit and His gifts and ministry in part. For example, no one except Jesus Christ has walked in the full five-fold offices.

Romans 12:3, "For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think; but to think soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith."

2 Corinthians 10:13, "But we will not boast of things without our measure, but according to the measure of the rule which God hath distributed to us, a measure to reach even unto you."

Ephesians 4:7, "But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ."

Ephesians 4:13, "Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect Prayer of Manasseh , unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ:"

Ephesians 4:16, "From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love."

Hebrews 1:9Comments- Rule and authority has not been given to the angel, but unto Jesus and his fellow heirs, the Church.

Hebrews 1:10-12Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament- Hebrews 1:10-12 is a quote from Psalm 102:25-27.

Psalm 102:25-27, "Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end."

Jesus, who we see by faith, endures forever. Heaven and earth, though it looks so permanent with our eyes, are really temporal. Jesus is the Creator of heaven and earth ( Hebrews 1:10); Jesus is immortal ( Hebrews 1:11); Jesus is immutable or unchanging in character ( Hebrews 1:12).

Hebrews 1:10-12 describes both the creation and the end destruction of the present heavens and earth.

Hebrews 1:10 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

Hebrews 1:10Comments - In the Creation Story ( Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:3), the earth is formed and founded prior to the creation of the heavens ( Hebrews 1:14-14), and this order is maintained in Hebrews 1:10. All things were created by Jesus Christ ( John 1:3, Colossians 1:16).

John 1:3, "All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made."

Colossians 1:16, "For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:"

Hebrews 1:11 They shall perish; but thou remainest; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment;

Hebrews 1:11"They shall perish" - Scripture References- Note similar verses:

Isaiah 34:4, "And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig tree."

Ezekiel 32:7, "And when I shall put thee out, I will cover the heaven, and make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light."

Joel 2:31, "The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come."

Joel 3:15, "The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining."

Matthew 24:29, "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:"

2 Peter 3:10, "But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up."

Revelation 20:11, "And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them."

"and they all shall wax old as doth a garment" - Comments - The heavens and the earth fell into decay when God subjected Adam and Eve to mortality having sinned in the Garden. The earth is growing old and in decay. Around the world we observe events such as earthquakes, famine, pestilence, pollution, extinction, etc, and despair of the loss of such beauty in God's creation.

Romans 8:20-22, "For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope, Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now."

Hebrews 1:12 And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail.

Hebrews 1:12"And as a vesture" - Word Study on "vesture" - The Greek word "vesture" ( περιβό λαιον) (G 4018) literally means, "cast about." It refers to an outer covering, a cloak, a mantle, that is thrown about one's clothing.

Hebrews 1:12"shalt thou fold them up" - Comments - That Isaiah , they shall be "rolled up" ( Isaiah 34:4, Revelation 6:14). Evidently, a garment was taken off and rolled up and put away in the home in ancient times. Note:

Isaiah 34:4, "And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig tree."

Revelation 6:14, "And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places."

Hebrews 1:12 — "and they shall be changed" - Comments - Strong says the Greek word ἀ λλά σσω (change) (G 236) means, "to make different." In other words, just like a garment is taken off and replaced by a new, clean garment, so will God "cloth" His creation with a new garment of heavens and earth ( Psalm 102:26-27).

Psalm 102:26-27, "They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end."

In Psalm 102:26-27, Holladay says the first use of the Hebrew word "change" ( חָלַף) (H 2498) is the 2MS Hiphil Imperfect, "You will replace them." The second use is the 3MP Qal Perfect (with consecutive), "They shall pass away or vanish."

RSV, NIV agree with Holladay.

NASB, KJV use "change" and "changed."

Hebrews 1:12"but thou art the same" - Comments- Note:

God:

Psalm 90:2, "Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God."

The Word of God:

Psalm 119:89, "LAMED. For ever, O LORD, thy word is settled in heaven."

YHWH:

Malachi 3:6, "For I am the LORD, I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed."

The Father:

James 1:17, "Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning."

Jesus:

Hebrews 13:8, "Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever."

Hebrews 1:12"and thy years shall not fail" - Comments - That Isaiah , these years shall not "come to an end."

Hebrews 1:13 But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?

Hebrews 1:13Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament- This quote comes from Psalm 110:1.

Psalm 110:1, "The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool."

This Old Testament verse is quoted eight times in the New Testament, second only in frequency to Leviticus 19:18, at nine quotes. 1 Corinthians 15:24-28 is similar to Psalm 110:1.

Hebrews 1:13"until I make thine enemies thy footstool" - Comments- God's Word will come to pass. Time does not stop nor make void the prophecies of God's Word.

Genesis 3:15, "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."

Hebrews 1:13Scripture Reference - Note a similar verse:

Hebrews 10:13, "From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool."

Hebrews 1:14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?

Hebrews 1:14Comments- Hebrews 1:14 offers a conclusion to this opening section of the Epistle, by telling us that God has predestined angels to minister for men within the framework of God's redemptive plan. This verse is commonly understood to mean that God sends His angels forth on divine assignments in behalf of the saints (note Goodspeed).

Goodspeed, "Are not the angels all spirits in service, whom he sends on his errands for the good of those who are destined to possess salvation?"

However, the Greek text allows this verse to mean that believers can send the angels on divine assignments as well. The Greek text uses διά with the accusative case, and means, "in behalf of," meaning the angels serve "in behalf of" them who shall be heirs of salvation. For example, Oral Roberts tells the story of a divine vision in which Jesus appeared to him along with Robert's angel assigned to him. Jesus explained that this angel was given to him to help him. He was told to send this angel on missions of divine service for him to work in the spiritual realm, which would then be manifested in the natural realm. 132] We usually think of the phrase "heirs of salvation" to refer to our future entrance into Heaven. However, we can also interpret this phrase to apply to the sending forth of our ministering angels in order to bring "salvation" for our earthly needs day by day. In other words, as we send forth our angels on divine assignments, we can know that God is at work in our behalf as we serve Him and establishing the kingdom of God upon this earth.

132] Richard Roberts, Angels on Assignment [on-line]; accessed 21May 2011; available from http://www.richardroberts.org/2009/07/17/angels-on-assignment-by-richard-roberts/; Internet; see also Oral Roberts, All You Ever Wanted to Know About Angels: A Personal Handbook on the Angels that Help You (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Oral Roberts, 1994), 26.

Creflo Dollar said, "Angels are covenant enforcing agents." 133] They enforce God's covenant towards man. This means they will not do things that are outside the Abrahamic covenant, through which we partake of redemption through Christ Jesus.

133] Creflo Dollar, Changing Your World (College Park, Georgia: Creflo Dollar Ministries), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

Illustrations- Note illustrations from the Scriptures of angels ministering to the righteous:

1. Acts 12:6-10 - Peter is freed from prison by an angel.

2. The angels ministered to Jesus after the 40-day fast ( Mark 1:13) and during painful prayer in garden ( Luke 22:43).

Mark 1:13, "And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him."

Luke 22:43, "And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him."

Scripture References- Note other verses in the Scriptures referring to the ministry of angels to men:

Psalm 34:7, "The angel of the LORD encampeth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them."

Psalm 91:11-12, "For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone."

Psalm 103:20, "Bless the LORD, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word."

Isaiah 63:9, "In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old."

Daniel 3:28, "Then Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, who hath sent his angel, and delivered his servants that trusted in him, and have changed the king"s word, and yielded their bodies, that they might not serve nor worship any god, except their own God."

Daniel 6:22, "My God hath sent his angel, and hath shut the lions" mouths, that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no hurt."

Matthew 18:10, "Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven."

Luke 12:8, "Also I say unto you, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God:"

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/hebrews-1.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, May 25th, 2019
the Fifth Week after Easter
ADVERTISEMENT
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology