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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Hebrews 2

 

 

Verses 1-4

First Exhortation: Heed the Heavenly Calling - In Hebrews 2:1-4 the author encourages the readers to cling to the message of the Gospel to which mankind has now been called to obey. The author bases this call upon the superiority of the message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the divine oracles delivered by angels. Having just argued the superiority of Jesus Christ over the angels ( Hebrews 1:5-14), it must follow that His message carries the same superiority over that of the angels. Since the Gospel declares Jesus as the Son of God, the author exhorts the Hebrews to heed the divine call of God that has come to them through the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. In essence, this passage says that if the words and oracles of angels were steadfast, how much more so what Jesus said, with God confirming His Words, and those He sent out to proclaim this message of salvation. The words of the angels referred to in Hebrews 2:2 refer to all of the Old Testament writings, while Hebrews 2:3-4 refers to all of the New Testament. He gives three testimonies by which God has called mankind to Salvation: (1) through His Son's earthly ministry, (2) through the preaching of the apostles, (3) through signs and wonders and gifts of the Holy Spirit. Because God has now spoken through His Song of Solomon , the original commission of Genesis 1:28 is now restructured around the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

The Great Commission and the Gospel of Jesus Christ- The exhortation to pay close attention to the Gospel of Jesus Christ in Hebrews 2:1-4 is not stated by the author of Hebrews without giving us the benefits of such discipline; for the next passage in Hebrews 2:5-8 reveals that we were created to walk in dominion on this earth. This life of dominion can only be achieved through obedience to the Gospel, since Jesus Christ is the one who authored and made a way for our deliverance from bondage and restoration to dominion, as explained in Hebrews 2:9-18. Hebrews 2:1-18 clearly how the Great Commission ( Matthew 28:18-20) is embedded within God's first commission to Adam and Eve to be fruitful, multiply, and replenish the earth ( Genesis 1:28). Jesus' work of redemption grants man the opportunity to take dominion over the earth again after man became unable to do this because of the Fall.

Illustration: Jewish Devotion to the Word of God- Devout Jews of antiquity gave much attention to learning their traditions and exercised a disciplined lifestyle when compared to the heathens around them. They understood the authority of the Word of God over their lives. They brought up their young children to memorize the Old Testament and to learn their culture. In a similar devout manner, the author of Hebrews is telling these Jewish Christians to follow this tradition by paying much more attention to the words of the new covenant in Christ Jesus.

Illustration: Practical Application of Paying Attention to Everyday Affairs in Order to Succeed- The warning passage in Hebrews 2:1-4 to pay close attention to the Word of God is not only true of spiritual pursuits, but the principle of focusing our attention upon an activity also applies to practical events in daily living. For instance, we can get all excited about beginning a diet or exercise program. If we do not pay close attention to this, we let our discipline slip into slothfulness, and thereby never lose any weight. Likewise, it is so in the things of God. It is good to be excited and enthusiastic about beginning a ministry or task for the Lord. In day-to-day living, careful discipline and attention and faithfulness or stick-to-it-ness is always required to complete a task, for the Lord's work, or for secular work. We can let that spiritual revelation or truth, which we were once so excited about, slip away into total indifference to the things of God.

Scripture Reference- Hebrews 12:25 restates this idea in Hebrews 2:1-4, which warns us to take heed to the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Hebrews 12:25, "See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven:"

Hebrews 2:1 Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip.

Hebrews 2:1"Therefore" - Comments- The opening chapter of Hebrews states that God has now spoken to mankind through His Song of Solomon , Jesus Christ. Therefore, the Gospel should be greatly heeded, more so than the messages delivered by the hands of angels.

Hebrews 2:1 — "we ought to give the more earnest heed" - Comments - That Isaiah , we must pay attention to the Gospel more than ever before when comparing our message to those living under the Law, as is stated in the next verse.

Hebrews 2:1"to the things which we have heard" - Comments - The Hebrew Christians had heard the message from the Old Testament ( John 5:39), and now they had embraced the New Testament message of the Lord Jesus Christ. The author opens this epistle by claiming God "hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son…" This is what we have heard, and the message to which we are now called to heed.

John 5:39, "Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me."

Hebrews 2:1 — "lest at any time" - Comments - The phrase "lest at any time" implies that we give place to the devil at times and invoke the possibility of chastisement from God each and every time we are disobedience, or slothful in the things of God, if we refuse to repent.

Hebrews 2:1 — "we should let them slip" - Comments - The phrase "we should let them slip" is one Greek word, being translated into modern English as "drift away" (NIV, NASB, RSV). Vine says this word literally means, "to flow past, glide by." Within the context of Hebrews 2:1 he says it describes someone who is "flowing or passing by, without giving due heed to a thing." 135]

135] W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White, Vine"s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "drift."

Hebrews 2:1Comments- There are many aspects related to our lives in the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. There is the initial call to receive Him as one's Lord and Saviour. Then there is the call to sanctification. As a believer, the Gospel provides healing for our bodies, authority over the devil, and victory in each area of our lives. We can spend years believing for healing and ministering healing, then focus upon other aspects of the Gospel, and let our faith for healing slip away. We are then to come back and pay attention to this aspect so that we can regain the ground that we may have lost in one particular aspect of this glorious Gospel.

Hebrews 2:2 For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;

Hebrews 2:2 — "For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast" - Word Study on "by angels" - The Greek phrase δι᾿ ἀ γγέ λων means, "through angels as intermediate agents."

Comments- There are many examples in the Old Testament of angels serving as intermediate agents of the Lord to deliver a divine message to men. This was God's Word that was being delivered unto men by angels.

Word Study on "steadfast" - Strong says the Greek word "steadfast" ( βέβαιος) (G 494) means, "stable." Vine says it means, "firm, steadfast, secure."

Comments- The Word of God is steadfast and firm; it is therefore reliable and dependable for our Christian life ( Psalm 119:89).

Hebrews 2:2 — "and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward" - Word Study on "just" - Strong says the Greek word "just" ( ἔνδικος) (G 1738) means, "in the right, equitable." Cremer says it means, "fair, just." 136] It refers to what is deserved and right. There are two uses of this Greek word in the New Testament. The other use is found in Romans 3:8, "And not rather, (as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say,) Let us do evil, that good may come? whose damnation is just."

136] Hermann Cremer, " ἔνδικος," Biblico-Theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1895), 204.

Word Study on "recompense of reward" - Strong says the Greek word "recompense of reward" ( μισθαποδοσία) (G 3405) means, "requital," and comes from ( μισθόω) (G 3409), meaning "to hire," and ( ἀποδίδωμι) (G 591), meaning, "to give away, up, over, back." It literally means a payment given in return for something.

Hebrews 2:2Comments - Hebrews 1:14 tells us that God sends His angels forth on divine assignments. They were used to both deliver divine oracles and to inflict judgment. Their oracles were unalterable, unchanging, and certain to come to pass. Hebrews 2:2 particularly refers to the delivery of the Mosaic Law to the children of Israel through the agency of angels ( Galatians 3:19).

Acts 7:38, "This is Hebrews , that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:"

Acts 7:53, "Who have received the law by the disposition of angels, and have not kept it."

Galatians 3:19, "Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator."

It is important to note that every time the children of Israel disobeyed the Law of Moses under the old covenant, punishment was inflicted. This was particularly true in the wilderness journey for Israel, and in the early settlement of the Promised Land. Unlike the New Testament, we see a God of wrath in the Old Testament. This is because God was at war with mankind judging sin. However, God's wrath was appeased at Calvary as He poured out His divine judgment upon His Only Son Jesus Christ. Therefore, God is no longer angry at mankind. His wrath is now being reserved for the Great Judgment Day ( Romans 2:5).

Romans 2:5, "But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;"

Illustration- When the angels spoke in the Old Testament, their word was unaltered and sure to come to pass.

Psalm 119:89, "For ever, O LORD, thy word is settled in heaven."

Lot:

Genesis 19:1, "And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground;"

Genesis 19:15, "And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters, which are here; lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city."

Hagar:

Genesis 16:7-8, "And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. And he said, Hagar, Sarai"s maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai."

Moses:

Exodus 3:2, "And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed."

Exodus 23:20-21, "Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him."

Acts 7:38, "This is Hebrews , that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:"

Galatians 3:19, "Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator."

Israel:

Judges 2:1, "And an angel of the LORD came up from Gilgal to Bochim, and said, I made you to go up out of Egypt, and have brought you unto the land which I sware unto your fathers; and I said, I will never break my covenant with you."

Judges 5:23, "Curse ye Meroz, said the angel of the LORD, curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the LORD, to the help of the LORD against the mighty."

Gideon:

Judges 6:20, "And the angel of God said unto him, Take the flesh and the unleavened cakes, and lay them upon this rock, and pour out the broth. And he did so."

Joseph:

Matthew 1:20, "But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost."

Matthew 2:13, "And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him."

Matthew 2:19, "But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,"

Hebrews 2:3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;

Hebrews 2:3 — "How shall we escape" - Comments - The phrase "how shall we escape" refers to believers. This means that believers have the potential to neglect their own salvation and they will not escape divine judgment if they choose to neglect what has been given to them. We have been saved from the divine wrath that was displayed in the Old Testament as a type and figure of eternal judgment.

"if we neglect so great salvation" - Comments - The phrase "so great salvation" is not only descriptive of our initial experience of being born again; it also expresses the entire spiritual journey that leads us into our eternal rest. This broader definition of our salvation better supports the underlying theme of Hebrews , which is the achievement of our salvation through the perseverance of the saints.

We will spend eternity pondering the blessings and benefits of our salvation. Regarding this phrase, Frances Roberts writes, "For the more we ponder its magnitude, the more it passeth human comprehension, and to express it exhausteth the powers of speech." 137]

137] Frances J. Roberts, Dialogues With God (Uhrichsville, Ohio: Barbour Publishing, Inc, c 1968), 20.

"and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him" - Comments - That Isaiah , it was confirmed to this generation of Hebrews those who heard and obeyed the preaching of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. In corporate within the idea of hearing is obeying.

Hebrews 2:4 God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?

Hebrews 2:4"God also bearing them witness" - Comments - God always bears witness to the truth:

Deuteronomy 19:15, "One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established."

Matthew 18:16, "But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established."

Mark 16:20, "And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen."

John 5:31-37, "If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. There is another that beareth witness of me; and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true. Ye sent unto John , and he bare witness unto the truth. But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved. He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me. And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape."

2 Corinthians 13:1, "This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established."

1 Timothy 5:19, "Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses."

Hebrews 2:4"both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles" - Comments - God"s name is glorified through signs and wonders and miracles ( Nehemiah 9:10).

Nehemiah 9:10, "And shewedst signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land: for thou knewest that they dealt proudly against them. So didst thou get thee a name, as it is this day."

Hebrews 2:4 — "and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will" - Comments - BDAG says the Greek word "gifts" ( μερισμό ς) (G 3311), means, "a division, separation, distribution, apportionment." Strong says this word is derived from the verb μερί ζω, which means, "to disunite, divide." This may be a reference to the operation of the gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:1-11, which operate by the divine purpose and plan of God. In other words, a man as a servant of Christ, cannot invoke these gifts to operate at his own time and will. He must be led by the Spirit in allowed the gifts to work in his life to bless others rather than himself. This phrase can also include the gift of the baptism of the Holy Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues. However, Kenneth Hagin explains that the phrase "gifts of the Holy Spirit" does refer to the charismatic gifts, but rather, the 5-fold ministry offices because of the used of the Greek word μερισμό ς. This is a "divine endowment or equipment upon a person which enables him to stand in a ministry office." He notes the word "gifts" used in 1 Corinthians 12:1-11 is χά ρισμα (G 5486), which literally means, "a favor bestowed," and refers to "special gifts…bestowed by God's grace upon Christians." (BDAG) Hagin explains that the word μερισμό ς is used in the plural because there are various levels of anointings in any particular ministry office. 138]

138] Kenneth Hagin, He Gave Gifts Unto Men: A Biblical Perspective of Apostles, Prophets, and Pastors (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1992, 1993), 88-89.

Hebrews 2:3-4Comments- The Four-fold Witness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ - Hebrews 2:3-4 explains that these Jewish Christians had three witnesses as to the validity of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, for we know that God always bears witness to the truth. In addition, the Jews understood that a matter is confirmed in the mouth of two or three witnesses, so God gave them to the recipients of this epistle. (1) First Witness of Jesus Christ- First of all, these early Jewish converts had the words of Jesus Christ, which were delivered to the nation of Jews during Jesus' earthly ministry. (2) Second Witness of the Apostles- Second, they had the testimony of those who had heard Jesus, which were primarily the apostles and others who had been eye-witnesses of His earthly ministry. (3) Third Witness of God the Father- Third, they had seen the preaching of the Gospel confirmed with miracles and signs and wonders. (4) Fourth Witness of the Holy Ghost - The fourth witness of the preaching of the Gospel was the impartation of the gifts of the Holy Spirit upon the saints as they ministered under His anointing. It is not difficult to see Hebrews 2:3-4 as a summary of the eye-witness testimonies of Luke -Acts.

We, too, have four witnesses today of the Gospel. First, we have the recorded Gospel accounts from the four Evangelists. Second, John the Baptist and others were a witness for a season, we have men and women today who proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ as it has been handed down from generations. Third, we still have today the same signs and wonders that accompany the proclamation of the Gospel. Fourth, we have the gifts of the Holy Spirit continuing to be manifested through God's servants.

Note the list of various testimonies that God has given to mankind through the ages in order to confirm the truth of His message of redemption:

1. Signs and wonders:

Mark 16:20, "And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen."

Hebrews 2:4, "God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?"

2. Preachers today or Evangelism:

Hebrews 2:3, "How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;"

3. The Holy Spirit:

John 15:26, "But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:"

4. The Holy Scriptures:

John 5:23, "That all men should honour the Song of Solomon , even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him."

5. The creation of God:

Romans 1:20, "For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:"

6. Man"s conscience:

Romans 2:15, "Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)"

Witnesses in New Testament times:

1. John the Baptist:

John 5:33, "Ye sent unto John , and he bare witness unto the truth."

2. Jesus Himself:

John 5:31, "If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true."

3. The works of Jesus:

John 5:36, "But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me."

4. The Heavenly Father:

Matthew 17:5, "While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Song of Solomon , in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him."

John 5:37, "And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape."

2 Peter 1:17-18, "For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Song of Solomon , in whom I am well pleased. And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount."

5. The Holy Scriptures:

John 5:39, "Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me."

6. Eye witnesses:

2 Peter 1:16, "For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty."


Verses 1-13

Calling: Jesus Christ the Son of Man Has Come to Lead Us into Eternal Dominion - Hebrews 2:1 to Hebrews 4:13 serves as the second literary section of this epistle, emphasizing mankind's "heavenly calling" ( Hebrews 3:1) to the Gospel in light of Jesus Christ's calling to make atonement for mankind. The author first exhorts his readers to heed the heavenly calling of the Gospel of Jesus Christ ( Hebrews 2:1-4), then gives a doctrinal argument to support this calling ( Hebrews 2:5 to Hebrews 4:11), and concludes with a warning passage of divine judgment for those who neglect this heavenly calling ( Hebrews 4:12-13). The literary structure of the epistle of Hebrews is primarily built upon the pattern of exhortation, discourse, and warning.

Exhortation — Hebrews 2:1-4

Doctrinal Discourse — Hebrews 2:5 to Hebrews 4:11

Warning — Hebrews 4:12-13

Thus, the exhortation and warning passage in Hebrews 2:1 to Hebrews 4:12-13 form a literary device known as inclusio, where the author offers his readers an exhortation ( Hebrews 2:1-4) and concludes with a warning for failure to heed his advice ( Hebrews 4:12-13). 134]

134] David MacLeon says, "An inclusio marks off a literary unit by using the same word or phrase at the end of a discussion that was used at the beginning." See David J. MacLeod, "The Literary Structure of Hebrews ," Bibliotheca Sacra (April 1989): 185-197, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), 187

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. 1st Exhortation: Heed the Heavenly Calling — Hebrews 2:1-4

2. 1st Doctrinal Discourse: God's Original Commission — Hebrews 2:5 to Hebrews 4:11

3. Conclusion: Warning in Failure to Heed the Gospel Call — Hebrews 4:12-13


Verses 5-9

Man's Original Place of Dominion Over the Earth- The author of Hebrews moves from a genre of exhortation for us to cling to the Gospel message in Hebrews 2:1-4 to the genre of exposition in Hebrews 2:5-9 beginning with an Old Testament citation regarding man's authority over this earth ( Hebrews 2:5-9). 140] Therefore, we are compelled to ask, "What is the connection between these two passages of Scripture?" The answer to this question lies in the fact that the Gospel was designed to restore mankind back into his original place of dominion and authority over this earth through the Atonement and Exaltation of Jesus Christ ( Hebrews 2:5-9), thus giving him authority over the devil and his kingdom. Man's deliverance from the bondages of Satan will be stated in Hebrews 2:14-15; for in the next passage ( Hebrews 2:10-18) the author explains how Jesus Christ has authored our salvation from bondage and restoration into a life of dominion.

140] George Howard Guthrie, 1991, The Structure of Hebrews: A Textual-Linguistic Analysis, PhD Dissertation, Ann Arbor: ProQuest/UMI. (Publication No 9213038), 99.

Illustration- Mankind has miserably failed in taking dominion over the earth, and he stands in desperate need of a Redeemer. Having travelled across the world with the privilege of preaching the Gospel in five nations, I have made a conclusion that if you could describe the world in one word, it would be the word "Suffering." For example, in Uganda, East Africa where I serve as a missionary and live in a secured compound with razor wire, and work in a secured compound with razor wire, I have seen suffering and death that will break one's heart. I want you to understand how far we have fallen from a position of dominion upon earth, to one of being dominated, as did the children of Israel move from seventy souls living under God's grace to a multitude enslaved by Pharaoh in Egyptian bondage. God gave mankind a divine commission in Genesis 1:28 be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth, and subdue it. Now, God did not tell mankind to fill the earth with unrighteousness. No! He is telling us to multiply and fill the earth with righteousness; this is the original purpose and indent of the creation of the earth; this was the original commission for mankind, to spread righteousness upon the earth. Now the great commission is in Matthew 28:18-20, which we call the Great Commission, is to take the Gospel to the nations, which the author mentions in Hebrews 2:1-4. Actually, in this Gospel commission, God has reshaped and reformed the original commission to cater for human depravity. He originally told mankind to be fruitful, multiply, and replenish the earth; and this is what the psalmist has made reference to. The psalmist has taken the Gospel message in Hebrews 2:1-4, then he has reached back into the book of Genesis , where God gave man the original commission to take dominion over the earth, and he joined the two at the hip, that Isaiah , at the fundamental thrust of each commission. The psalmist has resolved our dilemma of loss of dominion from his citation within Psalm 8, which gives us the plan of redemption. Watching human suffering as a missionary has shaped my world view to realize how far this world has fallen into bondage through sin; but, we have an answer, we have a solution.

Hebrews 2:5 For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak.

Hebrews 2:5"For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection" - Comments - The conjunction γαρ (for) links the following doctrinal discourse to the preceding exhortation in Hebrews 2:1-4. Having been called to heed the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the author now offers an explanation as to man's original calling to take dominion upon the earth through the Incarnation and Atonement of Jesus Christ.

The aorist tense of ὑ ποτά σσω tells us that God made a decision in the past not to give dominion of the earth to the angels, a decision that is unchangable. Instead, He gave this honor to mankind. Angels have been given the responsibilities of ministering to us ( Hebrews 1:14). However, within the angelic realm, there are levels of authority over one another. For example, we know that archangels are set over less superior angels. Several Old Testament passages imply angelic dominion over regions of the earth ( Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1).

Hebrews 1:14, "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?"

Daniel 10:13, "But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia."

Daniel 10:21, "But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince."

Also, the LXX version of Deuteronomy 32:8 reads, "When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he established boundaries for the nations according to the number of the angels of God," implying that the nations of the earth were placed under the dominion of angels. 141] If the Hebrew readers held theological views of angelic dominion on the earth, the author makes an effort to dispel this notion in relation to the Messianic Kingdom of Heaven by clearly stating their role as ministers of God and of the saints. Carl Moll adds the testimony of Sirach 17:17, "For in the division of the nations of the whole earth he set a ruler over every people; but Israel is the Lord's portion," as well as rabbinic tradition. 142]

141] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:5. Carl Moll adds the testimony of Sirach 17:17, "For in the division of the nations of the whole earth he set a ruler over every people; but Israel is the Lord's portion," as well as Tobit 12:15, the "Watchers" in the book of Daniel , and rabbinic tradition. See Carl Bernard Moll, The Epistle to the Hebrews , trans. A. C. Kendrick, in Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, ed. Philip Schaff (New York: Charles Scribner, and Co, 1868), 48.

142] See Carl Bernard Moll, The Epistle to the Hebrews , trans. A. C. Kendrick, in Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, ed. Philip Schaff (New York: Charles Scribner, and Co, 1868), 48.

Hebrews 2:5"the world to come" - Comments - Worrell says in the Hebrew mind the phrase "the world to come" refers to the Messianic Age in which the Messiah would rule and reign on earth from Jerusalem. 143] In light of such Jewish theology, the author of Hebrews was compelled to offer an explanation for their present suffering in light of Jesus' Exaltation. Because the phrase τὴν οἰκουμένην τὴν μέλλουσαν carries both spatial and temporal implications, scholars offer a variety of explanations as to its meaning. For example, does τὴν οἰκουμένην refer to earth or heaven, and does τὴν μέλλουσαν suggest this present age, or a future event.

143] A. S. Worrell, The Worrell New Testament (Springfield, Missouri: Gospel Publishing House, c 1904, 1980), notes on Hebrews 2:5.

(1) The Present Age Upon Earth- Some scholars believe τὴν οἰκουμένην τὴν μέλλουσαν refers to the present Church age inaugurated upon earth with Jesus' First Coming. For example, John Chrysostom believes "the world to come" was the world in which Christ Jesus entered according to Hebrews 1:6, "when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world" (Homilies on Hebrews 4), a world in which the New Testament Church dwells. 144] Also, Craig Koester, noting the use of similar phrases in the epistle of Hebrews: "the powers of the world to come" ( Hebrews 6:4-6), "an high priest of good things to come" ( Hebrews 9:11), and "a shadow of good things to come" ( Hebrews 10:1), believes the phrase "world to come" refers not necessarily to the future, but to "the [earthly] world that the Son entered;" that Isaiah , something that is presently taking place. 145] For example, the author will again use this same phrase "the world to come" in Hebrews 6:5 when referring to the operation of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, which began on the day of Pentecost.

144] John Chrysostom, St. Chrysostom: Homilies on the Gospel of John and the Epistle to the Hebrews , in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol 14, ed. Philip Schaff (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1889), 382.

145] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 213.

Hebrews 6:5, "And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,"

(2) A Future Age- Other scholars believe the phrase "the world to come" refers to a future event in which the Church hopes to partake. After citing the various uses of μέ λλω within the epistle of Hebrews , Paul Ellingworth summarizes its meaning as an implication of the "heavenly" realm, 146] arguing that the author of Hebrews was making a clear distinction between the present reality and the future world in which Jesus Christ would have total dominion. Ellingworth says "the world to come" is something believers can both speak about, and to some limited extent, they can experience. 147]

146] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 146.

147] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 146.

(3) The Heavenly Realm - Some scholars place an emphasis upon the heavenly aspect of the phrase "the world to come. William Lane believes this phrase refers to "the new creation inaugurated by the Son's enthronement," which he describes as "the heavenly world of reality." 148]

148] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:5.

(4) A Progressive Event - Perhaps the best way to resolve these dismembered list of explanations is to blend the spatial and temporal aspects of τὴν οἰκουμένην τὴν μέλλουσαν. For example, John Calvin defines it as "that which began at the beginning of Christ's kingdom; but it will no doubt have its full accomplishment in our final redemption." 149] David Allen merges these present and future aspects of "the world to come" as well by saying it began with Christ's "enthronement" after His Resurrection, and consummates with His Second Coming. 150] Allen says it reflects a "continuum of time, a movement towards an intended goal." 151] The four Gospels tell us that Kingdom of God was ushered in by Jesus Christ at His Coming, and it spread across the world through the preaching of the Gospel during the Church Age, with Jerusalem becoming the throne of Christ's Kingdom as His Second Coming and Millennial reign, and the fullness of this Kingdom culminating in eternity after the Great White Throne Judgment. Thus, the Kingdom of God was ushered into the inhabited world in a movement of phases. The "world to come" seems to encompass a broad, general description that includes the Church age, the Millennial age, and eternity in the sense that it was first revealed to mankind with the coming of Jesus Christ; it is experienced to a limited degree by the Church after His Resurrection and Exaltation; and it will culminate in the future with Christ's Second Coming and the Millennial Reign with His total dominion upon the earth. The phrase τὴν οἰκουμένην τὴν μέλλουσαν describes the creation moving towards its final redemption, with Jesus Christ being the first fruits of this new order.

149] John Calvin, Commentaries on the Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews , trans. John Owen (Edinburgh, 1853), 58.

150] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 203.

151] David L. Allen, "Class Lecture," Doctor of Ministry Seminar, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 25 July to 5 August 2011.

Hebrews 2:5 — "whereof we speak" - Comments - The first person plural "we" refers to the author speaking and the readers listening. Paul Ellingworth offers the paraphrase, "Of which we are in the course of speaking." 152] In other words, the author began addressing the heavenly realm of Christ's exaltation above the angels in the opening chapter of the epistle, and this doctrinal discourse elaborates upon the same theme. Westcott says the phrase refers to "the subject of the whole writing." 153] In other words, the author refers to the theme of his epistle as the exaltation of Jesus Christ. The theme of the perseverance of believers by having a Great High Priest is the foundational theme of this epistle, which undergirds the theme of Jesus' exaltation.

152] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 146.

153] Brooke Foss Westcott, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The Greek Text with Notes and Essays (London: MacMillan and Co, Ltd, 1903), 42.

Hebrews 2:5Comments - The motif of the Son's exaltation and dominion is first introduced in Hebrews 1:13, "But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool," ( Psalm 110:1) and it flows into the second discourse with the author's exegesis of Psalm 8:4-6. 154] Paul Ellingworth notes that the reader expects the author to offer a "contrasting phrase" to his statement, "For not angels….," by saying, "But to…" However, this answer is not explicitly stated until the end of this section, "for He partook not of angels, but of the seed of Abraham" ( Hebrews 2:16). 155] Instead, the author develops the answer in his exegetes of Psalm 8:4-6 by revealing how the earth has been subjected to Jesus through His atonement and exaltation.

154] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:5.

155] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 147.

God originally subjected the earth to mankind and gave him complete dominion over it ( Genesis 1:26-29). Because of the Fall, Satan subverted man's position of dominion as he enslaved him in sin. In the ages to come, all things will be made subject to the Lordship of Jesus Christ. However, this is not the situation in this present age; for Hebrews 2:8 says, "But now we see not yet all things put under him." That Isaiah , all things in this present world have not yet been made subject to Jesus Christ and the Church. The purpose of the proclamation of the Gospel is to establish the Kingdom of God upon the earth, and the purpose of the Kingdom of God is for Christ and the Church to rule in dominion upon the earth.

Hebrews 2:6-8Old Testament Quotes in the New Testament - Hebrews 2:6-8 gives us a quote from Psalm 8:4-6.

Psalm 8:4-6, "What is Prayer of Manasseh , that thou art mindful of him? and the son of Prayer of Manasseh , that thou visitest him? For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet:"

Psalm 8 is considered by some scholars as "a hymn of praise," and more particularly, as "a hymn of creation." 156] This psalm shows that God created man as the pinnacle of His creation, and He thus gives to mankind His constant care. This psalm reveals God's intimate aspect of divine oversight upon earth by sending His Son as our brother and the captain of our salvation ( Hebrews 2:10-13), which is the greatest expression of God's care for mankind. It is through heeding our heavenly calling that we will fulfill our original calling in the Creation Story. We may place this text beside Hebrews 1:1-4 and compare the heavenly glory of Jesus Christ as the Son of God to man's intended glory in the Creation Story. Both passages are glorious, with that of the Son exceeding in glory.

156] Peter C. Craigie, Psalm 1-50, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 19, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), notes on Psalm 8, Form/Structure/Setting.

Craig Koester notes that there is "little evidence" to suggest that the Jews viewed Psalm 8 as Messianic, 157] leading to the conclusion that the reference to Jesus Christ in this psalm was initially assigned by the early Church.

157] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 215.

Although the Hebrew readers were probably familiar with the association of the "son of man" with Jesus Christ in the Gospel accounts, most scholars agree that the words ἄ νθρωπος (man) and υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου (son of man) refer to mankind in general rather than prophetically and exclusively to Jesus Christ. 158] However, the author of Hebrews will expound upon this Old Testament passage in order to explain that God gave mankind, and not the angels, dominion upon the earth, and how Jesus Christ fulfilled this prophecy. Thus, the author intended a double application. Through the Atonement of Jesus, believers are now called to follow their Saviour in taking dominion upon the earth through the proclamation of the Gospel, with God confirming their words with signs and wonders. The angels do not partake of this ministry of reconciliation, since this ministry was delegated to the church. The church, in partaking of spiritual warfare, is literally involved in Jesus' work to put all things in subjection under His feet.

158] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 150.

Hebrews 2:6 But one in a certain place testified, saying, What is Prayer of Manasseh , that thou art mindful of him? or the son of Prayer of Manasseh , that thou visitest him?

Hebrews 2:6"But one in a certain place testified, saying" - Comments- The Greek adverb πού means, "somewhere" (BDAG, Robertson), 159] signifying that the exact location of this passage, which is in Psalm 8:4-8, was either uncertain to the author, or he did not take the time to cite its location.

159] A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research, (New York: Hodder and Stoughton, 1914), 1146.

The author of Hebrews refers to Old Testament passages a number of times in this epistle as "a certain place" ( Hebrews 2:6; Hebrews 4:4) or "another place" ( Hebrews 5:6) or "in this (place) again" ( Hebrews 4:5). One reason is because there were no chapter or verse divisions during the first centuries of the Church, but was a later addition to the Holy Bible. Therefore, the author of Hebrews refers to these passages without a reference. The Holy Spirit inspired and quickened to the author this passage of Scripture, though the exact location may or may not have been known by the author. This happens to me often.

Even if the author recognized this passage as being in Psalm , he was not inspired by the Spirit to record its source, perhaps because the epistle of Hebrews emphasizes the Words of God spoken through His Son Jesus Christ above the words of the Old Testament prophets ( Hebrews 1:1-2). William Lane says it is the authority of this quotation that is emphasized rather than its source. 160]

160] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:6.

The Greek word διαμαρτύ ρομαι (G 1263) means, "testify, bear witness" (BDAG) and is used nine times in the book of Acts of those who testify of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Because this word immediately follows the exhortation of Hebrews 2:1-4, which lists witnesses of the Gospel such as Jesus Christ Himself, those who heard Him, God the Father, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit, it becomes clear that the Old Testament citation that follows serves as an additional witness to the proclamation of the Gospel; but more than a brief testimony, this testimony serves as an exposition of how the Gospel of Jesus Christ fits into God's overall plan of redemptive for mankind. In other words, the author of Hebrews offers an additional testimony of God's call to mankind through the Gospel, which is the Old Testament Scriptures.

Hebrews 2:6"What is Prayer of Manasseh , that thou art mindful of him" - Comments- The meaning of being "mindful" is for someone to remember, to think about, to keep someone on his mind. God is not far off or an abstract being. He is personal and very much involved in human lives. Within the context of Psalm 8, God is not as mindful of man's depravity as He is moved with pity and compassion for humanity as the pinnacle of His creation. He looks at mankind in the light of His original plan of dominion upon earth.

Hebrews 2:6"or the son of man" - Comments- Genesis 6:1-2 uses the phrase "sons of God" to imply celestial creatures. This passage of Scripture uses the phrase "son of man" as another way of describing mankind as an earthly creature.

Genesis 6:1-2, "And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose."

Hebrews 2:6"that thou visitest him" - Word Study on "visitest" - Strong says the Greek word "visitest" ( ἐ πισκέ πτομαι) (G 1980) means, "to go see, relieve." It carries the idea of a visitation as well as taking care of someone. Thus, modern English versions give various translations.

1. NASB, "concerned about," NIV, RSV "to care for."

2. BDAG - "visit in bringing salvation," as in Luke 1:68.

Luke 1:68, "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people,"

This same Greek word is used in James 1:27, "Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world."

The Hebrew word ( פָּקַד) (H 6485) used in Psalm 8:5 means, "to visit, oversee" (Strong), and includes the meaning, "to look after" (Gesenius).

Psalm 8:4, "What is Prayer of Manasseh , that thou art mindful of him? and the son of Prayer of Manasseh , that thou visitest him?"

Hebrews 2:6Comments- God is mindful about mankind, and cares for him through divine providence and divine provision. God is concerned about man's daily lives. Many religions of the world have abstract concepts of their gods or their higher power, who are not represented in such a loving, personal way as is our Lord and Savior. God the Father is watching over mankind to work His plan of redemption in their behalf.

The pronoun "him" is generally understood as a reference to mankind in general, and not to the man Jesus Christ. Jesus is not referred to again until Hebrews 2:9. However, this passage says that Jesus, as a Prayer of Manasseh , did go before us so that He could bring us to a position of glory that is referred to in Psalm 8:4-6. Therefore, Jesus is inclusive in the pronoun "him." Jesus had to partake of flesh and blood and become a man in order to fulfilled this Old Testament prophecy. In His public ministry, people marveled that God had given such power unto a Prayer of Manasseh , the man Jesus Christ ( Matthew 9:8).

Matthew 9:8, "But when the multitudes saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men."

Hebrews 2:7 Thou madest him a little lower than the angels; thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands:

Hebrews 2:7 — "Thou madest him a little lower than the angels" - Word Study on "a little lower" - There are two interpretations of the use of the Greek words βραχύς (G 1024) "a little," and ἐ λαττό ω (G 1642) "lower." This phrase can refer to rank (a little lower) (KJV, NIV), or to time (a little while) (NASB, RSV).

Word Study on "angels" - The Hebrew word used for "angels" in Psalm 8:5 is ( אֱלֹהִים) (H 430), which is the same word that is normally translated "God" throughout the entire Old Testament. For this reason, some modern English translations use the word "God":

ASV, "For thou hast made him but little lower than God, And crownest him with glory and honor."

HNV, "For you have made him a little lower than God, And crowned him with glory and honor."

YLT, "And causest him to lack a little of Godhead, And with honour and majesty compassest him."

However, the LXX translates the Hebrew word ( אֱלֹהִים) (H 430) used in Psalm 8:5 into the Greek word ἄ γγελος (G 32) (angels).

LXX, " ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παῤ ἀγγέλους, δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ ἐστεφάνωσας αὐτόν," ( Psalm 8:5)

Other English translations follow the KJV and the LXX by using the word "angels":

Webster, "For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honor."

DRC, "Thou hast made him a little less than the angels, thou hast crowned him with glory and honour:"

Still others take a middle ground, by using the word "gods":

BBE, "For you have made him only a little lower than the gods, crowning him with glory and honour."

Comments - If we understand the phrase "a little lower" as a reference to rank, Hebrews 2:7 says that mankind was made a little lower than the angels in the sense that the angels dwell in God's presence while man was made to dwell upon the earth. If we understand the phrase as a temporal reference, Hebrews 2:7 primarily refers to the incarnation of Christ Jesus prior to His Resurrection and Exaltation. Paul Ellingworth notes that the temporal use is the more popular view and it fits better with other temporal references in the passage (such as νῦ ν οὔπω in Hebrews 2:8) and strengthens the view of a temporal reference. 161] However, the temporal reference does not fit well with mankind, whose earthly status remains unchanged through the ages.

161] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 154.

Hebrews 2:7 — "thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands" - What is this glory that Jesus will bring us into? It is for man to be restored to his place of dominion over God"s creation.

Hebrews 2:10, "For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings."

Hebrews 2:8 Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him.

Hebrews 2:8 — "Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet" - Comments- This phrase begins with the Greek word πά ντα, so that emphasis is place on the fact that all things are made subject to man. The phrase "all things" includes the plant animal kingdoms of God's creation ( Psalm 8:7-8). It includes all mineral resources upon the earth. This word, being fronted in the Greek text for emphasis, repeats Christ's role as Ruler over all creation as mentioned in the opening passage. 162]

162] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 152.

Psalm 8:7-8, "All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field; The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas."

Hebrews 2:8"For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him." - Comments- The first emphatic point is "all." God has put all things under man's feet. The second emphatic word is "not yet." Even though God's Word says all things are put under man's feet, all events are not yet fulfilled so that all things are put under man's feet. Why? Man sinned in the Garden of Eden. Therefore, Satan holds many people in bondage until that glorious day of liberty.

Now in this earthly life we see mankind in bondage to the fear of death (verse 15), so that all things are not yet put under his feet. Paul tells us that the last enemy that will be destroyed is death ( 1 Corinthians 15:20-26). We as believers no longer fear death, so that it is has no power over us. However, we are constantly reminded of our mortality each day as we visit the sick and care for those who are weak and in need. Yet, we do not sorrow as the world sorrows, who has no hope ( 1 Thessalonians 4:13). In heaven we will see all things put under our feet as we rule and reign with Christ Jesus for eternity ( 2 Timothy 2:12). Now we have to see by faith, because of our mortality, so verse 9 begins, "but we see Jesus." Through Jesus all things are placed under our feet except death, or mortality. Therefore, because of Him, we have been brought to glory, seated with Him in the heavenlies ( Ephesians 2:6). Note other verses on looking to Jesus:

Hebrews 3:1, "Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;"

Hebrews 12:2, "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God."

Hebrews 2:8Comments - In Hebrews 2:8 b-c the author has completed his Old Testament citation of Psalm 8:5-7, and he immediately focuses upon the phrase "all things" within this citation. This serves as a queue to let us know that he will build his initial argument upon this phrase. He will tell us that since all things have not yet been submitted to mankind, we must look to Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of this prophecy.

Hebrews 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.

Hebrews 2:9"But we see Jesus" - Comments - Craig Koester notes that we now "see" Jesus Christ "metaphorically" through the eyes of faith. 163] We see Him through the message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul Ellingworth believes the use of ὁ ρά ω in Hebrews 2:8 and βλέ πω in Hebrews 2:9 are essentially interchangeable, reflecting stylistic variety. 164]

163] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 216.

164] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 152-153.

William Lane notes that the name ἰησοῦν is first used in Hebrews 2:9, and is positioned at the end of a participial phrase for emphasis, "…the made a little lower than the angels Jesus...," while the other seven uses of His Name in this Epistle are placed for emphasis as well ( Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 3:1; Hebrews 6:20; Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 10:19; Hebrews 12:2; Hebrews 12:24; Hebrews 13:20). 165]

165] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:8b-9.

"who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death" - Word Study on "for" - The Greek preposition διά is translated "because of" (NASB, RSV, NIV), and "for" (KJV).

Comments - The phrase "made a little lower than the angels" echoes Christ's Incarnation as He was sent from Heaven down to earth to partake of flesh and blood. William Lane notes that the phrase βραχύ τι is moved to the front of the verse in Hebrews 2:9 for emphasis, being found in the center of Hebrews 2:7 in its first use. This emphasis can be seen when placing these two verses side by side, "having been made for a little while lower than the angels ( Hebrews 2:7)…a little lower than angels having been made…( Hebrews 2:9)" He notes the purpose of this word arrangement was to stress Christ's suffering in order to achieve redemption for mankind. 166]

166] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:8b-9.

The phrase "for the suffering of death" reflects Jesus' Passion. Much of the content of the four Gospels deals with Christ"s suffering and glory:

Matthew - 3out of 28 chapters or 1/9th

Mark - 3out of 16 chapters or 1/5th

Luke - 3out of 24chapters or 1/8th

John - 1out of 21chapters or 1/5th

Jesus knew why He must suffer:

Luke 24:25-26, "Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?"

Luke 24:46, "And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:"

Philippians 2:8-9, "And being found in fashion as a Prayer of Manasseh , he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name:"

The excruciating physical pain and the mental anguish Jesus suffered on Calvary is difficult for us to comprehend. God poured forth His full wrath and judgment upon His Song of Solomon , so that His anger is now appeased. He is no longer angry at us.

When Jesus was made a little lower than the angels, He did not shed His deity; rather, He poured it forth into a physical body. He then walked upon this earth that He Himself had created, where every blade of grass bowed to His command, where the fig tree withered at His curse, where the storm ceased at His command. He chose to partake of physical death, although He was eternal and could not die. He could have beckoned from the Cross, and ten thousand angels would have rushed from Heaven down to earth and rescued Him. Instead, every angel in Heaven watched and beheld, breathless, as God Incarnate allowed Himself to suffer and die on the Cross. These mighty angels must have turned and looked towards the throne of God, anticipating the Father's command to release them to rescue His Son; instead, they saw God pour the fulness of His wrath upon His Only Son on Calvary. How can this be? None other was qualified to redeem you and me; for sin is too sinful to escape God's wrath. The perfect sacrifice had to be made like you and me. So Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for whom all things were made, and through him all things were made, brought the fulness of His divine nature with Him into the Incarnation.

We are to have this same mind towards suffering that Jesus had ( Philippians 2:5). We must also overcome and endure:

Zechariah 13:9, "And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried: they shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I will say, It is my people: and they shall say, The LORD is my God."

Romans 8:16-18, "The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us."

2 Corinthians 4:17-18

Philippians 1:29, "For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake;"

Philippians 2:5, "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus:"

Philippians 3:8-11

1 Peter 1:6-7, "Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations: That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ:"

1 Peter 2:21, "For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps"

Hebrews 2:9 — "crowned with glory and honor" - Comments - The phrase "crowned with glory and honor" reflects Jesus' Exaltation at the right hand of the throne of God, and may allude to the priestly garment of Aaron in Exodus 28:2, "And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty." 167] Jesus is now at the right hand of Father and He is crowned with glory and honor. The crown was the symbol of one's exaltation to a royal office, as a king, or the recognition of one's accomplishment, as with an athlete. 168]

167] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:8b-9.

168] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 217.

The epistle of Hebrews carries the motif of glorification following suffering for the believer as well. Believers, being in Christ, partake in this glory and honor ( Ephesians 2:6, John 17:22). Thus, Hebrews 2:10 says, "in bringing many sons unto glory" which is taking place now. Also, Hebrews 2:7 says, "Thou crownedst him with glory and honor," which is fulfilled in Christ Jesus ( John 17:22, Ephesians 2:6). However, believers must endure suffering as Christ endured.

John 17:22, "And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one:"

Ephesians 2:6, "And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:"

Also, we know that we must give to Jesus and to the Father all glory and praise and honor.

John 17:24, "Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world."

Hebrews 2:9"that he by the grace of God" - Comments - The full measure of God's grace that He extended towards mankind in offering His Only Begotten Son ( John 3:16) on Calvary is immeasurable, unfathomable, beyond human comprehension. This divine grace was undergirded by His love for you and me, for God is love ( 1 John 4:8).

John 3:16, "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Song of Solomon , that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life."

1 John 4:8, "He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love."

His grace was not poured out because we deserved salvation or loved God, but because He first loved us. Song of Solomon , God gave us Jesus.

Romans 5:6-8, "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us."

Yet, there are men and women all around us who have squandered the grace of God in their lifetimes, counting it worthless, trading it in for temporary pleasures of this world, as did Esau for one morsel of bread. As Charles Spurgeon notes, how do you define your election, but by the grace of God; and how do you testify to others about your salvation experience, but to tell of the grace of God; and how do you put into words your sanctification, but by God's grace. 169] When we have lived one trillion years in eternity, we will still marvel at the grace of God working in our lives.

169] Charles Spurgeon, "The Captain of Our Salvation," in The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, vol 45, in The Ages Digital Library (Albany, Oregon: AGES Software, 1998), 260.

Hebrews 2:9 "should taste death for every man" - Comments - William Lane says the metaphor "to taste death" is Semitic in origin, and although absent from the Old Testament, it is found in earlier rabbinic writings. 170]

170] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:8b-9.

The phrase "every (man)" describes all of mankind, as he is mentioned in the previous verse, which is a citation from Psalm 8:5-7. In other words, Jesus died for all of humanity, which means His atonement is unlimited and available for all. Every human being must taste death, for it has been appointed unto all men to die once ( Hebrews 9:27). Jesus' death is unique in its effect of making an atonement for the sins of all of mankind. The author of Hebrews will discuss at length the all-inclusive and eternal aspects of Christ's atonement later in this epistle (see Hebrews 6:1 to Hebrews 10:18).

Hebrews 9:27, "And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:"

Craig Koester notes that several of the Church fathers (Ambrose, Theodoret, Theophylact) interpreted the phrase ὑπὲρ παντὸς as a reference to all of creation, rather than for mankind exclusively. 171] This view reflects Romans 8:21, "Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God." The redemption of mankind will certainly be followed by the restoration of the natural order of creation, but this interpretation does not fit the context as easily as restricting it to mankind.

171] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 218.

Scripture Reference- Note:

1 John 2:2, "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world."

Hebrews 2:9Comments - Because we do not yet see all things put under our feet (verse 8), we need a deliverer, Jesus. He tasted death for us, a phrase that describes the undeserved bitterness of Jesus' death and placed within the same clause as "the grace of God"; for it was only God's grace that could offer the Son of God as a sacrificial lamb to atone for depraved humanity.

The one thing holding man in bondage is death ( 1 Corinthians 15:54-57), so that it was necessary that Christ Jesus taste death in order to deliver us from all bondages of morality. Paul Ellingworth notes that the two perfect participles in used Hebrews 2:9 ( ἠ λαττωμέ νον, ἐ στεφανωμέ νον), while describing contrasting ideas of suffering and exaltation, allow Jesus' Passion and Exaltation to be understood "as two complimentary aspects of a single work." 172] Both were necessary in order to secure man's redemption.

172] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 153-154.


Verses 5-11

First Doctrinal Discourse: Applying God's Original Commission to Take Dominion on Earth to the Christian Faith- Hebrews 2:5 to Hebrews 4:11 offers a doctrinal discourse discussing man's heavenly calling that follows the first exhortation of Hebrews 2:1-4 for us to heed the Gospel message. The author begins his discourse with a citation from Psalm 8:4-6, which reflects God's original calling in Genesis 1:28 to take dominion over the earth, as God commissioned Adam to do in the Creation Story ( Hebrews 2:5-9). Thus, the author explains to his Hebrew readers that the Gospel call is not a new call, but a call originally given to the Jews in the Old Testament. While man has generally failed in this calling, Jesus Christ came to earth in the Incarnation and fulfilled this divine calling. William Lane correctly said, "Jesus in a representative sense fulfilled the vocation intended for mankind." 139] It is through heeding our heavenly calling that we will fulfill our original calling in the Creation Story. In order for Jesus to become our Apostle and High Priest, the Son of God ( Hebrews 1:1-14) had to fulfill this original calling by becoming the Son of Prayer of Manasseh , made like His brethren, taking dominion over the earth ( Hebrews 2:10-18). It became necessary for Jesus as the Son of God to partake of flesh and blood through His Incarnation and become our Apostle in order to deliver us from the bondage of Satan through His Atonement and Resurrection and become our Great High Priest by His Exaltation so that He could lead mankind in fulfillment of this divine commission through obedience to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. He now becomes the Apostle and High Priest of our salvation, a role the author compares to Moses as he led the children of Israel in the wilderness ( Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:11).

139] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:5.

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Man's Original Place of Dominion Over the Earth — Hebrews 2:5-9

2. Jesus is the Author of our Salvation — Hebrews 2:10-18

3. Jesus is Apostle and High Priest of Heavenly Calling — Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:11

a) Jesus & Moses as Servants of God — Hebrews 3:1-6

b) The Wilderness Journey & the Christian Faith — Hebrews 3:7 to Hebrews 4:11

Man is Crowned with Glory and Honor- While the epistle of Hebrews opens with a description of how God crowned Jesus Christ, His Song of Solomon , with glory and honor ( Hebrews 1:1-4; Hebrews 2:9), the author will also discuss how God created man and crowned him with glory and honor and gave him dominion over the earth ( Hebrews 2:5-8). Jesus Christ came to restore mankind to his rightful place of dominion. He has become the Author of our salvation and restoration to dominion upon the earth ( Hebrews 2:9-18). This explains why man's depravity is so worthy of eternal damnation, since he carries the image of God in himself.


Verses 10-18

Jesus is the Author of our Salvation from Bondage to Restoration and Dominion- Man was originally designed to rule and reign upon the earth in fulfillment of the prophecy of Psalm 8:5-7 ( Hebrews 2:5-9). However, man fell from this place of authority beginning with the Fall in the Garden of Eden. Therefore, Jesus came in the form of a Prayer of Manasseh , suffered and restored this authority through His Atonement and Resurrection so that we also could be restored to our position of authority as His brethren through our faith in Jesus ( Hebrews 2:10-18). This passage of Scripture interprets Psalm 8:5-7 to be a reference to both Jesus Christ, who fulfilled this Bible prophecy, and the Church, who rules and reigns through Christ Jesus ( Hebrews 2:10-18). Jesus partook of flesh and blood in order to be the author of our salvation, and He is presently our Great High Priest to help us along this journey. He first paid for our sins, and He is now standing as our High Priest at the right hand of God the Father to bring us to the fulfillment of Psalm 8:5-7, which tells us we will reign on earth over all things.

Hebrews 2:10-18 explains why Jesus was made, for a little while, lower than the angels. In order for Psalm 8:4-6 to be fulfilled in mankind taking full dominion over the earth, Jesus Christ had to become our brother, one of mankind, and partake of flesh and blood ( Hebrews 2:10-13) so that He could lead many brethren from the bondage of the devil ( Hebrews 2:14-15) into restoration and dominion over this earth ( Hebrews 2:16-18).

Jesus' Faithfulness to God - The faithfulness of Jesus Christ that is described in Hebrews 2:10-18 will be mentioned in the passage that follows it, which is the exhortation to the readers that corresponds to this message. It says, "Jesus…was faithful to Him who appointed Him." ( Hebrews 3:1-2)

The Purpose of Jesus' Coming - In His Incarnation, Jesus accomplished several things in order to secure man's redemption:

1. He made ineffective the devil (verse 14)

2. He delivered us from the bondages of the devil (verse 15)

3. He became a merciful and faithful High Priest (verse 17)

Jesus Our Brother - The declaration in Hebrews 2:10-18 that Jesus calls us brothers is an amazing concept in the Scriptures. If we try to understand our relationship as His brother from our earthly relationships, we can compare it to a family setting. Children are born together in home under their parents. The initial relationship that a son has with his father is submission and obedience. There comes a time when the son grows into a man. This relationship then develops into a more mature level. It is at this time that a grown son becomes a "brother" to his father. He still shows the same respect and honor, but now he enjoys fellowship at a more mature level, in which they now enjoy as relationship that any two brothers might enjoy.

Now, in the upcoming passages of Hebrews , the author will focus upon the need to go on into maturity, and not remain children; for a believer cannot enjoy certain privileges unless he grows into a mature child of God. He must grow in his knowledge of God's word and in the anointings and gifts of the Spirit. This aspect of the Christian walk gives a believer a unique relationship with Jesus Christ in which He is not ashamed to call them brethren.

Hebrews 2:10 For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.

Hebrews 2:10"For it became him" - Comments - That Isaiah , "it was fitting for Him," or "proper, right, suitable" for Him. The antecedent is God, who saw it fit to perfect Jesus Christ as the pioneer of man's salvation through the Passion. Such an offering grace towards mankind properly fits within the character and nature of God. 173]

173] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:10.

Hebrews 2:10"for whom are all things, and by whom are all things" - Comments - Craig Koester cites similar phrases by ancient philosophers with that used in Hebrews 2:10. He says the early Church used this phrase within the context of New Testament theology to draw a clear distinction between God and His creation. 174]

174] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 226-227.

In Hebrews 2:10 the word Greek διά is used twice with two different meanings. This preposition is initially used with the accusative case, which denotes "direction, extent, or end of action." 175] It is then used with the genitive to reflect agency. The phrase "for whom are all things" means that all of creation was directed towards Jesus as Lord and heir of all things in eternity future. The phrase "by whom are all things" means all things were made through the agency of Jesus Christ as the Word of God in eternity past. Jesus is the agent by which God created all things, and they were created for the Son. In this phrase, we hear the echo of the opening passage to this epistle, which says, "by his Song of Solomon , whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds." ( Hebrews 1:1) In other words, the epistle of Hebrews opens with the declaration that Jesus Christ the Son of God will inherit and rule over all and He has created all things in the beginning.

175] H. E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Toronto, Canada: The Macmillan Company, 1927), 91.

Within the context of Hebrews 2:10 where it mentions Jesus' Passion, it shows us that Jesus Christ did not divest Himself of His divinity in the Incarnation. He remained fully God while becoming fully human.

Hebrews 2:10 — "in bringing many sons unto glory" - Comments - Through the atonement of Jesus Christ we are being brought back into our original place of glory and honor that mankind was first given in the Story of Creation, where we were called to take dominion over the earth. The phrase "in bringing many sons unto glory" echoes the charge given by the Lord to Joshua in Joshua 1:2, "go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them."

What more important task to be issued to a Prayer of Manasseh , than to the Man Jesus Christ in bringing depraved humanity into a right relationship with God the Father. I have been given many jobs to accomplish in my lifetime, some of them are great enough for me to boast; but of all of the jobs that mankind has ventured to carry out, even as great an as earthly king taking an empire and gathering all of the gold and silver upon earth, no task can be compared to the charge to bring mankind into right relationship with the Father. Yet, Jesus accepted this divine commission from His Father; and He fulfilled it. Jesus wearied Himself upon earth with this task. He awoke a great while before day in order to renew His strength in prayer. He healed the all the multitudes, an exhausting task. Can you imagine the passion and energy Jesus had to address every sickness in the congregation? Jesus escaped in a boat across the Lake of Galilee to find rest, only to meet the multitudes waiting for Him on the other shore. Neither did He deny them healing as well. This task of bringing sons to glory was not complete at Calvary, although He cried, "It is finished," regarding His earthly mission. He must now become our Great High Priest and lead us through our journey in this life. His task it will not be complete until every son has been led into His glory. Now, the glory that awaits us, how do we describe it? As Spurgeon notes, if we are unable to explain the grace of God, of which we have now tasted, how can we attempt to explain the glory of which we have not yet partaken. 176] It will be a glory that exceeds our expectations, ten thousand times ten thousand more wonderful that the greatest pleasures in this earthly life.

176] Charles Spurgeon, "The Captain of Our Salvation," in The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, vol 45, in The Ages Digital Library (Albany, Oregon: AGES Software, 1998), 261.

"many sons" - The phrase "many sons" may refer to humanity in general due to the context of this passage, but it especially describes those who have embrace the Gospel. The term "son" shows a relationship of endearment from God towards humanity. In many nations, the term "son" is used broadly for a person who is beloved by a friend. A person may be called a Song of Solomon , daughter, father, or mother by the one who loves them, who is not necessarily a relative. This person is saying that he embraces someone as beloved as dear to him as a member of his own family. He is saying that this person is a part of the family of the human race. We see the phrase "many sons" used in Hebrews 2:10 in referring to the children of God in relation to Jesus Christ. This term reveals Jesus" authority over the church. It also reveals that they were born into the kingdom, as a son is born from a father. Jesus also used the term "son" when speaking to the man whom He healed of the palsy.

Matthew 9:2, "And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee."

"unto glory" - These sons have been crowned with the same glory and honor mentioned in Hebrews 2:7 ( Psalm 8:5-7), "thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands." Our restored position of dominion is fulfilled when we put our faith in Jesus Christ as our Saviour. Note these insightful words from Frances J. Roberts regarding Hebrews 2:10, who says the phrase "unto glory" means God is bringing us into a place of maturity. The more mature we are as believers, the more we reflect His glory. In other words, the more we mature, the more we look like Christ, and reflect His image, or glory:

"My people are precious to Me, saith the Lord. No evil shall befall them without My knowledge. My grace have I lavished upon them to conform them to My image. My energies have I given for their nurture and development. I have not simply brought forth children, but am bringing sons into glory. I have rejoiced in their birth, but rejoice more deeply in their maturity." 177]

177] Frances J. Roberts, Come Away My Beloved (Ojai, California: King's Farspan, Inc, 1973), 188.

Scripture Reference- Note:

John 17:22, "And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one:"

Hebrews 2:10"to make the captain of their salvation" - Word Study on "captain" - Strong says the Greek word ἀρχηγός (G 747) means, "a chief leader." BDAG says it means, "a leader, ruler, prince," and can refer to an "originator, founder, one who begins." Koester notes that it is a compound word consisting of ἀρχή (first) and ἄγω (to lead), denoting a both leader or a founder, with the translation "pioneer" reflecting both aspects of this word. Koester says the word ἀρχηγός is used in the LXX for those who led the children of Israel in the wilderness ( Numbers 10:4; Numbers 13:2-3) and into battle ( Judges 5:15; Judges 9:44; Judges 11:6; Judges 11:11, 1 Chronicles 5:24; 1 Chronicles 8:28; 1 Chronicles 26:26, 2 Chronicles 23:14, Nehemiah 2:9, Judith 14:2). 178] William Lane believes the word may allude to the roles of pagan gods of Greek and Roman mythology and prefers the English translation "champion." 179] This Greek word is used four times in the New Testament ( Acts 3:15; Acts 5:31, Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 12:2). Luke calls Jesus Christ the " ἀρχηγός of life" ( Acts 3:15), and " ἀρχηγός and Saviour" ( Acts 5:31). The author of Hebrews will use the analogy of Jesus Christ and Moses, who led the children of Israel in the wilderness ( Hebrews 3:1-6). Jesus will later be called the author and finisher of our faith ( Hebrews 12:2).

178] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 228.

179] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:10.

Acts 3:15, "And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses."

Acts 5:31, "Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins."

Hebrews 2:10, "For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings."

Hebrews 12:2, "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God."

Comments- Jesus paved our way to salvation as the pioneer of our redemption ( Hebrews 12:2). He did this through His Incarnation ( Philippians 2:8) and through His obedience ( Hebrews 5:8).

Philippians 2:8, "And being found in fashion as a Prayer of Manasseh , he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross."

Hebrews 5:8, "Though he were a Song of Solomon , yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered;"

Joshua , the son of Nun, was the captain of Israel's salvation as he led them in the conquest of the land of Canaan. In like manner, Jesus Christ has become the captain of our salvation. This phrase echoes the divine commission of Joshua , which says, "go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them" Joshua's leadership required perfect obedience; for if he failed, the people would not be able to go into the Promised Land. Jesus was perfect in His obedience. It was necessary for Him to suffer. It was necessary for Him to fast forty days and to hunger, and to be weary in ministry. It was necessary for Him to be spit upon, to have the crown of thorns pressed upon His head and into His bleeding scalp, in order to fulfill Scripture; it was necessary for Him to be mocked and scourged near death so that His flesh was torn and ripped from His body, to bear the cross on His shoulders until He collapsed, to have the nails driven through the palms of His hands and His feet, for a sword to be thrust through His side, for Him to die for you and me. He became our Captain through all of this suffering. I have to reconcile my discomforts as a missionary in Africa. I have to remember my calling to this ministry; I have to believe that my discomforts are necessary in order to accomplish my task of bringing the Gospel to the nations. I have to be convinced that the greater the sacrifice, the great the eternal reward. Jesus Christ was totally convinced that you and I were worth His suffering.

Hebrews 2:10"perfect through sufferings" - Comments - The questions is often asked by commentators how the Son of God, who is introduced as "being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person" ( Hebrews 1:1), has need to be made perfect. F. F. Bruce defines this perfection as "qualified in every way to be their high priest." 180] Charles Trentham says that Christ's perfection was, "…to make him completely adequate for his task." 181] William Lane cites nine uses of the verb τελειῶσαι in the LXX "to signify the act of consecrating a priest to his office," 182] a ceremony that involved the sprinkling of blood. In other words, the pre-incarnate Christ was not qualified to be man's advocate and High Priest before God until He Himself partook of flesh and blood and conquered sin, death, and the grave. John Piper says that Jesus began with an untested obedience and that through suffering His obtained a tested obedience. 183] This tested and proven obedience is His perfection.

180] F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, in The New International Commentary on the New Testament, ed. F. F. Bruce (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964), 52.

181] Charles A. Trentham, Hebrews - Revelation General Articles, in The Broadman Bible Commentary, vol 12, ed. Clifton J. Allen (Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press, 1972), 27.

182] Note Exodus 29:9, 29, 33, 35; Leviticus 4:5; 8:33; 16:32; 21:10; Numbers 3:3. See William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:10.

183] John Piper, " Hebrews 2:9-13 - Our Captain Made Perfect Through Suffering," Gateway Media [on-line]; assessed 24September 2011; available from http://gracewaymedia.com/?page=study&type=sr&sermon_id=18658&res_= Numbers 9&select_id=4134; Internet.

Scripture References- Note:

Philippians 3:10, "That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death;"

1 Peter 4:14-16, "If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as an evildoer, or as a busybody in other men"s matters. Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify God on this behalf."

Hebrews 2:10Comments - Hebrews 2:9 refers to the Passion of Jesus Christ, whose sufferings were greater than what any man had endured. Hebrews 2:10 says that this suffering was necessary because Jesus was made perfect through it. It was also necessary and proper for Christ to suffer in order to fulfill Scripture ( Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, Luke 24:7; Luke 24:26; Luke 24:44, John 3:14, Acts 3:18). 184] An atonement for sin was necessary in order for God's wrath against mankind to be appeased. The blood of the Son of God was the only atonement acceptable to God for the sins of mankind.

184] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 226.

Hebrews 2:11 For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,

Hebrews 2:11 — "For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one" - Word Study on "of" - The Greek preposition ἐ κ may be translated "from," so that this verse could say that we are all from one (God). The pronoun ἑνὸς can be masculine or neuter, so that its antecedent is either God (masculine), or flesh (neuter). Thus, the text can read either "all of one (God)" or "all of one (family)."

Comments - The Old Testament priest was ceremoniously consecrated with beautiful garments and the sprinkling of blood in order that he might be sanctified for his priestly office ( Exodus 28-29). The reference to Christ's perfection, or consecration, in the previous verse blends into the statement of His sanctification. We are one with Christ Jesus in two different aspects.

We are one in that we all have partaken of flesh and blood and we all must face death. In addition, we are one with Christ spiritually, just as a husband and wife become one in spirit. Although the wife is subject to the husband, she is a partaker in all of his possessions and honor in this life. Likewise, we are one with Jesus. What is His is ours. Thus, we share with Christ in being crowned with glory and honor and in His sanctification. We have been cleansed from defilement of sin and sanctified as God's children through Christ's Atonement.

We are all of one because we were made for each other. Have you ever heard two people in love say that they were made for each other? Just like this couple, we are the perfect match for Jesus, the compliment and bride made for Christ Jesus. He would have no other way, than for you and I to spend eternity with Him. He is the Romeo romancing Juliet. He is the handsome prince rescuing the endangered princess. He is the great hero in the movie that sets the heroine free. Why? Because we are destined for Him; He is in love with us. Together, we are one. God made no mistakes in His creation. He ended each day saying that what He created was good. In God's eyes, you and I are good, We qualify to be rescued in the great rescue plan made by God before the foundation of the earth. It cost Him everything to rescue you and I. We are now one with Him because we are a part of His original design, and He never says, "this is bad," for all He created is good. He is not ashamed to be our friend and Lover.

Scripture Reference- Note:

John 17:22-23, "And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me."

Hebrews 2:11 — "for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren" - Comments - Koester notes that these Jews living in pagan societies were often treated with contempt, a fact mentioned within the Epistle itself ( Hebrews 10:32-34; Hebrews 13:13-14). 185] However, Jesus is not ashamed to call those who believe in Him "brethren" because He partook of flesh and blood and became one of us. When we are born again, we become one with Him ( John 17:21). The term "brethren" describes equal rank with Jesus being the first-born among many brethren ( Romans 8:29). As brethren, we all equally share in having dominion upon the earth with Jesus Christ as our brother in fulfillment of Psalm 8:5-7. Within society, the term "brother" implies those with the same social views and unity among individuals.

185] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 230.

John 17:21, "That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me."

Romans 8:29, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Song of Solomon , that he might be the firstborn among many brethren."

Illustration of the Concept of Brotherhood- I would like to take a minute to explain the importance of brotherhood. Brotherhood is something we do not think much about in the United States because we are so independent in our lifestyles. However, once you go overseas, independence is not what people value as much as identification with something of value. Overseas, people enjoy being identified with the local church. I have observed how the Church choir members in the nation of Uganda come to church in the same public transport, ladies wear the same attire and hairdos. In America, we may wear the same choir robes for the duration of the service; but we will take them off as soon as possible. In America, we drive to church in separate cars, all unique in color and shape; ladies look in the church service for someone wearing the same dress, hoping they are unique. Americans are very independent minded; but identification is the opposite, and this mindset can be found in many nations of the world. Identification is brotherhood. It is a sense of belonging together and sharing everything in life together. I have learned the value of brotherhood in Uganda as a manager of a Christian television station. Because we are very front and center in the nation, in our early years we have had big government bullies try to push us around. In fact, on three occasions, we have had to go to the Ugandan State House and ask for help. In a sense, those who helped me were my brothers. There were times I had to put my boxing gloves on and fight for my ministry's civil rights. Those were times that I needed someone somewhere in the nation that saw me as their brother. I was able to get acquainted with the Inspector General of Police in Uganda named Francis Lwega. After that, when I was pulled over by traffic police and harassed,, I would simply tell them that I would call my friend Francis Lwega, and the police would leave me alone because they recognized this name. Several years ago, our television ministry had a dispute with the chairman and Uganda Broadcasting Corporation, who regulated the broadcasting industry in the nation. I wrote a letter to the President Museveni and I said that I need help. A few days later, I received a call from the president of the nation and he stepped into this dispute. He became my brother in this dispute. I prevailed in this dispute. I have learned to be friends with key people in the nation of Uganda who have the strength and character to help me overcome the big bullies. These are my brothers. In the same way, Jesus is our brother; and He is the Captain who will lead you through troubled times. I am telling you, you cannot walk through life and fulfill the Great Commission of spreading the Gospel across the world without your big brother, Jesus Christ, helping you. Our original purpose and intent in Uganda as a Christian television station would have failed years ago had we not developed friendship in the government. I have a number of other friends in Uganda in key places; and I keep their phone numbers at hand. I do not call them all the time; but when I really need help, I will call a friend, a brother.

Scripture Reference - Jesus Christ referred to believers as "brothers" a number of times during His earthly ministry. Paul makes a similar reference in his epistle to the Romans.

Matthew 12:48-50, "But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother."

Matthew 25:40, "And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me."

Matthew 28:10, "Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me."

John 20:17, "Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God."

Romans 8:29, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Song of Solomon , that he might be the firstborn among many brethren."

Hebrews 2:12 Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

Hebrews 2:12 — "in the midst of the church" - Comments- The Greek word εκκλησί α translated "church" in the New Testament literally means, "an assembly or congregation." It is used in the LXX to denote the congregation of the children of Israel. Koester notes that this word was also used for civic gathers in the Greco-Roman society. 186] The εκκλησί α of the New Testament is but an extension of the children of Israel for those who accepted Jesus as the Messiah ( Romans 9-11). The early Christian converts saw themselves as connected with the "ekklesia" of the Old Testament. 187] This is why Paul called the New Testament Church the "Israel of God" in his epistle to the Galatians.

186] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews , in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 230.

187] F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963), 84.

Galatians 6:16, "And as many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, and upon the Israel of God."

Hebrews 2:12Comments- Hebrews 2:12 gives us a quote from Psalm 22:22, which comes from a Messianic passage describing the crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ ( Psalm 22:1-21), followed by a passage on praise ( Psalm 22:22-27), and a declaration of the restoration of righteousness upon the earth ( Psalm 22:28-31). Thus, this verse is quoted within the context of the Passion ( Hebrews 2:9) and Resurrection of Jesus Christ ( Hebrews 2:10), and justification of the saints ( Hebrews 2:11). Jesus' Passion and death is vindicated by His victory in the Resurrection and redemption of God's children. The words of the Messiah have turned from sorrow to joy.

Psalm 22:22, "I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee."

The brethren and the Church are one and the same.

Hebrews 2:13 And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me.

Hebrews 2:13Comments - In Hebrews 2:13 the author appears to quote from the LXX by taking excerpts from Isaiah 8:17-18.

Isaiah 8:17 reads, "And I will wait upon the LORD, that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look for him." (KJV)

Brenton, "And [one] shall say, I will wait for God, who has turned away his face from the house of Jacob, and I will trust in him." ( Isaiah 8:17)

Isaiah 8:18 reads, "Behold, I and the children whom the LORD hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion." (KJV)

Brenton, "Behold I and the children which God has given me: and they shall be [for] signs and wonders in the house of Israel from the Lord of hosts, who dwells in mount Sion." ( Isaiah 8:18)

This Old Testament passage in the book of Isaiah says that Jesus Himself and the Church will put their trust in God.

Jesus was required to trust in God in the midst of His trials, just as we are required to do. He would not have asked us to do something that He Himself was not willing to do. In Hebrews 2:12-13 we have a clear reflection, a clear testimony, of Jesus' Resurrection, after having partaken of flesh and blood and suffered on Calvary; Song of Solomon , we are his brothers. Although we are "tortured, have trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yes, even of bonds and imprisonment, stoned, they were sawn asunder, tempted, slain by the sword, wandering about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented," in all of this, He is not ashamed of us.

Hebrews 2:13Scripture References- "And again, I will put my trust in him" - Note similar verses:

Psalm 18:2, "The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower."

Isaiah 12:2, "Behold, God is my salvation; I will trust, and not be afraid: for the LORD JEHOVAH is my strength and my song; he also is become my salvation."

"And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me" - Note similar verses:

John 10:29, "My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father"s hand."

John 17:6, "I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them me; and they have kept thy word."

John 17:9-12, "I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine. And all mine are thine, and thine are mine; and I am glorified in them. And now I am no more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, as we are. While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled."

Hebrews 2:12-13Comments - Two Old Testament Witnesses of the Church as Jesus' Brethren - The author of Hebrews offers two Old Testament witnesses (Psalm and Isaiah) that the Church is to share in Jesus' glory and honor and in all things that are made subject to Him. The Church will rule and reign with Him ( 2 Timothy 2:12, Revelation 20:6).

2 Timothy 2:12, "If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:"

Revelation 20:6, "Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years."

Note that it is Jesus who is saying these things. Yet, in the Old Testament passages, they were spoken through the Psalmist and through Isaiah. Song of Solomon , it demonstrates the fact that the Psalmist and Isaiah were speaking by the inspiration of Holy Spirit.

Hebrews 2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that Isaiah , the devil;

Hebrews 2:14 — "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood" - Comments - The term "children" connects the thoughts of the previous verse, and is a quote from Isaiah 8:18, "Behold I and the children which God hath given me."

Hebrews 2:14"he also himself likewise took part of the same" - Comments - The Greek word translated "same" in English is in the plural, so that it means, "same (things)." Jesus also partook of both flesh and blood. In other words, He was fully human as well as fully God.

Scripture Reference- Note a similar verse:

John 1:14, "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth."

Philippians 2:7, "But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men:"

1 Timothy 3:16, "And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory."

Hebrews 2:14"that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that Isaiah , the devil" - Comments- Hebrews 2:14 tells us that Satan "had" the power of death. This means that he no longer has the power over death; for all power and authority has been given unto Christ Jesus at His resurrection. The Devil's destruction has not reached its fulness, but is in progress, culminating with his eternal destruction in the lake of fire ( Revelation 20:10).

Revelation 20:10, "And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever."

Scripture Reference- Note similar verses:

Luke 10:18, "And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven."

John 12:31, "Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out."

John 16:11, "Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged."

1 John 3:8, "He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil."

Revelation 12:11, "And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death."

Hebrews 2:14Comments- The verb κοινωνέ ω (partake) is use in the perfect tense in Hebrews 2:14, while the verb μετέ χω (share) is the aorist tense. Paul Ellingworth paraphrases Hebrews 2:14 using this distinction of Greek verb tenses to read, "the ‘children' share permanently with one another a common human nature, and at a particular time Jesus himself also shared it with them." 188]

188] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 171.

Ellingworth believes the verbs κοινωνέ ω and μετέ χω in Hebrews 2:14 are essentially interchangeable in meaning, reflecting stylistic variety, as noted earlier regarding the use of ὁ ρά ω in Hebrews 2:8 and βλέ πω in Hebrews 2:9. 189]

189] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 171.

Jesus Christ could not die because He was immortal, but as flesh and blood He took upon Himself the mortality that held mankind in bondage. As a Prayer of Manasseh , Jesus now could die for our sins. Although we did not have the power over death, Jesus Christ Himself held the power over death, even in the grave, because He never ceased being God.

Hebrews 2:15 And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

Hebrews 2:15Comments - Although we were destined to reign over the earth in the Story of Creation, because of the fall of man and the resulting penalty of death, we became servants of the one who deceived Adam and Eve, which is the devil. Man's fear of death became the "king of terrors," 190] for no greater fear on earth exists than that which threatens man with physical death. Although Jesus destroyed the power of the devil in order to deliver mankind from the bondage of fear, no one can experience that deliverance until they heed the Gospel call. A person must heed the Gospel in order to experience deliverance and freedom from sin and Satan. Spurgeon described "death" as "Satan's masterpiece." 191] The greatest accomplishment of his wicked enterprise was to bring death upon mankind, the pinnacle of God's creation.

190] F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, in The New International Commentary on the New Testament, ed. F. F. Bruce (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964), 51.

191] Charles Spurgeon, "The Destroyer Destroyed," in The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, vol 4, in The Ages Digital Library (Albany, Oregon: AGES Software, 1998), 20.

Through faith in Christ Jesus, we have been called unto liberty, not back into bondage ( Romans 8:15). Due to the fear of the death of finances, health, Job , marriage, family, etc, a man will place himself in bondage by making fear-based decisions. Thus, through that fear, man puts himself under Satan's dominion. Satan operates in this world through fear. He moves people and controls them by making them live in fear. This fear brings them into bondage to him.

Romans 8:15, "For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father."

Illustration of the Concept of Fear of Death- I have seen the concept of "fear of death" very clearly illustrated in my life and ministry as a missionary while working overseas in a nation fear-based. Did you know that the world lives in fear: tremendous fear? My Father-in-law lived in Saudi Arabia for a few years and explained how fearful the people are about committing a crime, since the penalty for theft and other petty crimes is beheading. The Islamic nations are very fear-based in their culture. I live in Africa where people are terrified of government leaders. We are unique in the United States in that we make decisions as individuals and as a society that is faith-based. In other words, we do things because it is the right decision to make and not because we are afraid of someone. However, such faith-based thinking does not happen in most of the world, generally not in non-Judeo-Christian cultures. In many nations, decisions are very fear-based. In Christ Jesus, we have been rescued from that bondage of fear.

Hebrews 2:16 For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham.

Hebrews 2:16 — "For verily he took not on him the nature of angels" - Word Study on "took" - BDAG says the Greek word "took" ( επιλαμβάναι) (G 1949) literally means, "to take hold of, grasp, catch," but can be used figuratively to mean, "be concerned with, take an interest in, help." Therefore, there are two predominant shades of meaning used in modern English translations.

1. Literally- to become like:

KJV, "he took not on the nature of"

RWebster, "For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham."

BBE, "For, truly, he does not take on the life of angels, but that of the seed of Abraham."

1. Figurative- to help:

ASV, "For verily not to angels doth he give help, but he giveth help to the seed of Abraham."

NIV, "For surely it is not angels he helps, but Abraham"s descendents."

RSV, "concerned with"

Comments - God loves the angels, and they are an important part of God's creation and plan. However, Hebrews 2:16 reveals that God made no provision in His plan of redemption for the fallen angels, including the devil. The reason is that these creatures sinned willfully while dwelling in the presence of God and chose to rebel against him. This was not so with man's fall, since he has sinned in ignorance ( Acts 17:30).

Acts 17:30, "And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent:"

Hebrews 2:16"but he took on him the seed of Abraham" - Comments - The phrase "seed of Abraham" refers to one of the greatest promised of the Old Testament. God promised Abraham that the Messiah would come through his seed ( Galatians 3:16). Paul calls believers the seed of Abraham ( Galatians 3:29). Thus, this seed does not include the ungodly (even of Jewish descent), who refuse to submit themselves to the Saviour of the souls, Jesus Christ. The prophecy found in Psalm 8:4-5 does not refer to angels taking dominion upon the earth, but to God's children, who are called "the seed of Abraham" in Hebrews 2:16.

Galatians 3:16, "Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ."

Galatians 3:29, "And if ye be Christ"s, then are ye Abraham"s seed, and heirs according to the promise."

We note that Abraham was called a "friend of God." Perhaps one reason why is because the Canaanites saw God's favor upon Abraham, and they noted God's divine providence throughout his life. Although Abraham dwelt in the land of Canaan, where he had no real friends, his friendship with God brought him widespread recognition among the city states of ancient Canaan.

James 2:23, "And the scripture was fulfilled which saith, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of God."

Scripture References- Note other Scriptural references to the seed of Abraham. Some scholars believe the author of Hebrews took the phrase "seed of Abraham" from Isaiah 41:8-10. 192]

192] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 222.

Isaiah 41:8-10, "But thou, Israel, art my servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend. Thou whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, and called thee from the chief men thereof, and said unto thee, Thou art my servant; I have chosen thee, and not cast thee away. Fear thou not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed; for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help thee; yea, I will uphold thee with the right hand of my righteousness."

Note also:

Galatians 4:4, "But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Song of Solomon , made of a woman, made under the law,"

Hebrews 2:16Comments - A comment should be made regarding the absence of the Greek articles preceding angels and the seed of Abraham mentioned in Hebrews 2:16, which is similar in structure to the phrase "God has spoken to us by Son" ( Hebrews 1:2). The absence of the Greek article means that these words or phrases refer to a distinction of class, rather than to individuals. (The definite article identifies an individual within a class, while its absence includes an entire classification. In other words, there is the heavenly class of angels, and there is the individual angel named Michael.) Jesus partook of the "class" of human flesh and blood, rather than the class of angels. 193]

193] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 223.

The verb ἐπιλαμβάνομαι is used in the present tense. If this word is translated literally to mean, "grasp, take hold of," then the aorist tense (past tense) must be used (as in the KJV); however, the figurative sense of "help" allows us to interpret Hebrews 2:16 in the present tense to mean that Jesus is continually involved in our daily lives. F. F. Bruce offers perhaps the better definition saying that "‘taking hold' carries with it the idea of help and deliverance." He supports this statement by citing the use of this verb in Hebrews 8:9, "…when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt…" 194] Paul Ellingworth notes that "the present tense would be inappropriate for a reference to the incarnation," 195] since the incarnation was a past event best expressed by the aorist tense.

194] F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, in The New International Commentary on the New Testament, ed. F. F. Bruce (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964), 51.

195] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 177.

Hebrews 2:17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

Hebrews 2:17"Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren" - Comments - "Wherefore" - Paul Ellingworth believes Hebrews 2:17 a serves this passage of Scripture by summing up Hebrews 2:10-16 regarding Jesus' Incarnation, noting the use of ὅθεν as a stronger conjunction than γὰ ρ. 196]

196] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 180.

"in all things…to be made like unto his brethren" - Jesus was all man ( Hebrews 2:17) and all God ( Colossians 2:9), fully human and fully divine. Gregory Nazianzen discusses how it was necessary for Christ Jesus to be fully man in order to fully redeem mankind. 197] The reference to the brethren picks up a key word from Hebrews 2:10-13, which emphasized Jesus' close relationship with God's children. Hebrews 2:17 amplifies the fact that He was made like us in every aspect, since the phrase κατὰ πάντα (all things) has been fronted in the sentence structure. In order for His Atonement to be complete, it was necessary for His humanity to be complete as well.

197] Gregory Nazianzen Letters: Division 1 - Epistle CI: To Cledonius the Priest Against Apollinarius. See Gregory Nazianzen, in A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, vol 7: Cyril of Jerusalem and Gregory Nazianzen. ed. Philip Schaff (Oxford: James Parker and Company, 1894), 440.

Colossians 2:9, "For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily."

"it behoved him" - Paul Ellingworth says the word ὀφείλω "indicates moral obligation rather than the pressure of force." 198]

198] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 180.

Scripture Reference- Note:

Philippians 2:7-8, "But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a Prayer of Manasseh , he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross."

Hebrews 2:17"that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God" - Comments - Jesus Christ partook of mortal flesh and blood in order to understand and sympathize with mankind's weaknesses; yet, He had to be sinless as a man in order to serve as High Priest in behalf of man's sins. This two-fold qualification for priesthood is mentioned shortly as "apostle" and "high priest" ( Hebrews 3:1-2). Jesus can now be merciful towards men having suffered as a Prayer of Manasseh , and He was faithful towards God because of His obedience to the Cross. Thus, James 2:13 says, "For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against judgment."

The closest Old Testament motif of a faithful high priest is found in the prophet Samuel ( 1 Samuel 2:35).

1 Samuel 2:35, "And I will raise me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to that which is in mine heart and in my mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever."

Hebrews 2:17 — "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people" - Word Study on "make reconciliation" - Strong says the Greek word ἱλάσκομαι (G 2433) means, "to conciliate, to atone for sin), to propitiate." Allen says this word refers to an atonement for sins with the intent of "averting" God's wrath, thus the element of propitiation. 199] William Lane says "propitiation" is favored over "expiation" because of the use of ἱλάσκομαι in Classical literature as well as the LXX. 200]

199] David L. Allen, Hebrews , in The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture, vol 35, ed. E. Ray Clendenen (Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2010), 224.

200] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:17.

New Testament uses of ἱλάσκομαι ( Luke 18:13, Hebrews 2:7) and its derivatives ἱλασμός ( 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10) and ἱλαστήριον ( Romans 3:25, Hebrews 9:5) on a number of occasions. For example, the Greek verb ἱλάσκομαι (G 2433) ("reconciliation") is used in Hebrews 2:17, which means, "to conciliate, to atone for (sin), to be propitious" (Strong), and "expiate" (BDAG). It carries the idea of making a payment in order to appease God"s wrath.

Hebrews 2:17, "Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people."

The Greek word ἱλασμός (G 2434) (merciful), which means, "an atonement, an expiator." The Enhanced Strong says it is used 2times in the New Testament ( 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10), being translated in the KJV as "propitiation 2."

1 John 2:2, "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world."

1 John 4:10, "Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins."

The Greek noun ἱλαστήριον means, "that which expiates or propitiates, a means of expiation, a gift to procure expiation" (BDAG). This word is used twice in the New Testament

Romans 3:25, "Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;"

Hebrews 9:5, "And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercyseat; of which we cannot now speak particularly."

Another family of Greek words that are translated as "reconcile" in the New Testament is:

1. The Greek word καταλλαγή (G 2643) means, "restoration to (the divine) favor" (Strong), or "reconciliation" (BDAG) The Greek word καταλλάσσω (G 2644) means, "to reconcile" (BDAG). Several uses of this word are:

Romans 5:10-11, "For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Song of Solomon , much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. And not only Song of Solomon , but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement."

Romans 11:15, "For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead?"

1 Corinthians 7:11, "But and if she depart, let her remain unmarried, or be reconciled to her husband: and let not the husband put away his wife."

2 Corinthians 5:18-20, "And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ"s stead, be ye reconciled to God."

2. The Greek word δίαλλασσομαι (G 1259) means, "to change thoroughly, to conciliate" (Strong), or "become reconciled" (BDAG). Strong says it comes from two Greek words:

( διά) - Through or within (G 1223)

( αληθως) - Truly (G 230)

This Greek word is used in Matthew 5:24, "Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift."

3. The Greek word ἀποκαταλλάσσω (G 604) means, "to reconcile fully" (Strong), or "reconcile" (BDAG). Strong says it comes from two Greek words:

( από) - Away from (G 575)

( καταλλάγσσω) - To reconcile (G 2644)

Note the uses of this word:

Ephesians 2:16, "And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:"

Colossians 1:20-21, "And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven. And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled"

Comments - F. F. Bruce says that Jesus accomplished what every high priest under the Law only did symbolically, which was to do away completely with the sins of the people and remove entirely the "barrier" that stood between them and God. 201]

201] F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes, in The New International Commentary on the New Testament, ed. F. F. Bruce (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1964), 53.

Hebrews 2:17Comments - Hebrews 2:17 reflects the central theme of the book of Hebrews , which is the High Priesthood of Jesus Christ. This verse echoes the language of the Mosaic Law when it describes the office of the high priest making atonement for the "sins of the people." His incarnation allows his identification with mankind to be complete. 202]

202] William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 47a, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 30b [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2004), comments on Hebrews 2:14.

Hebrews 2:18 For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.

Hebrews 2:18Word Study on "to succor" - Strong says the Greek word "succor" ( βοηθέω) (G 997) means, "to aid or relieve." BDAG says it means, "furnish aid, help, come to the aid of." Strong says this comes from two words, ( βοή) (G 995), meaning, "a cry," plus ( θέω), meaning, "to run." Thus, it literally means, "to run to the cry of." Within the context of a discourse on Jesus Christ as our Great High Priest, this help implies prayer and intercession to the Father in behalf of His brethren.

Hebrews 2:18Comments - The use of the perfect tense for πάσχω can indicate that Jesus' suffering took place in the past, but its effects linger into the present, or it can indicate that Jesus suffered for a period of time reaching a climax at His death. 203]

203] Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek Text, in The New International Greek Testament Commentary, eds. I. Howard Marshall and W. Ward Gasque (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 191.

What does Jesus Christ help us to overcome? Within the context of Hebrews 2:5-18, He is restoring us to our original place of dominion upon the earth. How does Jesus Christ now help them who are tempted? As High Priest, Jesus is now our intercessor so that we can persevere and overcome in this life. Therefore, the following lengthy passage of Scripture ( Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 10:18) will discuss at length the office of Jesus Christ as our Great High Priest, who ever lives to make intercession for the saints.

The author of Hebrews will refer to this principle of Jesus being able to help us because He Himself has suffered as we have suffered. In Hebrews 4:15 we are told that Jesus can now be moved with the feelings of our infirmities because He has been tempted like we have. He explains that the office of a high priest is filled by men who have also been compassed with the same infirmities of those he is helping, so that he can have compassion on the ignorant.

Hebrews 4:15, "For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin."

Hebrews 5:1-2, "For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins: Who can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way; for that he himself also is compassed with infirmity."

Illustration- When I have suffered in this life, I am able to sympathize better with those who have suffered in a similar way. For example, I know what it is like to lose my mother. I understand the guilt of falling into sin as a child of God. I know what it is like to labour under the sun and strain my physical body day after day. I understand some aspects of suffering. Praise God, Jesus Christ fully understands our sufferings, for He has fully suffered. He is now able to sympathize with us and help us when we suffer.

Hebrews 2:17-18Comments - The Levitical Priesthood Failed to Secure Aid to Israel, While Jesus is Our Faithful High Priest- Had the Levitical priesthood done their Job , God would not have judged Israel, and destroyed it in His wrath. These priests failed in securing Israel's atonement. However, Jesus Christ is our faithful High Priest, who lives forever to intercede for us and to secure our entrance into Heaven.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Hebrews 2:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/hebrews-2.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, September 23rd, 2019
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
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