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Bible Commentaries

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Hebrews 3

Verses 1-6

Jesus and Moses as Servants of God Lead God’s Children to Rest The author gives us an example of both Jesus Christ and Moses as faithful servants over the ministry that the Lord gave to them (Hebrews 3:1-58.3.6). Moses was a servant by leading the children of Israel out of bondage and through the wilderness towards their eternal rest; and Jesus Himself became an Apostle and High Priest in order to lead mankind into his eternal rest in fulfillment of Psalms 8:5-19.8.7. As Moses was faithful over the Israelites, Jesus was faithful lead mankind into rest.

Jesus the Son Compared to Moses the Servant Hebrews 3:1-58.3.6 explains that Jesus Christ, the Son of God has been set over the house of God, which is the Church, in the same way that Moses, God’s servant, was set over the house of Israel. However, the Son (Jesus) has more honor than the household servant (Moses). If we consider the two offices that Jesus held as the Apostle and High Priest of our profession (Hebrews 3:1), we are told in this passage of Scripture that He was faithful in His office as an Apostle, and He is now faithful in His office as our Great High Priest. Just as Moses was a faithful servant who led the Israelites through the wilderness for forty years, so will Jesus Christ lead us throughout spiritual journey in this life and bring us to our eternal home in glory. However, the Israelites did not “consider” Moses as their divine leader. They murmured and complained against him and brought upon them the wrath of God.

Hebrews 3:1 Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;

Hebrews 3:1 “Wherefore” Comments - Craig Koester correctly notes that the Greek word ο ̔́ θεν (because of this) shows us that the author “is in the middle of an argument rather than at the beginning of a new section.” [204]

[204] Craig R. Koester, Hebrews, in The Anchor Bible, eds. William Foxwell Albright and David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 2001), 224.

Hebrews 3:1 “holy brethren” Comments - Our holiness is bestowed upon us because of the Apostolic and High Priesthood offices of the Lord Jesus Christ. His suffering on Calvary and resurrection provided our initial justification, and His High Priesthood allows us to maintain this position of holiness as we confess our sins before the Father. Our relationship with Jesus Christ as our brother is established by the fact that He partook of flesh and blood by His incarnation.

Hebrews 3:1 “partakers of the heavenly calling” Comments - The author is addressing those who have partaken of the high calling, or the calling from above as described in the preceding exhortation (Hebrews 2:1-58.2.18), which exhortation the author refers to as the “heavenly calling.” We have become partakers of this heavenly calling because Jesus Christ came in the flesh and went before us and now calls us brethren. This means that he is speaking to Christians, in particular converted Jews. This heavenly calling is mentioned in Hebrews 2:1-58.2.18 by which we are called by the preaching of the Gospel to believe in Jesus Christ as our Saviour, which is the first exhortation of this Epistle and emphasizes the initial part of our spiritual journey described as “calling.”

Note that in at least four passages of the book of Hebrews, the recipients are referred to as saved people, and not to the lost (Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 3:1; Hebrews 3:14; Hebrews 12:8). This Epistle is addressed to the Church, and not to the world. So, why the stern warnings in Hebrews 6:4-58.6.6; Hebrews 10:26-58.10.27 about falling away: simply because believers can fall away from Christ Jesus and out of His saving grace and miss Heaven.

Hebrews 1:9, “Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows .”

Hebrews 3:14, “For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;”

Hebrews 12:8, “But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons.”

Scripture Reference Note another reference to our heavenly calling in 2 Peter 1:10, “Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall:”

Hebrews 3:1 “consider” - Word Study on “consider” Strong says the Greek word “consider” ( κατανοε ́ ω ) (G2657) means, “to observe fully.” BDAG says it means, “to notice, observe carefully, look at (with reflection), consider, contemplate,” and in this passage it means, “to fix the eyes of the spirit upon.” Strong says it comes from the root word νοε ́ ω (G3539), which means, “to comprehend, heed.”

Comments The request to consider means that the author is about to teach his readers something in regards to Jesus Christ as our Apostle and High Priest. Thus, seems to open this passage of Scripture as a doctrinal discourse rather than an exhortation, which typically begins with “Let us…” Note a similar statement in Hebrews 7:4, “Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils.” We find a similar statement again in Hebrews 12:3, “For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds,” which begins a discourse on perseverance. However, we find this word used in an exhortation in Hebrews 10:24, “And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works:”

In light of our calling to heed the Gospel, we are to consider Jesus Christ’s calling as an Apostle (through His Incarnation and Atonement) and High Priest (through His Exaltation). When we consider Jesus Christ as Hebrews 3:1 tells us to do, we must consider the fact that He partook of flesh and blood like us (Hebrews 2:17) and that He was tempted in all ways as we were (Hebrews 4:15). Therefore, He also had to learn obedience by the things that He suffered “in the flesh” (Hebrews 5:8).

Hebrews 2:17, “Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.”

Hebrews 4:15, “For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.”

Hebrews 5:8, “Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered;”

The author will expound upon Jesus’ role in our perseverance so that we will be able to “consider” Him in his role as the Apostle and High Priest of our confession. Thus, the book of Hebrews guides us into an extensive “consideration” of the role of Jesus Christ in our perseverance of faith.

Hebrews 3:1 “the Apostle and High Priest” Comments - The word “apostle” literally means, “one who is sent.” Jesus was sent from heaven. God sent his Son into the world to save the world. Jesus was sent to bring the Gospel message of salvation (Hebrews 2:14-58.2.16).

The office of the high priest was to intercede for the sins of the people. Only the high priest could enter into the holy of holies and make atonement for the sins of the people. Jesus is now our high priest and intercessor to God (Hebrews 2:17-58.2.18). Jesus Christ now lives to intercede for us, His church. This is His present-day office and ministry.

John 17:9 “I pray for them : I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine.”

Romans 8:26 “Likewise the Spirit also helpth our infirmities: for we know what we should pray for as we ought: But the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groaning which cannot be uttered.

Romans 8:27 “Aid He that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God”

Romans 8:34 “It is Christ that died, ye a rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us”

Hebrews 7:25 “where for He is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by Him, seeing He ever liveth to make intercession for them.

In addition, in order to serve in his office, the high priest himself must be holy. Therefore, it was necessary for Jesus Christ Himself to be sinless (Hebrews 9:14, 1 Peter 1:19).

Hebrews 9:14, “How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?”

1 Peter 1:19, “But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:”

Hebrews 3:1 “of our profession” Comments - Jesus now serves the role as the High Priest of our profession, or as we say in modern English, our confession. During the time when Paul wrote this Epistle to the Hebrews, which many scholars believe was the mid to late 60’s, the first persecutions had begun against the Church. Nero blamed the Christians for the burning of Rome, and launched an assault against anyone who professed Jesus Christ as the Son of God. Thus, a believer’s confession of faith in Christ could cost him his life, and it did for many Christians during this early period in Church history. This Epistle, called a “word of exhortation” (Hebrews 13:22), will encourage the Hebrew Christians to hold fast to their confession of faith (Hebrews 10:23).

Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 10:18 teaches us about the High Priesthood of Jesus Christ. Then, a new section begins in Hebrews 10:19 to Hebrews 13:17 by telling us our role as recipients of this High Priesthood. It begins by telling us that our job is to hold fast the profession (or confession) of our faith without wavering; for he is faithful that promised;” (Hebrews 10:23) We are then given a multitude of examples of how to hold fast our confession of faith in Hebrews 11:1-58.11.40. This great chapter of faith reveals that each of the patriarchs held fast to a confession of faith and we bear witness to their confession because of the life that they lived.

For example, Abel’s testimony still speaks today of his sacrifice that pleased God. Enoch’s testimony was that his life pleased God. Noah’s confession was that a flood was coming to judge the earth and he prepared for it. Abraham kept his confession on a heavenly city whose builder and maker was God. They all had the confession that they were just pilgrims and strangers on earth and that God had something better for them (Hebrews 11:13). Abraham said that God would raise his son Isaac from the dead. Isaac, Jacob and Joseph all confessed and prophesied of better things to come. Moses held fast to his confession that he would rather suffer with God’s people in order to receive a greater and eternal reward. Thus, this passage teaches us that we are to hold fast the confession of our faith in God’s Word in order to persevere as did the patriarchs.

Since the foundational theme of the book of Hebrews is the perseverance of the saints, our faith within the context of this epistle is to be expressed by holding fast to our words of faith in God’s Word. Jesus was put in the office of High Priest to help us in every time of need. Thus, we lose our opportunity to receive God’s help when we lose our confession of faith in God’s promises.

Hebrews 3:1 Comments - Hebrews 3:1 echoes the offices of Jesus Christ the Son of God as it relates to mankind’s redemption. It says that in light of Jesus being the eternal Son of God (chapter 1) and in light of His redemptive work on Calvary by partaking of flesh and blood and dying for our sins (chapter 2), let us look at his present day ministry as High Priest at the Father's right hand (Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 10:18). Note:

Hebrews 4:14, “Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.”

Thus, Hebrews 3:1 echoes the three-fold office of Jesus Christ regarding man’s redemption in this passage. Jesus Christ was the Word of God in creation. He was the Apostle sent from God for our salvation, as mentioned in Hebrews 2:14-58.2.16. Today he is the Great High Priest who stands at the Father’s right hand interceding for the saints, as mentioned in Hebrews 2:17-58.2.18. Hebrews 3:1 only refers to Jesus as the Apostle and High Priest because these are the two offices that involve man’s redemption back to God.

As we examine the Old Testament, we see a type and figure of these two offices in the lives of two individuals with the name “Joshua.” We see how Joshua, the son of Nun, led God’s people into the Promised Land just as Jesus Christ has led us forth from bondage into victory. In addition, Joshua the high priest, who served in Jerusalem after the return from Babylonian Exile, serves as a figure of the priestly office of Jesus Christ. In the vision of Zechariah, the angel of the Lord rebuked Satan and declared that Joshua high priest was qualified to intercede for the people of Israel (Zechariah 3:1-38.3.10).

Hebrews 3:2 Who was faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house.

Hebrews 3:2 “Who was faithful to him that appointed him” Comments - Hebrews 3:2 says that Jesus Christ was faithful to the one who appointed Him over His house, which is the Church. His act of faithfulness is described in the previous passage of Hebrews 2:1-58.2.18, which tells us that Jesus Christ partook of flesh and blood, preached the Gospel to us, then tasted death in behalf of every man.

Hebrews 3:2 “as also Moses was faithful in all his house” Comments - Numbers 12:7 tells us that Moses was faithful to execute his office over the children of Israel, despite their choice to disobey and rebel.

Numbers 12:7, “My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all mine house.”

The office and ministry of Moses stands out unique in the Old Testament in many ways:

1. An enormous amount of God’s works and demonstrations of miracles was wrought through Moses.

2. There is a high frequency of references to Moses throughout the Scriptures.

3. Moses alone spoke with God face to face:

Numbers 12:7-4.12.8, “My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all mine house. With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?”

Deuteronomy 34:10, “And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face,”

How was Moses faithful?

1. He was a faithful intercessor in times of need.

2. He was faithful to speak God’s commandments to Israel.

3. He was faithful to judge Israel in their disputes with justice.

Illustrations of Moses as:

A teacher:

Deuteronomy 4:5, “Behold, I have taught you statutes and judgments, even as the LORD my God commanded me, that ye should do so in the land whither ye go to possess it.”

An intercessor:

Exodus 32:11, “And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said, LORD, why doth thy wrath wax hot against thy people, which thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power, and with a mighty hand?”

Numbers 14:19-4.14.20, “Pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of this people according unto the greatness of thy mercy, and as thou hast forgiven this people, from Egypt even until now. And the LORD said, I have pardoned according to thy word:”

A judge:

Exodus 18:13, “And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening.”

Moses was God’s spokesman throughout the Pentateuch. Samuel also was:

An intercessor and teacher:

1 Samuel 12:23, “Moreover as for me, God forbid that I should sin against the LORD in ceasing to pray for you: but I will teach you the good and the right way:”

1 Samuel 15:11, “It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and hath not performed my commandments. And it grieved Samuel; and he cried unto the LORD all night.”

God’s spokesman:

1 Samuel 4:1, “And the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside Ebenezer: and the Philistines pitched in Aphek.”

Jesus Christ is now our faithful intercessor:

Hebrews 7:25, “Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.”

So we, as God’s ministers, must take these as examples to live by.

Hebrews 3:2 Comments Moses was faithful over God’s children Israel as he led them through the wilderness to reach their Promised Land. Jesus will be faithful to bring us to our eternal home in Heaven and restore us to our original place of dominion over the earth in fulfillment of Psalms 8:5-19.8.7 (Hebrews 2:6-58.2.8).

Hebrews 3:3 For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house.

Hebrews 3:3 “inasmuch as he who hath builded the house hath more honour than the house” - Comments - We are the house of God. Note:

Zechariah 6:12, “And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD:”

Matthew 16:18, “And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.”

Ephesians 2:20-49.2.22, “And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord: In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.”

Hebrews 3:4 For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God.

Hebrews 3:4 “but he that built all things is God” - Comments - We are God’s workmanship (Ephesians 2:10).

Ephesians 2:10, “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.”

Hebrews 3:5 And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after;

Hebrews 3:5 “And Moses verily was faithful in all his house, as a servant” - Comments - In the Old Testament Moses is called “the servant of the Lord.”

Joshua 13:8, “With whom the Reubenites and the Gadites have received their inheritance, which Moses gave them, beyond Jordan eastward, even as Moses the servant of the LORD gave them;”

Hebrews 3:5 “for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken after” - Comments - That is, Moses’ faithfulness serves as a future testimony about Jesus. Moses’ office and ministry serves as a type and figure of the Lord Jesus Christ’s ministry over the Church. Moses’ faithfulness over Israel was a type of Jesus’ faithfulness over God’s people. Therefore, Moses was able to prophesy that One was coming “like unto me.” (Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:18; Deuteronomy 34:10)

Deuteronomy 18:15, “The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me ; unto him ye shall hearken;”

Deuteronomy 18:18-5.18.19, “I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee , and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.”

Deuteronomy 34:10, “And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face,”

We can find a number of similarities in the lives and Jesus and Moses:

1. The King sought to kill both Moses and Jesus when they were babies.

2. Moses tried in the flesh to deliver Israel at the age 40 by killing an Egyptian. He failed. Jesus delivered the children of God with His death and resurrection.

3. Moses' name means, “drawn out,” or delivered (saved) from water.

4. Both were sent out by God. Moses was sent to the children of Israel, and then to Mount Sinai. Jesus was sent from heaven to earth.

Hebrews 3:6 But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.

Hebrews 3:6 “But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we” - Comments - Moses as a servant, a man; Jesus as a son, the Son of God; so, Jesus receives more glory.

Hebrews 3:6 “if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end” Comments - Hebrews 3:6 reflects the underlying theme of the book of Hebrews, which is the perseverance of the saints. As God’s children, we cannot lose our salvation because it is secure in Christ; but we can renounce it and walk away from our security in Christ and lose it.

“if we hold fast” - How do we hold fast? 1 John 2:28 explains that we hold fast by abiding in Jesus Christ.

1 John 2:28, “And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming.”

Also note similar verses:

Matthew 10:22, “And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.”

Matthew 24:13, “But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.”

Romans 11:22, “Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in his goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.”

Galatians 6:9, “And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.”

Colossians 1:23, “If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel, which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven; whereof I Paul am made a minister;”

1 John 4:4, “Ye are of God, little children, and have overcome them: because greater is he that is in you, than he that is in the world.”

Revelation 2:7, “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.”

Revelation 2:11, “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.”

Revelation 2:26, “And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations:”

Revelation 3:5, “He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels.”

Revelation 3:12, “Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.”

Revelation 3:21, ”To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.”

Revelation 21:7, “He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.”

“the rejoicing of the hope” - BDAG translates this phrase, “that for which we are proud to hope” (see καύχημα 1). Literally, “a boasting.” Note Romans 5:2.

Romans 5:2, “By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God .”


Hebrews 3:14, “For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end ;”

We will not be ashamed of our hope in Jesus.

Romans 5:5, “And hope maketh not ashamed ; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.”

1 John 2:28, “And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence , and not be ashamed before him at his coming.”

“firm unto the end” The phrase “firm unto the end” is not found in a number of important ancient Greek manuscripts, which suggests that it was added to those manuscripts which do have these words. It is possible that this phrase was borrowed from Hebrews 3:14, where it again occurs with unanimous textual support. In the study of textual criticism, the insertion of a phrase into the author’s work is called an interpolation.

Hebrews 3:6 Comments In Hebrews 3:6 Paul is exhorting us to be steadfast in Christ, and to understand that His high priesthood is made available to us to deal with our sins. The author of Hebrews will follow this word of exhortation with an example of those children of Israel who rebelled and turned their hearts from following the Lord (Hebrews 3:7-58.3.11). They serve as an example of those who did not hold fast their confidence and rejoicing steadfast until the end. The Israelites in the wilderness gave up “the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope” (Hebrews 3:6). Paul will rephrase and expand his exhortation of Hebrews 3:6 again in Hebrews 3:12-58.3.14.

Hebrews 3:12-58.3.14, “Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;”

Verses 1-19

Jesus Is Now the Author and High Priest of This Heavenly Calling - In Hebrews 1:1 to Hebrews 2:18 the author has revealed the ministry of Jesus as the pre-incarnate, eternal Son of God (Hebrews 1:1-58.1.14) and the Apostle of our salvation sent from God to redeem mankind as the Son of Man (Hebrews 2:1-58.2.18). He will now take up the bulk of the epistle of Hebrews with a lengthy discourse on His present-day office as our Great High Priest, who is now seated at the right hand of the Father (Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 10:18). The lengthy passage in Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 10:18 reveals His third phase of ministry that is taking place today, as our High Priest who ever lives to make intercession for the saints. This Epistle introduced Jesus in His initial office as the eternal Word of God, creator of the universe, born as the Son of God (Hebrews 1:1-58.1.14). Then it discusses His second phase of ministry as the Apostle sent from Heaven in order to secure man’s salvation (Hebrews 2:1-58.2.18). Jesus Christ is now in His third phase of ministry as our Great High Priest, coming to our aid so that we might persevere until the end. Jesus will enter into His fourth and final phase of ministry as He one day will rule and reign in Jerusalem as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. All the while Jesus Christ has been the eternal, pre-incarnate Son of God; and since partaking of flesh and blood He has now become our Brother.

It is important to understand that this passage of Scripture regarding Jesus’ redemptive role for mankind (Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 10:18) is described from the perspective of our need to continue in the Gospel of Jesus Christ in order to obtain this redemption. Thus, the theme of the perseverance of the saints is emphasized. In contrast, the lengthy discourse in the epistle of Romans, which emphasizes Church doctrine, discusses our secure position of justification through faith in Jesus Christ once we believe the message of the Gospel. However, in Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 5:14 we are told that our justification is dependent upon our willingness to persevere in faith and not turn back in rebellion, as did the children of Israel in the wilderness.

Hebrews 3:1 picks up the theme of the second literary section, calling it the “heavenly calling.” This passage of Scripture explains Jesus’ role as the Apostle and High Priest of our salvation who is faithful to lead us to our eternal rest that God has promised from the foundation of the world, a charge that the children of Israel failed to heed under Moses as he led them through the wilderness. The author first tells us that Jesus Christ now serves as the Apostle and High Priest of this heavenly calling (Hebrews 3:1-58.3.6). The author will support this statement with a doctrinal argument (Hebrews 3:7 to Hebrews 4:11), which is based upon the analogy of the faithfulness of Moses leading the children of Israel through the wilderness (taken from Numbers 12:7) and the unfaithfulness of many Israelites in considering Moses as their appointed leader (taken from Numbers 13-14).

Outline Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus and Moses as Servants of God Hebrews 3:1-58.3.6

2. The Wilderness Journey & the Christian Faith Hebrews 3:7 to Hebrews 4:11

Using Old Testament Analogies in the New Testament Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:11 gives us the Old Testament analogy of Moses leading the Israelites in the wilderness as a servant of God as a type and figure of Christ, the Son of God, leading the Church to their eternal heavenly rest. Thus, we are given a Scriptural basis for taking events out of the stories found in the Pentateuch and applying them to our spiritual journey. This passage teaches us that since Christ is set over us as in a similar way that Moses was over the children of Israel, we should be careful not to walk in unbelief and rebellion as they, but make every effort to enter into the rest that God has prepared for us.

The Perseverance of the Saints Led by Jesus Compared to the Perseverance of Israel in the Wilderness Led by Moses Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:11 establishes the topic of the perseverance of the saints, which is the underlying theme for the epistle of Hebrews, as well as that of the General Epistles. In establishing this theme, the author chooses to use the example of the wilderness journey of the children of Israel in order to illustration the need for saints to persevere. Why would the author of Hebrews use this illustration found in the book of Numbers? Perhaps if we examine the themes of the Pentateuch and compare them to the themes of the New Testament books, we may find an answer.

The theme of the book of Genesis is the founding of the nation of Israel, God’s seed of righteousness, by which He plans to use to in order to accomplish the redemption of mankind. God will use several men who fulfilled their divine destinies to create the nation of Israel. These patriarchs, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, will play leading roles in the establishment of this nation in much the same way the Gospels and the book of Acts reveals the origin of the Church and how men like Jesus Christ, Peter, Stephen, Philip the evangelist and Paul the apostle played leading roles in the establishment of the early Church. Thus, the book of Genesis is structured around the genealogies of these men of righteousness in order to explain its theme of the founding of the nation of Israel. As the book of Exodus establishes the doctrines of the nation of Israel, so to the Pauline Epistles establish Church doctrine. As the book of Leviticus establishes the order of worship for the Israelites, so do the Pastoral Epistles establish Church order. As the book of Numbers explains the perseverance of the righteous, so do the Catholic Epistles explain the perseverance of the Church. As the book of Deuteronomy reveals how the nation of Israel is to enter in and to possess the Promised Land, so does the book of Revelation reveal to the Church how to enter into Heaven. Thus, the author of the book of Hebrews found it appropriate when discussing the topic of the perseverance of the saints in Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:11 to draw its parallel in the Old Testament from the book of Numbers, which shares a similar theme.

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Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Hebrews 3". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. 2013.