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Bible Commentaries

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary
2 Samuel 8

 

 

Verse 1

Tribute. Aquila, and probably St. Jerome, translated, "cubit." Others suppose that Amma, or Meteg-ama, is some unknown place, which David wrested from the hands of the Philistines. It is hardly probable that the Israelites would have paid the latter tribute till the 20th year of his reign, (Calmet) or even till the 12th. (Salien) --- He might now force them to pay tribute. (St. Jerome, &c.) (Haydock) --- Perhaps a letter may have been transposed, and instead of Meteg, we should read, "Geth, the mother," or metropolis, and its dependencies; (1 Paralipomenon xviii. 1.) or "he took Metec, (Numbers xxxiii. 28.) and its mother," Geth, which reconciles the two passages. Chaldean, &c., "he deprived them of the advantage of the rivulet." Septuagint, "David took the separated" place, (Serarius) or the city of Geth. (Menochius)


Verse 2

Earth, like criminals condemned to die. (Theodoret) --- Some of them he chose to spare, and made tributary, having levelled the strong places with the ground. (Denis the Carthusian) --- Septuagint intimate that half were destroyed. (Calmet) --- But the Hebrew rather implies that the greatest part was saved, "a full cord to save alive;" (Menochius) unless there were three lots, and only one of them, larger indeed than the rest, spared. (Haydock) --- Death, or slavery, were the portion of all who were taken in war. (Grotius, Jur. iii. 4, 20.) --- Lex nulla capto parcit aut pœnam impendit. (Seneca) --- Tribute. Hebrew, "brought gifts," which is a softer term. The Moabites were thus punished for former and, probably, for some recent offences. (Haydock)


Verse 3

Adarezer. He is styled Adadezer in Hebrew and this seems to have been his true name, though it is written Adarezer in Paralipomenon. Adad, or "the sun," was the chief idol of Syria, and the kings inserted the name with their own; as Benadad did. Josephus produces a fragment from Nicholaus of Damascus, in which he says that "Adad was king of Damascus, and of all Syria, except Phœnicia, and was defeated by David....His successors took his name, as the kings of Egypt did that of Ptolemy; and that the third in descent from this king, made an attack upon Samaria," and upon Achab. (Antiquities vii. 6.) --- Euphrates, which had been promised by God, Genesis xv. 18., and Numbers xxiv. 17. (Calmet) --- Adadezer was probably the aggressor. (Salien) (Menochius)


Verse 4

A thousand. Protestants supply chariots, (Haydock) after the Septuagint and 1 Paralipomenon (xviii. 4.) which have 7000 horsemen. See how we have attempted to reconcile these texts, 1 Kings xiii. 5. Perhaps the numbers were expressed by single letters; and the Hebrew final n, (700) has been mistaken for z, (7000) both here and [in] chap. x. 18. Literis numeralibus non verbis antiquitus numeri concipiebantur. (Scaliger, apud Walton prol.) --- "Will any other hypothesis so naturally solve this repeated difficulty?" (Kennicott, Diss. on 1 Chronicles xi. p. 96 and 463.) --- Kimchi thinks that the king's horse-guards are only specified here; and Salien supposes, that those who fought on chariots are also included in Chronicles, as they are often styled horsemen, Isaias xxi. 7, 9. (Menochius) --- Houghed. Aquila, "destroyed." He rendered them unfit for war, as Josue had don, (Josue xi. 6.) supposing that this was the import of the decree, forbidding many horses to be kept, Deuteronomy xvii. 16. --- Horses is not expressed in Hebrew, though the Protestants supply the word; as also, for. We should translate literally, "He left out of them 100 chariots;" (Haydock) as we read elsewhere, that Adarezer had 1000. (Menochius) --- But this expression being unintelligible, no less than, "he houghed all the chariots," as the text stands at present in the original, may lead us to suspect that this verse has been inaccurately printed. Septuagint, "David paralyzed, (or rendered useless) all the chariots; and 100 chariots were reserved for himself out of them." Josephus says the rest of the 1000 chariots were burnt, 5000 horse slain, and 20,000 foot. (Haydock)


Verse 5

Men. As Adarezer had brought upon himself the arms of David, perhaps by attempting to succour the Moabites, as he afterwards did the children of Ammon; (chap. x.) so the king of Damascus was ruined by coming too late to his assistance. This king may be the Adad mentioned by Nicholaus. (B. 4.) (Salien, the year of the world 2993, the 14th year of David.) See ver. 1 and 3.


Verse 7

Arms. "Quivers," Paralipomenon and Syriac. "Bucklers," Hebrew and Chaldean. "Bracelets," Septuagint. (Calmet) --- These bucklers might be for ornament, like those of Solomon, 3 Kings x. 16. (Salien) --- They were taken afterwards by Sesac, king of Egypt. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] vii. 6.) (Haydock)


Verse 8

Beroth, or Boroe. (Calmet) --- Brass. All for the use of the temple, 1 Paralipomenon xviii. 8. The battle seems to have been fought near Beroth. (Salien)


Verse 9

Emath, or Emesa. Its king, Thou, being alarmed at the ambition of his neighbour Adarezer, (Calmet) was pleased with the victories of a prince from whom he thought he had less to fear, as the lived at a greater distance. (Haydock)


Verse 10

Joram, called Adoram in Chronicles. (Calmet) --- His, Joram's hand. (Menochius)


Verse 11

Subdued. This was the custom of most conquerors. But no prince was ever more religious in this respect than David. He had an officer appointed over the sacred treasure, which contained the presents of Samuel, Saul, &c., 1 Paralipomenon xxvi. 26, 28.


Verse 13

Name, or triumphal arch. (Rabbins) --- He acquired great fame, chap. xvii. 9., and 1 Machabees v. 57. (Menochius) --- Syria, which is styled Aram in Hebrew. The Septuagint have read Edom, or Idumea, as the two names have often been confounded, on account of the similarity of the letters. The following verse seems favourable to this reading, as well as the title of the Psalm lix; and 1 Paralipomenon xviii. 12, says, Abisai....slew of the Edomites, in the valley of the salt-pits, 18,000. It is probable that David was present. This Idumea was on the east of the Dead Sea, and had Bosra for its capital. The salt-pits might be a great plain, about three miles south of Palmyra or Thadmor, which supplies almost all Syria with salt. (Brun.) (Calmet) --- Othes think that the borders of the most salt lake of Sodom are denoted. (Menochius) See Genesis xiv. 10.


Verse 14

Guards, or officers to administer justice in his name, after Joab had killed all the males, during six months, 3 Kings xi. 15. (Calmet)


Verse 15

All Israel, not only over Juda. (Menochius) --- All the people who dwelt within the promised land, as far as the Euphrates, were forced to acknowledge his dominion. (Haydock) --- People, settling their differences, &c. Kings formerly performed in person, the most important office of rendering justice; whence three kings of Crete are mentioned as judges in the realms below. (Calmet) --- David acted with wisdom and justice. (Menochius)


Verse 16

Sarvia, sister of David, 1 Paralipomenon ii. 16. --- Army. Joab had acquired such influence over it, that his power was formidable even to David. He was a great warrior, and had contributed more than any other person to establish the throne of his uncle; but he was devoid of justice, and not much unlike Achilles. Jura negat sibi nata, nihil non arrogat armis. (Horace)

(Grotius) --- Recorder, or chancellor. (Challoner) --- A commentariis. (Aquila) --- "Remembrancer," (Haydock) or the person who kept a journal of all memorable transactions. The kings of Persia employed people to keep such journals, 1 Esdras iv. 15., and Esther vi. 1. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] xi. 2.) --- The power of these writers was very great, Judges v. 14., and 4 Kings xviii. 18. (Calmet) --- Reference is often made to their "words of days." They had also to present petitions and memorials from the people. (Menochius)


Verse 17

Achimelech is also called the father of Abiathar, as these two had both names indiscriminately, 1 Kings xxi. 2. During the contest between the families of Saul and of David, two high priests were acknowledged, in their respective dominions. Sadoc was also permitted to officiate at Gabaon, during the reign of David; and, as Abiathar took part against Solomon, he was invested with the whole authority, and thus were accomplished the predictions made to Phinees and to Heli, Numbers xxv. 12., and 1 Kings ii. 35. (Calmet) --- Yet Salien considers Abiathar as the sole pontiff, from the time that his father was murdered by Saul. Sadoc, in the mean while, was his arch-priest or delegate, at Gabaon; (Haydock) though Abulensis and Josephus acknowledge both as high priests, (1 Paralipomenon xxiv. 3,) officiating by turns. (Menochius) --- Scribe, or secretary. (Challoner) See Judges v. 14. --- Septuagint, "counsellor." He is called Susa, in Chronicles. (Haydock)


Verse 18

The Cerethi and Phelithi. The king's guards. (Challoner) --- They were Philistines, and had attached themselves to David while he was at Geth, continuing always faithful to him. We read of them in the Vulgate, under the reign of Joas, 4 Kings xi. 19. David selected some out of all Israel, towards the end of his reign, 1 Paralipomenon xxvii. --- Princes: literally, priests; (Cohen) so called, by a title of honour, and not for exercising the priestly function. (Challoner) --- Sanctius translates, they "were like priests." The book of 1 Paralipomenon (xviii. 17,) explains, were chief about the king. Septuagint, "masters of the palace." David kept them near his person, and employed them as he thought proper: Bertram thinks, in embassies, till after the revolt of Absalom, when Ira took their place, chap. xx. 26. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "David's sons were chief rulers." Chaldean, "grandees;" (Haydock) "ministers." (Grotius) (Du Hamel)


Verse 29

CHAPTER VIII.

 


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Bibliography Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 8:4". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-8.html. 1859.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, July 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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