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David’s military victories (8:1-18)
To emphasize that God was strengthening the royal house of David according to his promise, the writer gives a summary of David’s military victories. David conquered the Philistines and the Moabites (8:1-2; 1 Chronicles 18:1-2), then expanded north across the Syrian (Aramean) state of Zobah and even took control of the central Syrian province based on Damascus (3-8).
Another Syrian state, Hamath, submitted to David without a fight. Israel rapidly grew prosperous with the wealth it received from these and other conquered states (9-12). David’s army, under the control of Joab, gained a notable victory over Edom, though the victory was not easily won. Abishai was the hero of the battle (13-14; 1 Chronicles 18:12; Psalms 60:0).
David’s rule now extended over most of the country between Egypt and the Euphrates. As his kingdom expanded, he developed and organized his administration. He also formed a personal bodyguard of Cherethites and Pelethites, people who lived among the Philistines and who had joined David’s fighting force during the years David lived in that area. They were tough, loyal soldiers (15-18; cf. 15:18; 20:7; 1 Kings 1:38).
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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 8". "Brideway Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34