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Bible Commentaries

Arthur Peake's Commentary on the Bible
Jeremiah 30

 

 


Introduction

Jeremiah 27-29. Certain linguistic peculiarities (e.g. the incorrect spelling, Nebuchadnezzar) suggest that these three chapters may have circulated as a separate pamphlet, e.g. in Babylon. They deal with the rebuke of false hopes concerning a speedy return from exile.

Jeremiah 30-31. The Future of Israel and Judah.—These two chapters of prophecy, dealing with the future restoration of Israel and Judah, appear to be a later editorial insertion in the narrative scheme of Jeremiah 26-45, placed here perhaps because Jeremiah 32 and Jeremiah 33 contain narratives and prophecies dealing with the same subject (cf. also Jeremiah 29:10 ff.). In Jeremiah 30 and Jeremiah 31, there are numerous points of contact with Deutero-Isaiah, a fact which, with other features, has suggested to many scholars an exilic or post-exilic date for much that these chapters contain. The contrast with the general "pessimism" of earlier chapters is very noticeable. On the other hand, the internal evidence for Jeremiah 31:2-6, Jeremiah 31:15-22, Jeremiah 31:31-34 entitles us to regard these sections as Jeremianic.

Jeremiah 40-44. The next five chapters continue the biography of Jeremiah, including connected events, after the capture of Jerusalem.

Jeremiah 46-51. The Foreign Prophecies.—These form the third principal division of the Book of Jeremiah. As already seen (Jeremiah 1:5; Jeremiah 1:10, Jeremiah 25:15), Jeremiah's prophetic horizon naturally included the surrounding nations; how far the prophecies that follow are his can be decided only by detailed criticism in each case. They refer, though in somewhat different order, to the several nations enumerated in Jeremiah 25:19-26 (which may be regarded as an introduction to them), except that an oracle on Damascus here replaces the reference to Tyre, Sidon, and the Mediterranean. (The LXX, which places this group of prophecies after Jeremiah 25:13, follows a third order.) It is generally admitted that the long prophecy on Babylon (Jeremiah 50 f.) is not by Jeremiah (see prefatory note). As to Jeremiah 46-49, there is considerable difference of opinion, ranging from Duhm's rejection of the whole, through Giesebrecht's acceptance of Jeremiah 47 (except towards end), with the nucleus of Jeremiah 46:2-12, Jeremiah 49:7-11, up to Cornill's acceptance of most of Jeremiah 46-49 (so also Peake). It is in any case natural to suppose that there are genuine prophecies by Jeremiah which underlie these chapters, though they have been worked over, or incorporated with other non-Jeremianic prophecies (e.g. Jeremiah 48) by later writers. For details, the larger commentaries must be consulted.

Jeremiah 26-45. These chapters, usually ascribed in the main to Baruch, chiefly narrate selected incidents in the life of Jeremiah, often with connected prophecies; they form a second main section of the book, in contrast with 1-25, which consist chiefly of prophecies, with little narrative.


Verses 1-4

Jeremiah 30-31. The Future of Israel and Judah.—These two chapters of prophecy, dealing with the future restoration of Israel and Judah, appear to be a later editorial insertion in the narrative scheme of Jeremiah 26-45, placed here perhaps because Jeremiah 32 and Jeremiah 33 contain narratives and prophecies dealing with the same subject (cf. also Jeremiah 29:10 ff.). In Jeremiah 30 and Jeremiah 31, there are numerous points of contact with Deutero-Isaiah, a fact which, with other features, has suggested to many scholars an exilic or post-exilic date for much that these chapters contain. The contrast with the general "pessimism" of earlier chapters is very noticeable. On the other hand, the internal evidence for Jeremiah 31:2-6, Jeremiah 31:15-22, Jeremiah 31:31-34 entitles us to regard these sections as Jeremianic.

Jeremiah 30:1-4. The prophet is commanded to write down his prophecies (i.e. those of Jeremiah 30, 31, in view of Jeremiah 30:4), because of their approaching fulfilment. Note the difference of this (editorial) introduction from the account of the circumstances leading to the writing of the roll in 604 (Jeremiah 36:2 ff.).


Verses 5-22

Jeremiah 30:5-22. Description of the people's terror (Jeremiah 30:5 mg.) at the "Day of Yahweh" (Amos 5:18); but this "Day" shall bring deliverance from the (heathen) yoke (Jeremiah 30:8), and Israel shall have (religious) freedom under the future "Davidic" king. The gathered people shall be delivered from fear (like a protected flock, Isaiah 17:2); the heathen nations shall be destroyed, Israel escaping with proper chastisement only (Jeremiah 10:24). At present, Zion is sorely wounded (Jeremiah 30:13 as mg.1), and forsaken of her old allies ("lovers", Jeremiah 30:14; cf. Jeremiah 4:30; Jeremiah 22:20). Her condition is deserved, yet because she is so helpless ("therefore", Jeremiah 30:16) her foes shall be overthrown, and she shall be healed; the city shall be rebuilt upon its mound, and the palace inhabited as usual (Jeremiah 30:18 mg.). There shall be joy (Psalms 126:1 f.) at the restoration of her numbers, and her former glory; for she will be in the care of Yahweh ("before me", Jeremiah 30:20; cf. Psalms 102:28), and under a native ruler (Deuteronomy 17:15), with priestly rights of access to Yahweh (Ezekiel 44:13, Numbers 16:5), such as none would presumptuously claim. Jeremiah 30:23 f. is an eschatological fragment (found elsewhere as in mg.) which describes the destruction of the wicked within the Jewish nation.

Jeremiah 30:5 ff. The "Day of Yahweh" is a frequent idea of prophecy to denote the dramatic intervention of Yahweh in human history, cf. Isaiah 13:6 ff., where there is the same figure as here of men overcome in travail-like anguish.

Jeremiah 30:8. Cf. Isaiah 10:27; "thy" in both cases should be "his"; cf. LXX.

Jeremiah 30:9. A return of the original David is not meant, but the coming of an idealised descendant; cf. Hosea 3:5.

Jeremiah 30:10 f. (LXX omits) as Jeremiah 46:27 f.; see Isaiah 41:8 f. for thought and phrasing.

Jeremiah 30:20. The term for "congregation" is characteristic of the post-exilic period, when Israel had become a "Church" instead of a "State".

Jeremiah 30:21. It is difficult for us to realise, in view of the Christian sense of direct fellowship with God in Christ, the old idea of the peril of any approach to deity.

 


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Jeremiah 30:4". "Arthur Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pfc/jeremiah-30.html. 1919.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, November 30th, 2020
the First Week of Advent
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