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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
1 Timothy 6



Verse 1

Under the yoke (υπο ζυγονhupo zugon). As slaves (δουλοιdouloi bondsmen). Perhaps under heathen masters (1 Peter 2:18). For the slave problem, see also Philemon 1:1; Colossians 3:22; Ephesians 6:5; Titus 2:9. See note on Matthew 11:29 for Christ‘s “yoke” (ζυγονzugon from ζευγνυμιzeugnumi to join).

Their own masters (τους ιδιους δεσποταςtous idious despotas). That is always where the shoe pinches. Our “despot” is this very Greek word, the strict correlative of slave (δουλοςdoulos), while κυριοςkurios has a wider outlook. Old word only here, Titus 2:9; 2 Timothy 2:21; 1 Peter 2:18 for human masters. Applied to God in Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24, Acts 4:29 and to Christ in 2 Peter 2:1.

The name of God (το ονομα του τεουto onoma tou theou). See Romans 2:24. If the heathen could say that Christian slaves were not as dependable as non-Christian slaves. Negative purpose with ινα μηhina mē and present passive subjunctive (βλασπημηταιblasphēmētai).

Verse 2

Let not despise them (μη καταπρονειτωσανmē kataphroneitōsan). Negative imperative active third plural of καταπρονεωkataphroneō to think down on. See note on 1 Timothy 4:12. He must not presume on the equality of Christian brotherhood not allowed by the state‘s laws. Some of these Christian slaves might be pastors of churches to which the master belonged. For the difficulty of the Christian master‘s position, see note on 1 Corinthians 7:22; Philemon 1:16.

But rather (αλλα μαλλονalla mallon). Render the Christian Master better service.

They that partake of the benefit (οι της ενεργεσιας αντιλαμβανομενοιhoi tēs energesias antilambanomenoi). For ευεργεσιαςeuergesias (genitive case after participle) see note on Acts 4:9, only other N.T. example of this old word. Present middle participle of αντιλαμβανωantilambanō old verb, to take in turn, to lay fast hold of, in N.T. only here, Luke 1:54; Acts 20:35.

Verse 3

Teacheth a different doctrine (ετεροδιδασκαλειheterodidaskalei). See note on 1 Timothy 1:3 for this verb, present active indicative here in condition of first class.

Consenteth not (μη προσερχεταιmē proserchetai). Also condition of first class with μηmē instead of ουou ΠροσερχομαιProserchomai (old verb, to come to, to approach, with dative) is common enough in N.T. (Hebrews 4:16; Hebrews 7:25, etc.), but in the metaphorical sense of coming to one‘s ideas, assenting to, here only in N.T., but is so used in Philo and Irenaeus (Ellicott).

Sound words (υγιαινουσιν λογοιςhugiainousin logois). See note on 1 Timothy 1:10 for υγιαινωhugiainō

The words of our Lord Jesus Christ (τοις του κυριου ημων Ιησου Χριστουtois tou kuriou hēmōn Iēsou Christou). Either subjective genitive (the words from the Lord Jesus, a collection of his sayings in Lock‘s opinion like 1 Timothy 5:18; Acts 20:35, at least in the Spirit of Jesus as Acts 16:7; 1 Corinthians 11:23) or objective genitive about Jesus like 2 Timothy 1:8; 1 Corinthians 1:18.

According to godliness (κατα ευσεβειανkata eusebeian). Promoting (designed for) godliness as in Titus 1:1.

Verse 4

He is puffed up (τετυπωταιtetuphōtai). Perfect passive indicative of τυποωtuphoō for which see note on 1 Timothy 3:6.

Knowing nothing (μηδεν επισταμενοςmēden epistamenos). Present middle participle of επισταμαιepistamai Ignorance is a frequent companion of conceit.

Doting (νοσωνnosōn). Present active participle of νοσεωnoseō to be sick, to be morbid over, old word, only here in N.T.

Disputes of words (λογομαχιαςlogomachias). Our “logomachy.” From λογομαχεωlogomacheō (2 Timothy 2:14), and that from λογοςlogos and μαχομαιmachomai to fight over words, late and rare word, here only in N.T. See Plato (Tim. 1085 F) for “wars in words” (μαχας εν λογοιςmachas en logois).

Whereof (εχ ωνex hōn). “From which things.”

Surmisings (υπονοιαιhuponoiai). Old word from υπονοεωhuponoeō to surmise, to suspect (Acts 25:18), only here in N.T. All these words are akin (envy, πτονοςphthonos strife, εριςeris railings or slanders, βλασπημιαιblasphēmiai), all products of an ignorant and conceited mind.

Verse 5

Wranglings (διαπαρατριβαιdiaparatribai). Late and rare (Clem. of Alex.) double compound (διαdia mutual or thorough, παρατριβαιparatribai irritations or rubbings alongside). “Mutual irritations” (Field).

Corrupted in mind (διεπταρμενων τον νουνdiephtharmenōn ton noun). Perfect passive participle of διαπτειρωdiaphtheirō to corrupt, genitive case agreeing with αντρωπωνanthrōpōn (of men) and retaining the accusative τον νουνton noun

Bereft of the truth (απεστερημενων της αλητειαςapesterēmenōn tēs alētheias). Perfect passive participle of αποστερεωapostereō old verb (1 Corinthians 6:8) with the ablative case after it (αλητειαςalētheias).

A way of gain (πορισμονporismon). Late word from ποριζωporizō to provide, to gain. Only here in N.T. “Rich Christians.” Predicate accusative with ειναιeinai (indirect assertion) in apposition with ευσεβειανeusebeian the accusative of general reference.

Verse 6

With contentment (μετα αυταρκειαςmeta autarkeias). Old word from αυταρκηςautarkēs (αυτοσ αρκεωautosarkeō) as in Philemon 4:11. In N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 9:8. This attitude of mind is Paul‘s conception of “great gain.”

Verse 7

Brought into (εισηνεγκαμενeisēnegkamen second aorist active stem with first aorist ending, common in the Koiné{[28928]}š), carry out (εχενεγκεινexenegkein second aorist active infinitive). Note play on the prepositions εισeiṡ and εχeẋ f0).

Verse 8

Food (διατροπαςdiatrophas). Plural, supports or nourishments (from διατρεπωdiatrephō to support). Old word, here only in N.T.

Covering (σκεπασματαskepasmata). Plural, “coverings.” Late word from σκεπαζωskepazō to cover. Here only in N.T.

We shall be content (αρκεστησομεταarkesthēsometha). First future passive of αρκεωarkeō to be content. Old word. See note on 2 Corinthians 12:9. This is the αυταρκειαautarkeia of 1 Timothy 6:6.

There with (τουτοιςtoutois). Associative instrumental case, “with these.”

Verse 9

Desire to be rich (βουλομενοι πλουτεινboulomenoi ploutein). The will (βουλομαιboulomai) to be rich at any cost and in haste (Proverbs 28:20). Some MSS. have “trust in riches” in Mark 10:24. Possibly Paul still has teachers and preachers in mind.

Fall into (εμπιπτουσιν ειςempiptousin eis). See note on 1 Timothy 3:6 for εν ειςen -παγιδαeis and note on 1 Timothy 3:7 for ανοητουςpagida (snare).

Foolish (βλαβεραςanoētous). See Galatians 3:1, Galatians 3:3.

Hurtful (βλαπτωblaberas). Old adjective from βυτιζουσινblaptō to injure, here alone in N.T.

Drown (βυτοςbuthizousin). Late word (literary Koiné{[28928]}š) from εις ολετρον και απωλειανbuthos (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T. only here and Luke 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the issue “in destruction and perdition” (ολετροςeis olethron kai apōleian). Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The combination only here, but for απωλειαolethros see note on 1 Thessalonians 5:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 5:5 and for apōleia see note on 2 Thessalonians 2:3; Philemon 3:19.

Verse 10

The love of money (η πιλαργυριαhē philarguria). Vulgate, avaritia. Common word (from πιλαργυροςphilarguros 2 Timothy 3:12, and that from πιλοσ αργυροςphilosβουλομενοι πλουτεινarguros), only here in N.T. Refers to 1 Timothy 6:9 (ριζα παντων των κακωνboulomenoi ploutein).

A root of all kinds of evil (ριζαriza pantōn tōn kakōn). A root (την πιλαργυριαν ειναι μητροπολιν παντων των κακωνriza). Old word, common in literal (Matthew 3:10) and metaphorical sense (Romans 11:11-18). Field (Ot. Norv.) argues for “the root” as the idea of this predicate without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus (ορεγομενοιtēn philargurian einai mētropolin pantōn tōn kakōn), where “metropolis” takes the place of “root.” Surely men today need no proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime for money.

Reaching after (ορεγωoregomenoi). Present middle participle of ηςoregō (see note on 1 Timothy 3:1) with genitive απεπλανητησανhēs (which).

Have been led astray (αποπλαναωapeplanēthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of εαυτους περιεπειρανapoplanaō old compound verb, in N.T. only here and Mark 13:22.

Have pierced themselves through (περιπειρωheautous periepeiran). First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of late compound περιperipeirō only here in N.T. Perfective use of οδυναις πολλαιςperi (around, completely to pierce).

With many sorrows (οδυνηodunais pollais). Instrumental case of odunē (consuming, eating grief). In N.T. only here and Romans 9:2.

Verse 11

O man of God (ω αντρωπε τεουō anthrōpe theou). In N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 3:17, there general and here personal appeal to Timothy. Cf. Deuteronomy 33:1; 1 Samuel 2:27.

Flee (πευγεpheuge), follow after (διωκεdiōke). Vivid verbs in present active imperative. The preacher can not afford to parley with such temptations.

Meekness (πραυπατιανpraupathian). Late compound from πραυπατηςpraupathēs in Philo about Abraham, here only in N.T.

Verse 12

Fight the good fight (αγωνιζου τον καλον αγωναagōnizou ton kalon agōna). Cognate accusative with present middle imperative of αγωνιζωagōnizō Pauline word (1 Corinthians 9:25; Colossians 1:29).

Lay hold on (επιλαβουepilabou). Second (ingressive) aorist middle imperative of επιλαμβανωepilambanō “get a grip on.” See same verb with genitive also in 1 Timothy 6:19.

Thou wast called (εκλητηςeklēthēs). First aorist passive of καλεωkaleō as in 1 Corinthians 1:9; Colossians 3:15.

The good confession (την καλην ομολογιανtēn kalēn homologian). Cognate accusative with ωμολογησαςhōmologēsas (first aorist active indicative of ομολογεωhomologeō the public confession in baptism which many witnessed. See it also in 1 Timothy 6:13 of Jesus.

Verse 13

Who quickeneth all things (του ζωογονουντος τα πανταtou zōogonountos ta panta). Present active participle of ζωογονεωzōogoneō (ζωογονοςzōogonos from ζωοσ γενωzōosεπι Ποντιου Πειλατουgenō), late word to give life, to bring forth alive, in N.T. only here and Acts 7:19. See 1 Samuel 2:6.

Before Pontius Pilate (μαρτυρησαντοςepi Pontiou Peilatou). Not “in the time of,” but “in the presence of.”

Witnessed (μαρτυρεωmarturēsantos). Note ομολογεωmartureō not homologeō as in 1 Timothy 6:12. Christ gave his evidence as a witness to the Kingdom of God. Evidently Paul knew some of the facts that appear in John 18.

Verse 14

That thou keep (τηρησαι σεtērēsai se). First aorist active infinitive of τηρεωtēreō with accusative of general reference (σεse) in indirect command after παραγγελλωparaggellō

Without spot (ασπιλονaspilon). Late adjective (αa privative, σπιλοςspilos spot, Ephesians 5:27). In inscription and papyri.

Without reproach (ανεπιλημπτονanepilēmpton). See note on 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 5:7.

Until the appearing (μεχρι της επιπανειαςmechri tēs epiphaneias). “Until the epiphany” (the second epiphany or coming of Christ). Late word in inscriptions for important event like the epiphany of Caligula, in the papyri as a medical term. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have both επιπανειαepiphaneia and παρουσιαparousia See note on Titus 2:13; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Timothy 4:1, 2 Timothy 4:8.

Verse 15

In its own times (καιροις ιδιοιςkairois idiois). Locative case. May be “in his own times.” See note on 1 Timothy 2:6. Clearly not for us to figure out.

Who is the blessed and only Potentate (ο μακαριος και μονος δυναστηςho makarios kai monos dunastēs). “The happy and alone Potentate.” ΔυναστηςDunastēs old word, in N.T. only here, Luke 1:52; Acts 8:27 (the Eunuch). See note on 1 Timothy 1:11 for μακαριοςmakarios

The King of kings (ο βασιλευς των βασιλευοντωνho basileus tōn basileuontōn). “The King of those who rule as kings.” Oriental title. So with “Lord of lords.” See note on Revelation 10:6.

Verse 16

Who only hath immortality (ο μονος εχων ατανασιανho monos echōn athanasian). “The one who alone has immortality.” ΑτανασιαAthanasia (ατανατοςathanatos αa privative and τανατοςthanatos), old word, in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 15:53. Domitian demanded that he be addressed as “Dominus et Deus noster.” Emperor worship may be behind the use of μονοςmonos (alone) here.

Unapproachable (απροσιτονaprositon). See Psalm 104:2. Late compound verbal adjective (αa privative, προσ ιεναιprosουδε ιδειν δυναταιienai to go). Here only in N.T. Literary Koiné{[28928]}š word.

Nor can see (αορατονoude idein dunatai). See aoraton in Colossians 1:15 and also John 1:18; Matthew 11:27. The “amen” marks the close of the doxology as in 1 Timothy 1:17.

Verse 17

In this present world (εν τωι νυν αιωνιen tōi nun aiōni). “In the now age,” in contrast with the future.

That they be not high-minded (μη υπσηλοπρονεινmē hupsēlophronein). Present active infinitive with negative in indirect command after παραγγελλεparaggelle “not to be high-minded.” Only instance of the word save some MSS. of Romans 11:20 (for μη υπσηλαπρονειmē hupsēlaphronei) and a scholion on Pindar.

Have their hope set (ηλπικεναιēlpikenai). Perfect active infinitive of ελπιζωelpizō

On the uncertainty of riches (επι πλουτου αδηλοτητιepi ploutou adēlotēti). Literary Koiné{[28928]}š word (αδηλοτηςadēlotēs), only here in N.T. A “vigorous oxymoron” (White). Cf. Romans 6:4. Riches have wings.

But on God (αλλ επι τεωιall' epi theōi). He alone is stable, not wealth.

Richly all things to enjoy (παντα πλουσιως εις απολαυσινpanta plousiōs eis apolausin). “A lavish emphasis to the generosity of God” (Parry). ΑπολαυσιςApolausis is old word from απολαυωapolauō to enjoy, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 11:25.

Verse 18

That they do good (αγατοεργεινagathoergein). Late word (αγατοςagathos εργωergō), in N.T. only here and Acts 14:17.

Rich in good works (πλουτειν εν εργοις καλοιςploutein en ergois kalois). See note on Luke 12:21 “rich toward God” and notes on Matthew 6:19. for “treasures in heaven.”

Ready to distribute (ευμεταδοτουςeumetadotous). Late and rare verbal (ευ μετα διδωμιeuκοινωνικουςmetadidōmi). Free to give, liberal. Only here in N.T.

Willing to communicate (Koinéōnikous). Old adjective, ready to share, gracious, liberal again. Only here in N.T. See note on Galatians 6:6; Philemon 4:15.

Verse 19

Laying up in store (αποτησαυριζονταςapothēsaurizontas). Late literary word (αποapo and τησαυριζωthēsaurizō), only here in N.T. Same paradox as in Matthew 6:19., “laying up in store” by giving it away.

Which is life indeed (της οντως ζωηςtēs ontōs zōēs). See note on 1 Timothy 5:3 for οντωςontōs This life is merely the shadow of the eternal reality to come.

Verse 20

Guard that which is committed unto thee (την παρατηκην πυλαχονtēn parathēkēn phulaxon). “Keep (aorist of urgency) the deposit.” ΠαρατηκηνParathēkēn (from παρατιτημιparatithēmi to place beside as a deposit, 2 Timothy 2:2), a banking figure, common in the papyri in this sense for the Attic παρακατατηκηparakatathēkē (Textus Receptus here, 2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:14). See substantive also in 2 Timothy 1:12, 2 Timothy 1:14.

Turning away from (εκτρεπομενοςektrepomenos). Present middle participle of εκτρεπωektrepō for which see note on 1 Timothy 1:6; 1 Timothy 5:15.

Babblings (κενοπωνιαςkenophōnias). From κενοπωνοςkenophōnos uttering emptiness. Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:16.

Oppositions (αντιτεσειςantitheseis). Old word (αντι τεσιςantiτης πσευδωνυμου γνωσεωςthesis), antithesis, only here in N.T.

Of the knowledge which is falsely so called (πσευδησ ονομαtēs pseudōnumou gnōseōs). “Of the falsely named knowledge.” Old word (pseudēsonoma). Our “pseudonymous.” Only here in N.T.

Verse 21

Have erred (ηστοχησανēstochēsan). First aorist active indicative of αστοχεωastocheō See note on 1 Timothy 1:6 for this word.



Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 6:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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Friday, November 27th, 2020
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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