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Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
2 Timothy 1

 

 

Verse 1

According to the promise of the life which is in Christ Jesus (κατ επαγγελιαν ζωης της εν Χριστωι Ιησουkat' epaggelian zōēs tēs en Christōi Iēsou). “With a view to the fulfilment of the promise.” See note on Titus 1:1 for this same use of καταkata For κατ επαγγελιανkat' epaggelian see Galatians 3:29. See 1 Timothy 4:8 for the phrase “promise of life.” Here or there “life that in Christ Jesus” includes the present as well as the future.


Verse 2

Beloved (αγαπητοιagapētoi). Instead of γνησιωιgnēsiōi (genuine) in 1 Timothy 1:2. He had already called Timothy αγαπητονagapēton (verbal adjective of αγαπαωagapaō) in 1 Corinthians 4:17, an incidental and strong proof that it is Paul who is writing here. This argument applies to each of the Pastorals for Paul is known by other sources (Acts and previous Pauline Epistles) to sustain precisely the affectionate relation toward Timothy and Titus shown in the Pastorals.


Verse 3

I thank (χαριν εχωcharin echō). “I have gratitude.” As in 1 Timothy 1:12. Robinson cites examples of this phrase from the papyri. It occurs also in Luke 17:9; Acts 2:47. ΧαριςCharis in doxologies Paul uses (1 Corinthians 15:57; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 8:16; 2 Corinthians 9:15; Romans 6:17; Romans 7:25). His usual idiom is ευχαριστωeucharistō (1 Corinthians 1:4; Romans 1:8; Philemon 1:4; Philemon 1:3) or ευχαριστουμενeucharistoumen (1 Thessalonians 1:2; Colossians 1:3) or ου παυομαι ευχαριστωνou pauomai eucharistōn (Ephesians 1:16) or ευχαριστειν οπειλομενeucharistein opheilomen (2 Thessalonians 1:3).

Whom I serve from my forefathers (ωι λατρευω απο προγονωνhōi latreuō apo progonōn). The relative ωιhōi is the dative case with λατρευωlatreuō (see note on Romans 1:9 for this verb), progressive present (I have been serving). For προγονωνprogonōn (forefathers) see note on 1 Timothy 5:4. Paul claims a pious ancestry as in Acts 24:14; Acts 26:5; Galatians 2:14; Philemon 3:4-7.

In a pure conscience (εν καταραι συνειδησειen katharāi suneidēsei). See note on 1 Timothy 1:5; note on Acts 23:1.

Unceasing (αδιαλειπτονadialeipton). Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and Romans 9:2 which see. The adverb αδιαλειπτωςadialeiptōs is more frequent (in the papyri, literary Koiné, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Romans 1:9). The adjective here is the predicate accusative, “how I hold the memory concerning thee unceasing.” The use of αδιαλειπτωςadialeiptōs (adverb) is a sort of epistolary formula (papyri, 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Romans 1:9).

Remembrance (μνειανmneian). Old word, in N.T. only Pauline (seven times, 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Romans 1:9; Philemon 1:3).


Verse 4

Night and day (νυκτος και ημεραςnuktos kai hēmeras). Genitive of time, “by night and by day.” As in 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 3:10.

Longing (επιποτωνepipothōn). Present active participle of επιποτεωepipotheō old word, eight times in Paul (1 Thessalonians 3:6; Philemon 1:8, etc.).

Remembering thy tears (μεμνημενος σου των δακρυωνmemnēmenos sou tōn dakruōn). Perfect middle participle of μιμνησκωmimnēskō old and common verb with the genitive, only here in the Pastorals and elsewhere by Paul only in 1 Corinthians 11:2. Probably an allusion to the scene at Miletus (Acts 20:37). Cf. Acts 20:19.

That I may be filled with joy (ινα χαρας πληρωτωhina charas plērōthō). Final clause with ιναhina and first aorist passive subjunctive of πληροωplēroō (with genitive case χαραςcharas), a verb common with Paul (Romans 8:4; Romans 13:8).


Verse 5

Having been reminded (υπομνησιν λαβωνhupomnēsin labōn). “Having received (second aorist active participle of λαμβανωlambanō) a reminder” (old word from υπομιμνησκωhupomimnēskō to remind, in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 1:13). For the idiom see note on Romans 7:8, Romans 7:11. A reminder by another while αναμνησιςanamnēsis remembrance (1 Corinthians 11:24.) is rather a recalling by oneself (Vincent).

Of the unfeigned faith (της ανυποκριτου πιστεωςtēs anupokritou pisteōs). Late compound for which see note on 2 Corinthians 6:6; Romans 12:9.

Dwelt (ενωικησενenōikēsen). First aorist active indicative of ενοικεωenoikeō old verb, in N.T. only in Paul (Romans 8:11; Colossians 3:16).

First (πρωτονprōton). Adverb, not adjective (πρωτηprōtē).

In thy grandmother Lois (εν τηι μαμμηι Λωιδιen tēi mammēi Lōidi). Old word, originally the infantile word for μητηρmētēr (mother), then extended by writers to grandmother as here. Common for grandmother in the papyri. Lois is the mother of Eunice, Timothy‘s mother, since Timothy‘s father was a Greek (Acts 16:1). Probably both grandmother and mother became Christians.

I am persuaded (πεπεισμαιpepeismai). Perfect passive indicative of πειτωpeithō “I stand persuaded.” In the Pastorals only here and 2 Timothy 1:12, common in Paul‘s other writings (Romans 8:38, etc.).


Verse 6

For the which cause (δι ην αιτιανdi' hēn aitian). “For which cause,” stronger than διοdio So in 2 Timothy 1:12; Titus 1:13. Only example of αιτιαaitia by Paul save in Acts 28:20.

I put thee in remembrance (αναμιμνησκωanamimnēskō). Old compound to remind (1 Corinthians 4:17; 2 Corinthians 7:15).

That thou stir up (σε αναζωπυρεινse anazōpurein). Present active infinitive of αναζωπυρεωanazōpureō old double compound (αναana and ζωπυρονzōpuron live coal, ζωοςzōos and πυρpur then the bellows for kindling), to rekindle, to stir into flame, to keep blazing (continuous action, present time), only here in N.T. See note on 1 Thessalonians 5:19 for the figure of fire concerning the Holy Spirit. See αναπτωanaptō in Luke 12:49.

The gift of God (το χαρισμα του τεουto charisma tou theou). See note on 1 Timothy 4:14. Here Paul says μουmou (my), there he mentions the presbytery. Paul felt a deep personal interest in Timothy. See note on 1 Corinthians 7:7; Romans 6:23; Romans 11:29 for the gift of God.


Verse 7

A spirit of fearfulness (πνευμα δειλιαςpneuma deilias). Here πνευμαpneuma is the χαρισμαcharisma of 2 Timothy 1:6, the human spirit as endowed by the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:15). ΔειλιαDeilia is an old word (δειλοσ δειδωdeilosδυναμεωςdeidō) and always in a bad sense of cowardice, only here in N.T.

Of power (αγαπηςdunameōs). One of Paul‘s characteristic words (Romans 1:16).

Of love (σωπρονισμουagapēs). One of the gifts of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22). “Which drives out fear” (Lock) as in 1 John 4:18.

Of discipline (σωπρονιζωsōphronismou). Late Koiné{[28928]}š word (from σωπροσυνηsōphronizō to control), self-control, here only in N.T. See note on 1 Timothy 2:9 for sōphrosunē sa120

Verse 8

Be not ashamed of (μη επαισχυντηιςmē epaischunthēis). First aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive (in prohibition) of επαισχυνομαιepaischunomai old word, to be ashamed. Again in 2 Timothy 1:16 without augment (επαισχυντηνepaischunthēn), transitive use of the passive voice as often in the Koiné{[28928]}š (Robertson, Grammar, p. 818). See Romans 1:16; Romans 6:21. “Do not become ashamed” (as he had not).

The testimony of our Lord (το μαρτυριον του κυριουto marturion tou kuriou). For the old word μαρτυριονmarturion see note on 1 Corinthians 1:6; 1 Corinthians 2:1. Paul probably has in mind the saying of Jesus preserved in Mark 8:38 (Luke 9:26). See also 2 Timothy 2:12.

His prisoner (τον δεσμιον αυτουton desmion autou). As in Philemon 1:12; Philemon 1:1, Philemon 1:9; Ephesians 3:1; Ephesians 4:1 (the first Roman captivity). Paul is in his last captivity and refers to it again in 2 Timothy 1:16; 2 Timothy 2:9.

Suffer hardship with (συνκακοπατησονsunkakopathēson). First aorist active imperative of the double compound συνκακοπατεωsunkakopatheō first known use and in N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:3 (in eccles. writers). But κακοπατεωkakopatheō to suffer evil, is old verb (2 Timothy 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:5). Paul is fond of compounds of συνsun Paul challenges Timothy by this verb which he apparently coins for the purpose to a joint (συνsun) suffering with the Lord Jesus and Paul “for the gospel” (τωι ευαγγελιωιtōi euaggeliōi dative case rather than associative instrumental “with”).

According to the power of God (κατα δυναμιν τεουkata dunamin theou). Given by God (2 Corinthians 6:7).


Verse 9

Called us with a holy calling (καλεσαντος κλησει αγιαιkalesantos klēsei hagiāi). Probably dative, “to a holy calling.” ΚλησιςKlēsis here apparently not the invitation, but the consecrated service, “the upward calling” (Philemon 3:14). See note on 1 Corinthians 7:20; Ephesians 4:1, Ephesians 4:4 for the use of καλεωkaleō with κλησιςklēsis Paul often uses καλεωkaleō of God‘s calling men (1 Thessalonians 2:12; 1 Corinthians 1:9; Galatians 1:6; Romans 8:20; Romans 9:11).

Purpose (προτεσινprothesin). See note on Romans 9:11; Ephesians 1:11 for προτεσινprothesin

Which was given (την δοτεισανtēn dotheisan). First aorist passive articular participle agreeing with χαριςcharis (grace), a thoroughly Pauline expression (1 Corinthians 3:10; Romans 12:3, Romans 12:6, etc.), only here in Pastoral Epistles.

Before times eternal (προ χρονων αιωνιωνpro chronōn aiōniōn). See note on Titus 1:2.


Verse 10

But hath now been manifested (πανερωτεισαν δε νυνphanerōtheisan de nun). First aorist passive participle of πανεροωphaneroō agreeing with χαρινcharin See Titus 1:3; Colossians 1:26; Colossians 3:4 for πανεροωphaneroō and the contrast made.

By the appearing (δια της επιπανειαςdia tēs epiphaneias). Only here of the Incarnation (except the verb, Titus 2:11; Titus 3:4), but for the second coming see note on Titus 2:13.

Who abolished death (καταργησαντος μεν τον τανατονkatargēsantos men ton thanaton). First aorist active participle of καταργεωkatargeō the very phrase in 1 Corinthians 15:26; Hebrews 2:14.

Brought to light (πωτισαντος δεphōtisantos de). First aorist active participle of πωτιζωphōtizō literary Koiné{[28928]}š word for which see note on 1 Corinthians 4:5; Ephesians 1:18, to turn the light on.

Life and incorruption (ζωην και απταρσιανzōēn kai aphtharsian). The opposite of τανατοςthanatos “life and immortality” (unchangeable life).


Verse 11

For which (εις οeis ho). For the gospel. See note on 1 Timothy 2:7 for this verse.


Verse 12

These things (ταυταtauta). His imprisonment in Rome.

Yet I am not ashamed (αλλ ουκ επαισχυνομαιall' ouk epaischunomai). Plain reference to the exhortation to Timothy in 2 Timothy 1:8.

Him whom I have believed (ωι πεπιστευκαhōi pepisteuka). Dative case of the relative (ωιhōi) with the perfect active of πιστευωpisteuō the antecedent to the relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted.

I am persuaded (πεπεισμαιpepeismai). See 2 Timothy 1:5.

To guard (πυλαχαιphulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of πυλασσωphulassō the very word used in 1 Timothy 6:20 with παρατηκηνparathēkēn as here, to guard against robbery or any loss.

That which I have committed unto him (την παρατηκην μουtēn parathēkēn mou). Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκηparakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παραpara beside, down, καταkata).

Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημερανeis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16).


Verse 13

The pattern of sound words (υποτυπωσιν υγιαινοντων λογωνhupotupōsin hugiainontōn logōn). See note on 1 Timothy 1:16 for υποτυπωσινhupotupōsin and note on 1 Timothy 1:10 for υγιαινωhugiainō

Which (ωνhōn). Genitive plural with ηκουσαςēkousas (didst hear) or attracted to case of λογωνlogōn (ακουωakouō is used either with the accusative or the genitive).


Verse 14

That good thing which was committed unto thee (την καλην παρατηκηνtēn kalēn parathēkēn). Simply, “the good deposit.”

Guard (πυλαχονphulaxon). As in 1 Timothy 6:20. God has also made an investment in Timothy (cf. 2 Timothy 1:12). Timothy must not let that fail.

Which dwelleth in us (του ενοικουντος εν ημινtou enoikountos en hēmin). It is only through the Holy Spirit that Timothy or any of us can guard God‘s deposit with us.


Verse 15

Are turned away from me (απεστραπησαν μεapestraphēsan me). Second aorist passive (still transitive here with μεme) of αποστρεπωapostrephō for which verb see note on Titus 1:14. For the accusative with these passive deponents see Robertson, Grammar, p. 484. It is not known to what incident Paul refers, whether the refusal of the Christians in the Roman province of Asia to help Paul on his arrest (or in response to an appeal from Rome) or whether the Asian Christians in Rome deserted Paul in the first stage of the trial (2 Timothy 4:16). Two of these Asian deserters are mentioned by name, perhaps for reasons known to Timothy. Nothing else is known of Phygelus and Hermogenes except this shameful item.


Verse 16

Grant mercy (δωιη ελεοςdōiē eleos). The phrase nowhere else in the N.T. Second aorist active optative of διδωμιdidōmi the usual form being δοιηdoiē This is the usual construction in a wish about the future.

Unto the house of Onesiphorus (τωι Ονησιπορου οικωιtōi Onēsiphorou oikōi). The same phrase in 2 Timothy 4:19. Apparently Onesiphorus is now dead as is implied by the wish in 2 Timothy 1:18.

For he oft refreshed me (οτι πολλακις με ανεπσυχενhoti pollakis me anepsuxen). First aorist active indicative of αναπσυχωanapsuchō old verb, to cool again, in lxx and Koiné{[28928]}š often, here only in N.T., but αναπσυχιςanapsuxis in Acts 3:20. In the first imprisonment or the second. If he lost his life for coming to see Paul, it was probably recently during this imprisonment.

Was not ashamed of my chain (αλυσιν μου ουκ επαισχυντηhalusin mou ouk epaischunthē). Passive deponent again (first aorist indicative) with accusative as in 2 Timothy 1:8. For αλυσινhalusin (chain) see note on Ephesians 6:20. Note absence of augment in επαισχυντηepaischunthē f0).


Verse 17

When he was in Rome (γενομενος εν ομηιgenomenos en Romēi). Second aorist middle participle of γινομαιginomai (coming to Rome, happening in Rome).

He sought me diligently and found me (σπουδαιως εζητησεν με και ευρενspoudaiōs ezētēsen me kai heuren). Effective aorists both of them (first of ζητεωzēteō second of ευρισκωheuriskō). He did it at the risk of his own life apparently.


Verse 18

Grant to him to and mercy (δωιη αυτωι ευρειν ελεοςdōiē autōi heurein eleos). Second aorist active optative in wish for the future again as in 2 Timothy 1:16. Find mercy from the Lord (Jesus) as he found me.

Thou knowest very well (βελτιον συ γινωσκειςbeltion su ginōskeis). Literally, “thou knowest better (than I),” for he did those things in Ephesus where thou art. Only N.T. example of βελτιονbeltion in D text of Acts 10:28.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 1:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/2-timothy-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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