corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.12.15
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Hebrews 9

 

 

Other Authors
Verse 1

Even the first covenant (και η πρωτηkai hē prōtē). ΚαιKai (even) is doubtful. No word for covenant with πρωτεprōte (cf. Hebrews 8:7).

Had (ειχεeiche). Imperfect active, used to have.

Ordinances
(δικαιωματαdikaiōmata). Regulations (from δικαιοωdikaioō) as in Luke 1:6; Romans 5:16.

Of divine service
(λατρειαςlatreias). No word for “divine,” though worship is meant as in Romans 9:4; Philemon 3:3. Genitive case.

And its sanctuary, a sanctuary of this world
(το τε αγιον κοσμικονto te hagion kosmikon). By το αγιονto hagion the author describes the whole sanctuary (Exodus 36:3; Numbers 3:38) like των αγιωνtōn hagiōn in Hebrews 8:2. ΚοσμικονKosmikon is a late adjective (Aristotle, Plutarch) from κοσμοςkosmos relating to this world, like επι γηςepi gēs (upon earth) of Hebrews 8:4. It is in the predicate position, not attributive.


Verse 2

A tabernacle the first (σκηνη η πρωτηskēnē hē prōtē). See Hebrews 8:2 for σκηνηskēnē Large tents usually had two divisions (the outer and the inner or the first and the second). Note πρωτηprōtē for the first of two as with the first covenant (Hebrews 8:7, Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 9:1). The large outer tent was entered first and was called αγιαHagia (Holy), the first division of the tabernacle. The two divisions are here termed two tabernacles.

Was prepared (κατεσκευαστηkateskeuasthē). First aorist passive of κατασκευαζωkataskeuazō See Hebrews 3:3. For the furniture see Exod 25; 26. Three items are named here: the candlestick (η λυχνιαhē luchnia late word for λυχνιονluchnion) or lampstand, necessary since there were no windows (Exodus 25:31-39); the table (η τραπεζαhē trapeza old word, Matthew 15:27) for the bread (Exodus 25:23-30; Leviticus 24:6 of pure gold); the shewbread (η προτεσις των αρτωνhē prothesis tōn artōn) as in Exodus 25:30; Exodus 40:23; Leviticus 24:5-9. Probably a hendiadys for the table with the loaves of God‘s Presence.


Verse 3

After the second veil (μετα το δευτερον καταπετασμαmeta to deuteron katapetasma). The first veil opened from outside into the Holy Place, the second veil opened from the Holy Place into the Holy of Holies (αγια αγιωνHagia Hagiōn). The word καταπετασμαkatapetasma is from καταπεταννυμιkatapetannumi to spread down, and we have already had it in Hebrews 6:19. Cf. also Matthew 27:51.


Verse 4

Having a golden censer (χρυσουν εχουσα τυμιατηριονchrusoun echousa thumiatērion). The present active participle εχουσαechousa (feminine singular) agrees with σκηνηskēnē (the Holy of Holies). It is not certain whether τυμιατηριονthumiatērion here means censer or altar of incense. In the lxx (2Chron 26:19; Exod 8:11; 4Macc 7:11) it means censer and apparently so in the inscriptions and papyri. But in Philo and Josephus it means altar of incense for which the lxx has τυσιαστηριον του τυμιατοςthusiastērion tou thumiatos (Exod 30:1-10). Apparently the altar of incense was in the Holy Place, though in Exodus 30:1-10 it is left quite vague. B puts it in Hebrews 9:2. So we leave the discrepancy unsettled. At any rate the altar of incense was used for the Holy of Holies (“its ritual associations,” Dods).

The ark of the covenant (την κιβωτον της διατηκηςtēn kibōton tēs diathēkēs). A box or chest four feet long, two and a half broad and high (Exodus 25:10.). The Scotch have a “meal-ark.”

Wherein
(εν ηιen hēi). In the ark. There were three treasures in the ark of the covenant (a pot of manna, Aaron‘s rod, the tables of the covenant). For the pot of manna (golden added in the lxx) see Exodus 16:32-34. For Aaron‘s rod that budded (η βλαστησασαhē blastēsasa first aorist active participle of βλαστανωblastanō) see Numbers 17:1-11. For the tables of the covenant see Exodus 25:16.; Exodus 31:18; Deuteronomy 9:9; Deuteronomy 10:5. Not definitely clear about these items in the ark, but on front, except that 1 Kings 8:9 states that it did contain the tables of the covenant. For πλακεςplakes (tables) see 2 Corinthians 3:3 (only other N.T. example).


Verse 5

Above it (υπερανω αυτηςhuperanō autēs). Up above, in local sense as in Ephesians 4:10, with ablative case αυτηςautēs (it, the ark).

Cherubim of glory (Χερουβειν δοχηςCheroubein doxēs). Hebrew word (dual form), two in number, made of gold (Exodus 25:18-22). They are called ζωαzōa (living creatures) in the lxx (Isaiah 6:2f.; Ezek 1:5-10; 10:5-20).

Overshadowing
(κατασκιαζονταkataskiazonta). Present active participle of κατασκιαζωkataskiazō old verb to shadow down on, cover with shade, only here in the N.T.

The mercy seat
(το ιλαστηριονto hilastērion). The pinions of the Cherubim spread over the rectangular gold slab on top of the ark termed the mercy seat. Here the adjective ιλαστηριοςhilastērios has to mean mercy seat, the place, not the propitiatory gift or propitiation, as in Romans 3:25 (Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 124-35).

Severally
(κατα μεροςkata meros). In detail, distributive use of καταkata with μεροςmeros (part).


Verse 6

These things having been thus prepared (τουτων ουτως κατεσκευασμενωνtoutōn houtōs kateskeuasmenōn). Genitive absolute with the perfect passive participle of κατασκευαζωkataskeuazō for which verb see Hebrews 9:2. A mere summary has been made of the furniture.

Go in (εισιασινeisiasin). Present active indicative of εισειμιeiseimi to go in, old verb, in N.T. only here, Acts 3:3; Acts 21:18, Acts 21:26.

Accomplishing
(επιτελουντεςepitelountes). Present active participle of επιτελεωepiteleō for which see Hebrews 8:5.


Verse 7

Alone (μονοςmonos). Predicate adjective with ο αρχιερευςho archiereus

Once in the year (απαχ του ενιαυτουhapax tou eniautou). Once for each year (not ποτεpote at any time) with genitive of time.

Not without blood
(ου χωρις αιματοςou chōris haimatos). According to Leviticus 16:14. Not even he could enter the second tent (Holy of Holies) without blood.

The errors of the people
(των του λαου αγνοηματωνtōn tou laou agnoēmatōn). Late word from αγνοεωagnoeō not to know (Hebrews 5:2), only here in the N.T., but in lxx, papyri, and inscriptions where a distinction is drawn between errors (αγνοηματαagnoēmata) and crimes (αρμαρτηματαharmartēmata). In Genesis 43:12 αγνοημαagnoēma is “an oversight.” But these sins of ignorance (αγνοηματαagnoēmata) were sins and called for atonement. See Hebrews 10:26 for willful sinning.


Verse 8

The Holy Ghost this signifying (τουτο δηλουντος του πνευματος του αγιουtouto dēlountos tou pneumatos tou hagiou). Genitive absolute with present active participle of δηλοωdēloō to make plain. Used as in Hebrews 12:27.

The way into the Holy place (την των αγιων οδονtēn tōn hagiōn hodon). Here as in Hebrews 9:12, Hebrews 9:25 των αγιωνtōn hagiōn is used for the very Presence of God as in Hebrews 8:2 and is in the objective genitive. οδονHodon is the accusative of general reference with the infinitive.

Hath not yet been made manifest
(μηπω πεπανερωσταιmēpō pephanerōsthai). Perfect passive infinitive of πανεροωphaneroō to make plain (πανεροςphaneros) in indirect discourse after δηλουντοςdēlountos with negative μηπωmēpō

While as the first tabernacle is yet standing
(ετι της πρωτης σκηνης εχουσης στασινeti tēs prōtēs skēnēs echousēs stasin). Another genitive absolute with present active participle of εχωechō (having standing στασινstasin), “the first tabernacle still having a place.” The veil at the entrance kept the people out of the first tent as the second veil (Hebrews 9:3) kept the priests out of the Holy of Holies (the very Presence of God).


Verse 9

Which (ητιςhētis). “Which very thing,” the first tent (της πρωτης σκηνηςtēs prōtēs skēnēs division of the tabernacle), a parenthesis and explanation.

A parable (παραβοληparabolē). Only in the Synoptic Gospels in the N.T. and Hebrews 9:9; Hebrews 11:19. See note on Matthew 13:3 for the word (from paraballō to place alongside). Here like παραβαλλωtupos (type or shadow of “the heavenly reality,” Moffatt).

For the time now present
(τυποςeis ton kairon ton enestēkota). “For the present crisis “ (ενεστωταkairon not μελλονταaiōna age, not κατ ηνchronon time). Perfect active articular (repeated article) participle of παραβοληenistēmi (intransitive), the age in which they lived, not the past, not the future. See 1 Corinthians 3:22; Romans 8:38 for contrast between σκηνηςenestōta and κατα συνειδησινmellonta This age of crisis, foreshadowed by the old tabernacle, pointed on to the richer fulfilment still to come.

According to which
(συνειδησιςkath' hēn). Here the relative refers to τελειωσαι τον λατρευονταparabolē just mentioned, not to skēnēs See Hebrews 5:1; Hebrews 8:3.

As touching the conscience
(kata suneidēsin). For suneidēsis see 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 Corinthians 10:17; Romans 2:15. This was the real failure of animal sacrifice (Hebrews 10:1-4).

Make the worshipper perfect
(teleiōsai ton latreuonta). First aorist active infinitive (Hebrews 2:10). At best it was only ritual or ceremonial purification (Hebrews 7:11), that called for endless repetition (Hebrews 10:1-4).


Verse 10

Only with meats and drinks and divers washings (μονον επι βρωμασιν και πομασιν και διαποροις βαπτισμοιςmonon epi brōmasin kai pomasin kai diaphorois baptismois). The parenthesis of the Revised Version here is unnecessary. The use of επιepi here with the locative case is regular, “in the matter of” (Luke 12:52; John 12:16; Acts 21:24). What ritual value these Levitical sacrifices had was confined to minute regulations about diet and ceremonial cleansing (clean and unclean). For “divers” (διαποροιςdiaphorois late adjective, in N.T. only in Hebrews 1:4; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:10; Romans 12:6) say “different” or “various.” απτισμοιςBaptismois is, of course, the Jewish ceremonial immersions (cf. Mark 7:4; Exodus 29:4; Leviticus 11:25, Leviticus 11:28.; Numbers 8:7; Revelation 6:2).

Carnal ordinances (δικαιωμασιν σαρκοςdikaiōmasin sarkos). But the correct text is undoubtedly simply δικαιωματα σαρκοςdikaiōmata sarkos (nominative case), in apposition with δωρα τε και τυσιαιdōra te kai thusiai (gifts and sacrifices). See Hebrews 9:1 for δικαιωματαdikaiōmata

Imposed
(επικειμεναepikeimena). Present middle or passive participle of επικειμαιepikeimai old verb to lie upon (be laid upon). Cf. 1 Corinthians 9:16.

Until a time of reformation
(μεχρι καιρου διορτωσεωςmechri kairou diorthōseōs). Definite statement of the temporary nature of the Levitical system already stated in Hebrews 7:10-17; Hebrews 8:13 and argued clearly by Paul in Galatians 3:15-22. ΔιορτωσιςDiorthōsis is a late word, here alone in N.T. (from διορτοωdiorthoō to set right or straight), used by Hippocrates for making straight misshapen limbs like ανορτοωanorthoō in Hebrews 12:12. Here for reformation like διορτωμαdiorthōma (reform) in Acts 24:2. Christianity itself is the great Reformation of the current Judaism (Pharisaism) and the spiritual Judaism foreshadowed by the old Abrahamic promise (see Gal 3; Rom 9).


Verse 11

Having come (παραγενομενοςparagenomenos). Second aorist middle participle of παραγινομαιparaginomai This is the great historic event that is the crux of history. “Christ came on the scene, and all was changed” (Moffatt).

Of the good things to come (των μελλοντων αγατωνtōn mellontōn agathōn). But B D read γενομενωνgenomenōn (that are come). It is a nice question which is the true text. Both aspects are true, for Christ is High Priest of good things that have already come as well as of the glorious future of hope. Westcott prefers γενομενωνgenomenōn Moffatt μελλοντωνmellontōn

Through the greater and more perfect tabernacle
(δια της μειζονος και τελειοτερας σκηνηςdia tēs meizonos kai teleioteras skēnēs). Probably the instrumental use of διαdia (2 Corinthians 2:4; Romans 2:27; Romans 14:20) as accompaniment, not the local idea (Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 10:20). Christ as High Priest employed in his work the heavenly tabernacle (Hebrews 8:2) after which the earthly was patterned (Hebrews 9:24).

Not made with hands
(ου χειροποιητουou cheiropoiētou). Old compound verbal for which see Mark 14:58; Acts 7:48; Acts 17:24. Cf. Hebrews 8:2. Here in the predicate position.

Not of this creation
(ου ταυτης της κτισεωςou tautēs tēs ktiseōs). Explanation of ου χιεροποιητουou chieropoiētou For κτισιςktisis see 2 Corinthians 5:17; Romans 8:19. For the idea see 2 Corinthians 4:18; Hebrews 8:2. This greater and more perfect tabernacle is heaven itself (Hebrews 9:24).


Verse 12

Through his own blood (δια του ιδιου αιματοςdia tou idiou haimatos). This is the great distinction between Christ as High Priest and all other high priests. They offer blood (Hebrews 9:7), but he offered his own blood. He is both victim and High Priest. See the same phrase in Hebrews 13:12; Acts 20:28.

Once for all (επαπαχephapax). In contrast to the repeated (annual) entrances of the Levitical high priests (Hebrews 9:7).

Into the holy place
(εις τα αγιαeis ta hagia). Here, as in Hebrews 9:8, Hebrews 9:24 heaven itself.

Having obtained
(ευραμενοςheuramenos). First aorist middle (indirect) participle of ευρισκωheuriskō simultaneous action with εισηλτενeisēlthen and by or of himself “as the issue of personal labour directed to this end” (Westcott). The value of Christ‘s offering consists in the fact that he is the Son of God as well as the Son of man, that he is sinless and so a perfect sacrifice with no need of an offering for himself, and that it is voluntary on his part (John 10:17). ΛυτρωσιςLutrōsis (from λυτροωlutroō) is a late word for the act of ransoming (cf. λυτρονlutron ransom), in O.T. only here and Luke 1:68; Luke 2:38. But απολυτρωσιςapolutrōsis elsewhere (as in Luke 21:28; Romans 3:24; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 11:35). For “eternal” (αιωνιανaiōnian here feminine form) see Hebrews 6:2. The author now turns to discuss the better sacrifice (9:13-10:18) already introduced.


Verse 13

Ashes (σποδοςspodos). Old word, in N. T. only here, Matthew 11:21; Luke 10:13. Common in lxx.

Of a heifer (δαμαλεωςdamaleōs). Old word (δαμαλιςdamalis), a red heifer whose ashes mingled with water (μετα υδατοςmeta hudatos Hebrews 9:19) were sprinkled (ραντιζουσαrantizousa present active participle of ραντιζωrantizō in lxx, though ραινωrainō more common) on the contaminated or defiled ones (Num 19) as the blood of bulls and goats was offered for sins (Lev 16).

Sanctify
(αγιαζειhagiazei). First-class condition, assumed as true. This ceremonial ritual does serve “for the cleansing (καταροτηταkatharotēta old word here only in N.T.) of the flesh,” but not for the conscience (Hebrews 9:9). The cow was αμωμονamōmon the individual καταροςkatharos f0).


Verse 14

How much more (ποσωι μαλλονposōi mallon). Instrumental case, “by how much more,” by the measure of the superiority of Christ‘s blood to that of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer.

Through the eternal Spirit (δια πνευματος αιωνιουdia pneumatos aiōniou). Not the Holy Spirit, but Christ‘s own spirit which is eternal as he is. There is thus a moral quality in the blood of Christ not in that of other sacrifices.

Offered himself
(εαυτον προσηνεγκενheauton prosēnegken). Second aorist active indicative of προσπερωprospherō (used so often as in Hebrews 5:1, Hebrews 5:3; Hebrews 8:3). The voluntary character of Christ‘s death is again emphasized.

Without blemish
(αμωμονamōmon). Old compound adjective (Colossians 1:22; 1 Peter 1:19) as the sacrifice had to be (Exodus 29:1; Leviticus 1:3, Leviticus 1:10).

Shall cleanse from conscience
(καταριει την συνειδησιν υμωνkathariei tēn suneidēsin humōn). Future active indicative of καταριζωkatharizō Some MSS. have ημωνhēmōn (our). The old Greek used καταιρωkathairō not καταριζωkatharizō (in inscriptions for ceremonial cleansing, Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 216f.), for cleansing.

From dead works
(απο νεκρων εργωνapo nekrōn ergōn). As in Hebrews 6:1. “A pause might be made before εργωνergōn from dead - (not bodies but) works.”


Verse 15

Mediator of a new covenant (διατηκης καινης μεσιτηςdiathēkēs kainēs mesitēs). See Hebrews 8:6 for this phrase with κρειττονοςkreittonos instead of καινηςkainēs

A death having taken place (τανατου γενομενουthanatou genomenou). Genitive absolute, referring to Christ‘s death.

For the redemption
(εις απολυτρωσινeis apolutrōsin).

Of the transgressions
(των παραβασεωνtōn parabaseōn). Really ablative case, “from the transgressions.” See Hebrews 9:12, λυτρωσινlutrōsin

Under the first covenant
(επι τηι πρωτηι διατηκηιepi tēi prōtēi diathēkēi). Here there is a definite statement that the real value in the typical sacrifices under the Old Testament system was in the realization in the death of Christ. It is Christ‘s death that gives worth to the types that pointed to him. So then the atoning sacrifice of Christ is the basis of the salvation of all who are saved before the Cross and since.

That they may receive
(οπως λαβωσινhopōs labōsin). Purpose clause (God‘s purpose in the rites and symbols) with οπωςhopōs and the second aorist active subjunctive of λαμβανωlambanō f0).


Verse 16

A testament (διατηκηdiathēkē). The same word occurs for covenant (Hebrews 9:15) and will (Hebrews 9:16). This double sense of the word is played upon also by Paul in Galatians 3:15. We say today “The New Testament” (Novum Testamentum) rather than “ The New Covenant.” Both terms are pertinent.

That made it (του διατεμενουtou diathemenou). Genitive of the articular second aorist middle participle of διατιτημιdiatithēmi from which διατηκηdiathēkē comes. The notion of will here falls in with κληρονομιαklēronomia (inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4) as well as with τανατοςthanatos (death).

Of force
(βεβαιαbebaia). Stable, firm as in Hebrews 3:6, Hebrews 3:14.

Where there hath been death
(επι νεκροιςepi nekrois). “In the case of dead people.” A will is only operative then.

For doth it ever avail while he that made it liveth?
(επει μη ποτε ισχυει οτε ζηι ο διατεμενοσepei mē pote ischuei hote zēi ho diathemenos). This is a possible punctuation with μη ποτεmē pote in a question (John 7:26). Without the question mark, it is a positive statement of fact. Aleph and D read τοτεtote (then) instead of ποτεpote The use of μηmē in a causal sentence is allowable (John 3:18, οτι μηhoti mē).


Verse 18

The first covenant (η πρωτηhē prōtē). Supply διατηκηdiathēkē as in Hebrews 9:1.

Has been dedicated (ενκεκαινισταιenkekainistai). Stands dedicated. Perfect passive indicative of ενκαινιζοenkainizo a late verb in lxx, one papyrus, and in N.T. only here and Hebrews 10:20. It means to renew, to inaugurate (1 Samuel 11:14; 2 Chronicles 15:8) and in 1 Kings 8:63 to dedicate. Note τα ενκαινιαta enkainia (John 10:22) for the feast of dedication.


Verse 19

When every commandment had been spoken (λαλητεισηςlalētheisēs). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle feminine singular of λαλεωlaleō The author uses the account in Exodus 24:3. “with characteristic freedom” (Moffatt). There is nothing there about the water, the scarlet wool (εριονerion diminutive of εροσ ειροςeros class="normal greek">κοκκινος — eiros old word, here and in Revelation 1:14; for υσσωπουkokkinos see Matthew 27:6, and note on Matthew 27:28), and hyssop (αυτο τε το βιβλιονhussōpou a plant mentioned in John 19:29). It had become the custom to mingle water with the blood and to use a wisp of wool or a stem of hyssop for sprinkling (Numbers 10:2-10).

Both the book itself (εραντισενauto te to biblion). There is nothing in Exodus about sprinkling the book of the covenant, though it may very well have been done. He omits the use of oil in Exodus 40:9.; Leviticus 8:10. and applies blood to all the details.

Sprinkled
(ραντιζωerantisen). First aorist active indicative from ραντοςrantizō (from ραινωrantos and this from βαπτιζωrainō), like βαπτωbaptizō from baptō Cf. Mark 7:4; Hebrews 10:22; Revelation 19:13.


Verse 20

This is (τουτοtouto). Instead of ιδουidou of the lxx (Exod 24:8), just like our Lord‘s words in Mark 14:24, a possible reminiscence of the Master‘s words (Dods). The author also has ενετειλατοeneteilato (he commanded) for διετετοdietheto of the lxx.


Verse 21

In like manner with the blood (τωι αιματι ομοιωςtōi haimati homoiōs). Instrumental case of αιμαhaima (blood). But the use of the article does not necessarily refer to the blood mentioned in Hebrews 9:19. In Exodus 40:9 Moses sprinkled the tabernacle with oil. It had not been erected at the time of Exodus 24:5. Josephus (Ant. III. 8, 6) gives a tradition that blood was used also at this dedication. Blood was used annually in the cleansing rites on the day of atonement.


Verse 22

I may almost say (σχεδονschedon). Old adverb, only three times in the N.T., here, Acts 13:44; Acts 19:26. Here it qualifies the entire clause, not just πανταpanta

With blood (εν αιματιen haimati). In blood. There were exceptions (Exodus 19:10; Exodus 32:30.; Leviticus 5:11.; Leviticus 15:5; Numbers 16:46.; Numbers 31:23., etc.).

Apart from shedding of blood
(χωρις αιματεκχυσιαςchōris haimatekchusias). A double compound first found here (coined by the writer) and later in ecclesiastical writers (αιμαhaima blood, εκek out, χεωcheō to pour, like εκχυσις αιματοςekchusis haimatos 1 Kings 18:28). “Pouring out of blood.” The author seems to have in mind Christ‘s words in Matthew 26:28: “This is my blood of the covenant which is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins.” The blood is the vital principle and is efficacious as an atonement. The blood of Christ sets aside all other plans for pardon.


Verse 23

The copies (τα υποδειγματαta hupodeigmata). See Hebrews 8:5 for this word, the earthly (Hebrews 8:4; Hebrews 9:1) tabernacle.

With these (τουτοιςtoutois). Instrumental case of ουτοςhoutos like the rites above described (Hebrews 9:19), perhaps with some disparagement.

Themselves
(αυταauta). The heavenly realities (Hebrews 8:2, Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 9:11.).

With better sacrifices
(κρειττοσιν τυσιαιςkreittosin thusiais). Instrumental case again. Point of this section (9:13-10:18).

Than these
(παρα ταυταςpara tautas). Use of παραpara and the accusative case after a comparative as in Hebrews 1:4, Hebrews 1:9. To us it seems a bit strained to speak of the ritual cleansing or dedication of heaven itself by the appearance of Christ as Priest-Victim. But the whole picture is highly mystical.


Verse 24

Made with hands (χειροποιηταcheiropoiēta). See Hebrews 9:11 for this word.

Like in pattern to the true (αντιτυπα των αλητινωνantitupa tōn alēthinōn). Late compound word, only twice in N.T. (here, 1 Peter 3:21). Polybius uses αντιτυποςantitupos for infantry “opposite” to the cavalry. In modern Greek it means a copy of a book. Here it is the “counterpart of reality” (Moffatt). Moses was shown a τυποςtupos (model) of the heavenly realities and he made an αντιτυπονantitupon on that model, “answering to the type” (Dods) or model. In 1 Peter 3:21 αντιτυποςantitupos has the converse sense, “the reality of baptism which corresponds to or is the antitype of the deluge” (Dods).

Now to appear
(νυν εμπανιστηναιnun emphanisthēnai). Purpose clause by the first aorist passive infinitive of εμπανιζωemphanizō (Matthew 27:53; John 14:21.). For the phrase see Psalm 42:3. For this work of Christ as our High Priest and Paraclete in heaven see Hebrews 7:25; Romans 8:34; 1 John 2:1.


Verse 25

That he should offer himself often (ινα πολλακις προσπερηι εαυτονhina pollakis prospherēi heauton). Purpose clause with ιναhina and present active subjunctive of προσπερωprospherō (keep on offering himself, like Hebrews 5:1, Hebrews 5:3).

With blood not his own (εν αιματι αλλοτριωιen haimati allotriōi). So-called instrumental use of ενen (accompaniment). αλλοτριοςallotrios means “belonging to another,” “not one‘s own” (Luke 16:12).


Verse 26

Else must he often have suffered (επει εδει αυτον πολλακις πατεινepei edei auton pollakis pathein). A common elliptical use of επειepei after which one must supply “if that were true” or “in that case,” a protasis of a condition of the second class assumed to be untrue. The conclusion with εδειedei is without ανan (verbs of necessity, obligation, etc.). See Robertson, Grammar, p. 963. The conclusion with ανan occurs in Hebrews 10:2. See also 1 Corinthians 5:10. “Since, if that were true, it would be necessary for him to suffer often.”

Since the foundation of the world (απο καταβολης κοσμουapo katabolēs kosmou). See Hebrews 4:3 for this phrase. The one sacrifice of Christ is of absolute and final value (1 Peter 1:19.; Revelation 13:8).

At the end
(επι συντελειαιepi sunteleiāi). Consummation or completion as in Matthew 13:39. which see.

Hath he been manifested
(πεπανερωταιpephanerōtai). Perfect passive indicative of πανεροωphaneroō permanent state. See “the primitive hymn or confession of faith” (Moffatt) in 1 Timothy 3:16 and also 1 Peter 1:20. Jesus came once for all (Hebrews 1:2).

To put away sin
(εις ατετησιν της αμαρτιαςeis athetēsin tēs hamartias). See Hebrews 7:18 for the word ατετησιςathetēsis “The sacrifice of Christ dealt with sin as a principle: the Levitical sacrifices with individual transgressions” (Vincent).


Verse 27

It is appointed (αποκειταιapokeitai). Present middle (or passive) of αποκειμαιapokeimai “is laid away” for men. Cf. same verb in Luke 19:20; Colossians 1:5; 2 Timothy 4:8 (Paul‘s crown).

Once to die (απαχ αποτανεινhapax apothanein). Once for all to die, as once for all to live here. No reincarnation here.

After this cometh judgment
(μετα τουτο κρισιςmeta touto krisis). Death is not all. Man has to meet Christ as Judge as Jesus himself graphically pictures (Matt 25:31-46; John 5:25-29).


Verse 28

Once (απαχhapax). “Once for all” (Hebrews 9:26) as already stated.

Shall appear a second time (εκ δευτερου οπτησεταιek deuterou ophthēsetai). Future passive indicative of οραωhoraō Blessed assurance of the Second Coming of Christ, but this time “apart from sin” (χωρις αμαρτιαςchōris hamartias no notion of a second chance then).

Unto salvation
(εις σωτηριανeis sōtērian). Final and complete salvation for “them that wait for him” (τοις αυτον απεκδεχομενοιςtois auton apekdechomenois). Dative plural of the articular participle present middle of απεκδεχομαιapekdechomai the very verb used by Paul in Philemon 3:20 of waiting for the coming of Christ as Saviour.

 


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 9:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/hebrews-9.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Sunday, December 15th, 2019
the Third Week of Advent
ADVERTISEMENT
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology