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Bible Commentaries

Spurgeon's Verse Expositions of the Bible
Luke 1

 

 

Verses 5-17

Luke 1:5-6. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.

You have here a very interesting couple, Zacharias and Elisabeth, a priest with a wife. I have often marveled why the Church of Rome should think it wrong that priests should be married, when it is evident that the priests under the law were so. The priests had grown so numerous that there was not room for them all to work at the Temple at one time; they were divided into twenty-four courses, and Zacharias would, therefore, come up to Jerusalem for a fortnight to take his share of the service. Zacharias and Elisabeth were notable for excellence of character: “They were both righteous before God.” Not only did they stand high in the esteem of men, but the great God, who reads the hearts of all, and sees how they live in secret, reckoned them to be righteous: “They were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments”-that is, in the moral precepts of the law-“and ordinances”-that is in the ceremonial rites-“ of the Lord blameless.”

Luke 1:7-9. And they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were now well stricken in years. And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest’s office before God in the order of his course, according to the custom of the priest’s office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord,

Certain offices of the priest were considered to be more honourable than others; and so, to prevent any jealousy, they cast lots as to which they should take in turn. It fell to the lot of Zacharias to burn incense; this did not happen by chance. “The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord;” and there was a special reason why this good man should stand at the altar at this particular time.

Luke 1:10. And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.

While he, in the inner shrine, was burning incense, the multitudes in the outer courts were engaging in prayer. I think that is a very beautiful symbol,-the priest unseen, like the Lord Jesus Christ in the Holy of Holies above, and the mass of the people engaged in prayer while the unseen priest is offering the sacred perfume before the altar of Jehovah.

Luke 1:11-12. And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.

He was a good man, yet he was troubled at the sight of an angel.

Consciousness of sin, even in an outwardly blameless man, makes us all tremble in the presence of anything heavenly. This bright spirit had come fresh from the courts of God; he was a courtier of the heavenly Temple, and he had come down on a sudden with a sweet and cheering message for the earthly priest; but the priest “was troubled, and fear fell upon him.” Brethren, we cannot know much of heaven here below, because it would cause us trembling; we are as yet unfit for all the glories of that upper state. Good John Berridge wrote,-“

And now they range the heavenly plains,

And sing their hymns in melting strains;

And now their souls begin to prove The heights and depths of Jesus’ love.

“Ah Lord, with tardy steps I creep,

And sometimes sing, and sometimes weep;

Yet strip me of this house of clay,

And I will sing as loud as they.”

Yes, and so will we; we will be as much at home as the happy saints, who dwell in light, when once we are delivered from this hampering flesh and blood.

Luke 1:13. But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard;

The best quietus to fear is answered prayer. If God has heard thee, be not thou again afraid.

Luke 1:13. And thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.

“The grace” or “the gift of God”, so the name “John” signifies; and it is a sweet name for anyone to bear: “Thou shalt call his name John.” I do not think the prayer alluded to here was so much a prayer for a son; if so, methinks that Zacharias had long ago left off praying it, and now his old prayers are heard, after he had discontinued them. I think that it alludes rather to his prayer for the coming of the Christ, the appearance of the Messiah; that prayer was heard, as we shall see further on.

Luke 1:14-15. And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink;

I do not say that it is the duty of every man to drink neither wine nor strong drink, but I beg every man to notice that if anyone was to be peculiarly consecrated to a holy calling, it was always to be so; “He shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink.” If there be nothing defiling about wine or strong drink, there is certainly nothing sanctifying about it; and the tendency seems to lie the other way, else it is a strange thing that men dedicated to God were so continually bidden to drink neither wine nor strong drink.

Luke 1:15-17. And he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother’s womb. And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.

In the third chapter of this Gospel, you will find the record of John beginning to fulfill this prophecy concerning himself.

This exposition consisted of readings from Luke 1:5-17; Luke 3:1-18.


Verses 5-56

Luke 1:5-6. There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth. And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.

There have been some good people who have lived in very bad times; never was there a worse reign than that of Herod; seldom or never a better man and woman than Zacharias and Elisabeth. Let no man excuse himself for sinning because of the times in which he lives. You may be rich in grace when others around you have none, even as Gideon’s fleece was wet with dew when the whole floor was dry. God help us, in these evil days, to be “righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless”!

Luke 1:7. And they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren, and they both were now well stricken in years.

We do not, at the present time, understand the anguish which filled the heart of an Eastern woman who had no child. It was considered to be a disgrace, and many suffered very bitterly on that account; as did Hannah, and Rachel, and others besides.

Luke 1:8-12. And it came to pass, that while he executed the priest’s office before God in the order of his course, according to the custom of the priest’s office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord. And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense. And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.

Zacharias must have been astonished as he saw that strange visitant; no wonder that “fear fell upon him.”

Luke 1:13-17. But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John. And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother’s womb. And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.

Happy is the father of such a child! Happy is that man whose office it is to be the herald of Christ! Brethren, many of us are called to that office in a certain sense as we come in our Master’s name, and preach concerning him “’Tis all my business here below To cry, ‘Behold the Lamb.’” And in this way we may be partakers of John the Baptist’s joy.

Luke 1:18-20. And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years. And, the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to show thee these glad tidings. And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things —

These glad tidings —

Luke 1:20. Shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.

Many a child of God is dumb, because of unbelief. Mary believed, and therefore she sang a holy, joyous song, — a sweet canticle of delight: “My soul doth magnify the Lord.” But Zacharias, because of his unbelief, was unable to speak. I wonder whether there is a man here who might have spoken for his God with power, but whose mouth is closed because of his unbelief. If so, may the Lord hasten the time when his dumbness shall be ended!

Luke 1:21-22. And the people waited for Zacharias, and marvelled that he tarried so long in the temple. And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple: for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless.

By the signs he made, he impressed them with the fact that something extraordinary had happened.

Luke 1:23-25. And it came to pass, that, as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house. And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying, Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.

I do not wonder that, in her solemn joy, she shunned the gossips of the neighborhood and kept herself in seclusion. I do believe that there is many a soul which, when it has found Christ, feels itself much too full of joy to speak, and asks not for a crowded temple, but for a quiet chamber where the heart may pour itself out before God.

Luke 1:26-35. And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women. And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favor with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man! And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.

So was she thus visited, and thus she believed with a wonderful faith, much too wonderful for me to describe in this place. But now let us see what Mary said when she went to visit her cousin Elisabeth.

Luke 1:46-47. And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.

She needed a Saviour, you see. Though about to become the mother of Jesus, Mary did not think herself without sin. Her eyes still looked to him who should be her Saviour from guilt and condemnation.

Luke 1:48-55. For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name. And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation. He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree. He hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away. He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy; as he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever.

This is one of the sweetest songs that was ever sung, and is equal to any of those which came from the inspired lips of the Hebrew prophets. Well might she sing who had been thus favored. Oh, if Christ Jesus should come to any of us by faith, what reason should we have for singing! And will not each one of us, who has been thus honoured, cry with Mary, “My soul doth magnify the Lord”?

Luke 1:56. And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house.

What wonderful interviews those two holy women had! The one well stricken in years, and the other youthful; yet both highly favored of God. I wonder what they said; doubtless angels remember their charming conversation. May the day come when all that fear the Lord, both men and women, shall speak often one to another concerning their Redeemer, and all that relates to his glorious cause; and then the Lord shall write another Book of Remembrance concerning their hallowed fellowship and intercourse!

This exposition consisted of readings from Psalms 148; and Luke 1:5-35; Luke 1:46-56.


Verses 26-56

Luke 1:26-27. And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary.

It was by the temptation of an evil angel that man fell, and Paradise was lost, it was, therefore, most appropriate that good angels should be sent to announce the coming of the Restorer, through whom Paradise is regained: “Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth.” Christ’s coming to earth must be announced in the lowliest of cities, and he must be born in the small Judaean town of Bethlehem; but it was also decreed that he must die at Jerusalem, — in the metropolitan city. Mark the simplicity, and yet the sublimity, of the arrangement by which the meek and lowly Saviour was to be born in our nature. The angel Gabriel was sent from God to a virgin, whose name was Mary.

Luke 1:28-29. And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women. And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.

The best of news may sometimes cause the greatest perturbation of mind and heart. If you feel troubled when you receive a message from God do not be astonished, as though some strange thing had happened unto you. See how Mary, who was told that she was to receive the greatest honour and favor possible to a mortal being, was troubled by the angel’s speech, perplexed by his extraordinary salutation.

Luke 1:30. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favor with God.

If we have found favor with God, there is no cause for us to fear. If God is gracious to us, we are raised above all reason for alarm. Some court the fickle favor of men; but, even if they gain it, they may well fear that they may shortly lose it, but the angel said, “Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favor with God;” and having found that favor, she would never lose it.

Luke 1:31-32. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. He shall be great, —

How true is that prophecy; “He shall be great.” Christ is the greatest of all great ones. How great he is in our esteem! The tongues of men and of angels could not tell all his greatness. “He shall be great,” —

Luke 1:32-37. And shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David: And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end. Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her, the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. And, behold, thy cousin Elizabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren. For with God nothing shall be impossible.

It seemed meet that the gospel dispensation should thus begin with two great wonders. The age of wonders has opened upon us now that the day of grace has dawned. Now shall the barren woman keep house, and be the joyful mother of children, according to the ancient prophecy.

Luke 1:38. And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.

Oh, that we all had such a spirit of submission as she had, that we might be willing to place ourselves absolutely at God’s disposal, for him to do with us as he pleased!

Luke 1:38. And the angel of the Lord departed from her.

His mission was accomplished, so he might go back to the glory from which he had come at God’s command.

Luke 1:39-43. And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elizabeth. And it came to pass, that, when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost: And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?

The most gracious people are always the most humble people. This question of Elizabeth, “Whence is this to me?” has been one that we have often put concerning ourselves. She was the older woman of the two, but she felt herself highly honoured by this visit from her younger relative, whom the Lord had so wondrously favored. It is well when Christian people have a high regard for one another, and think less of themselves than they do of others whom God has especially favored. It is one of the traits in the character of God’s true people, that they have this mind in them; while they who think themselves great prove that they are not the Lord’s. If you think much of yourself, he thinks little of you.

Luke 1:44-45. For, lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy. And blessed is she that believed:

Not only Mary, who believed the angel’s message, and was therefore blessed; but every one of us, who believes in God, may share in this benediction.

Luke 1:45-46. For there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord. And Mary said,

This humble Jewish maiden was a woman of great natural ability. This song of hers is worthy to be sung throughout all ages. It is true that it is mainly taken from the song of Hannah, and other songs of devout persons in former ages; but this shows how Mary had studied the Word of God, and laid it up in her heart. The best preparation that you young people can have for the highest honour and service in your future life is to bathe frequently in the Word of God, and to perfume your whole life by a familiar and accurate acquaintance with Scripture truth. Nothing else can make you so pure, or so prepared for all service which God may yet have for you to perform.

Luke 1:46. My soul doth magnify the Lord, —

That is a good beginning. Mary does not magnify herself in her Magnificat, she has nothing to say concerning her own dignity, though she was of a noble lineage; but she sang, “My soul doth magnify the Lord,” —

Luke 1:47. And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.

She needed a Saviour as much as we do, for she was a sinner like ourselves; and though she was blessed among women, she here indicates that she owed all that blessedness to the grace of God, who had become a Saviour to her, as well as to us.

Luke 1:48. For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden:

The family from which Mary sprang had become poor, and she dwelt in lowliness at Nazareth.

Luke 1:48-49. For, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name.

She was indeed a blessed woman to have such holy thoughts, such reverence for God, such a true idea of his might and majesty, and of the marvellous favor which he had shown to her.

Luke 1:50. And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.

Remember this, it was not mercy to Mary only; it was mercy to us, and mercy to all, who truly trust the Saviour in whom she trusted.

Luke 1:51. He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.

Sometimes, we read of God’s “finger,” That refers to a part of his great power. At other times, we read of his “hand.” That is a more brilliant display of his power. But here, as elsewhere, we read of his “arm.” This is the majesty of his omnipotence. Pharaoh’s magicians told the king that it was the finger of God that wrought the plagues of Egypt, but it was with his outstretched arm that he divided the Red Sea, and overthrew Pharaoh and his hosts: Mary felt that, in the work of salvation we see God’s arm; not merely his finger, or his hand.

Luke 1:52. He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree.

This is what God is constantly doing, — casting down the high and mighty ones, and lifting up the meek and lowly.

Luke 1:53. He hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away.

They who are self-satisfied shall sooner or later be cast out; but those who look to God alone, and are hungry after him, shall be satisfied with his favor.

Luke 1:54-56. He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy: As he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever. And Mary abode with her about three months and returned to her own house.


Verses 39-56

Luke 1:39-41. And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Juda; and entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth. And it came to pass, that, when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost:

We do not read that Mary was filled with the Holy Ghost, possibly because she was always in that condition, living very near to God in hallowed fellowship. Some of us have occasional fillings with the Holy Spirit, but blessed are they who dwell in him, having been baptized into him, and enjoying continual nearness to God as the blessed result.

Luke 1:42-43. And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?

Those who are most holy are most humble; you will always find those two things go together. Elisabeth was the older woman, but, inasmuch as Mary was more highly favored than she was, she asked, “Whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should some to me?” Genuine Christians do not exalt themselves above their fellow-believers, but they have a self-depreciatory spirit, and each one esteems others better than himself.

Luke 1:44-45. For, lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy. And blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord.

What a benediction that is! If any of us truly believe God’s Word, we are blessed from that very fact, for God’s promise never misses its due performance. Men find it convenient to forget their promises, but God never forgets; he takes as much delight in keeping his promise as he does in making it.

Luke 1:46. And Mary said, —

We do not read that she spoke with a loud voice. Occasionally, the visitation of the Spirit causes excitement. Thus, Elisabeth spoke with a loud voice; but Mary, though full of a rapturous joy, spoke calmly and quietly, in a royal tone of holy calm. “Mary said,” —

Luke 1:46. My soul doth magnify the Lord, —

She was weary, for she had come a long journey, but she was like Abraham’s servant, who said, “I will not eat, until I have told mine errand.” So Mary will not eat until she has sung the praises of her God: “My soul doth magnify the Lord,” —

Luke 1:47-48. And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.

Some have done so to the grief of genuine Christians, for they have apostatized from the faith, and made Mary into a kind of goddess, and, therefore, Protestant Christians have gone to the other extreme, and have not always given to her the respect which is due to her.

Luke 1:49-50. For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name. And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.

Notice how Mary quotes Scripture. Her mind seems to have been saturated with the Word of God, as though she had learned the books of Scripture through, and had them “by heart” in more senses than one; and it is significant that, though the Holy Spirit was speaking by her, yet even he quoted the older Scriptures in preference to uttering new sentences. What honour he put upon the Old Testament by so continually quoting it in the New Testament, even as the Lord Jesus also did. Let us, too, prize every part of God’s Word, let us lie asoak in it till we are saturated with Scriptural expressions; we cannot find any better ones, for there are none.

Luke 1:51-53. He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree. He hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away.

Mary’s song reminds us of the song of Hannah, yet there is a different tone in it. Hannah’s has more of exultation over enemies cast down, but Mary’s is more becoming to the new dispensation as Hannah’s was to the old. There is a gentle quietness of tone about the Magnificat all through, yet even Mary cannot help rejoicing that the Lord “hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away.”

Luke 1:54-56. He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy; As he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever. And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house.

Wondrous as her future was to be, she would not neglect the duties of her home. When any of you are privileged to share high spiritual enjoyments, mind that you always return to your own home not unfitted for your domestic duties. We read that David, after he had danced before the ark, “is returned to bless his household.” We must never set up God’s altar in opposition to the lawful duties of our home. The two together will make us strong for service, and enable us to glorify the name of the Lord.


Verses 46-55

Luke 1:46-47. And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.

The burden of Mary’s Magnificat is very similar to Hannah’s song, though there was one respect in which she could raise an even loftier note, for she had been chosen to be the mother of our Lord.

Luke 1:48-55. For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name. And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation. He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree. He hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich he hath sent empty away He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy; as he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever.

You see that the theme of the song is the same all through,-the casting down of the proud and the mighty, and the uplifting of those that are bowed down and despised; and all this is ascribed to the sovereignty of God.

This exposition consisted of readings from 1 Samuel 2:1-10; and Luke 1:46-55.

 


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Bibliography Information
Spurgeon, Charle Haddon. "Commentary on Luke 1:4". "Spurgeon's Verse Expositions of the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/spe/luke-1.html. 2011.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, November 16th, 2019
the Week of Proper 27 / Ordinary 32
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