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Bible Commentaries

The Pulpit Commentaries
2 Chronicles 26

 

 

Verses 1-23

EXPOSITION

The twenty-three verses of this chapter, entirely occupied with the career of Uzziah, have to be content with a parallel of nine verses only, viz. 2 Kings 14:21, 2 Kings 14:22; 2 Kings 15:1-7. Our chapter first glances at the usual prefatory particulars of the age, pedigree, length of reign, kind of character, and choice between virtue and vice of the new king (2 Chronicles 26:1-5; but note the remarkable appearance of 2 Chronicles 26:2, looking as though it had strayed). Next, of his good works (2 Chronicles 26:6-15). Next, of his fall through most gratuitous "presumptuous sin," and its decisive crushing visitation of punishment (2 Chronicles 26:16-21). Lastly, of his death and burial (2 Chronicles 26:22, 2 Chronicles 26:23). The nine verses of the parallel instanced above answer respectively—2 Chronicles 26:21, 2 Chronicles 26:22 to our 2 Chronicles 26:1, 2 Chronicles 26:2; 2 Chronicles 26:1-3, to our 2 Chronicles 26:1, 2 Chronicles 26:3, 2 Chronicles 26:4; 2 Chronicles 5:1-14, to our verse 21; and 2 Chronicles 5:6, 2 Chronicles 5:7, to our verses 22, 23. That our chapter should abound in interest, and such solemn interest, awakens the more thought [as to the causes of the absence of so much of its most interesting matter in the Book of Kings.

2 Chronicles 26:1

Uzziah; Hebrew, עֻזִּיָּה. (signifying "Strength of Jehovah"). Once in Chronicles, and once only (1 Chronicles 3:12), this king's name is given Azariah, Hebrew, עֲזַרְיָה (signifying "Help of Jehovah") or עֲזַרְיָהוּ; and Isaiah (Isaiah 1:1, etc.), Hosea (Hosea 1:1, etc.), and Amos (Amos 1:1, etc.) always use the word Uzziah. In the parallel, however, and in both the chapters in which the parallel clauses lie, the word Azariah is used, as well in other clauses as in those (e.g. 2 Kings 15:1, 2 Kings 15:6, 2 Kings 15:8, 2 Kings 15:23, 2 Kings 15:27), yet Uzziah is also used in verses intermingled with them (e.g. 2 Chronicles 26:13, 30, 32, 34). It is probable that Azariah was the first-used name, that the latter name was not a corruption of the former, but that, for whatever reason, the king was called by both names. Nevertheless, the apt analogy that has been pointed out of Uzziel (1 Chronicles 25:4) and Azareel (18) is noteworthy. (See Keil and Bertheau on 1 Kings 15:2 and 2 Kings 14:21; and Keil on our present passage.) Sixteen years old. Therefore Uzziah must have been born just before the fatal outside mistake of his father's life in the challenge he sent to Joash of Israel, and after the deadly inner mistake of his soul in turning aside to "the gods of the children of Seir."

2 Chronicles 26:2

Eloth; Hebrew, אֶת־אֵילוֹת; the parallel reads אֵילַת. This place was at the head of the Gulf Akaba (2 Chronicles 8:17; 1 Kings 9:26); Judah had lost hold of it at a past revolt of Edom, and Uzziah, after his father's crippling of Edom, seizes the opportunity of making it Judah's again and rebuilding it, thus finishing very probably a work that he knew had been in his father's heart to do. This consideration may explain alike the following clause in our verse. and the placing of this here. Uzziah charged himself to do it the first thing.

2 Chronicles 26:3

Jecoliah. This name is spelt Jecholiah in the parallel. The character, however, is kappa in both texts. The meaning of the name is, "Made strong of Jehovah." Another unreliable form of the name is Jekiliah, the result probably of a mere clerical error.

2 Chronicles 26:4

Right … according to … his father. His father's comparatively long reign, sullied by two frightful stains, which were fearfully visited with a long punishment and a fatal end, is graciously recognized here for the good that was in it, and apparently credited even with a "balance to the good."

2 Chronicles 26:5

In the days of Zechariah. Twice in the foregoing chapter we have read of "a man of God" and "a prophet" whose names are not given. The chariness of the narrative in this exact respect is not very explicable, for if the simple reason be assumed to be that they were not of much repute, now when the name of Zechariah is given, all that we can say is that nothing else is known of him. Had understanding; Hebrew, הַמֵּבִין. There seems no reason to divest this hiph. conjugation form of its stricter signification, "gave understanding "(see Isaiah 40:14). In the visions of God; Hebrew, בִּרְאוֹת. Some slight discrepancy in the usual fuller writing of the word in some manuscripts lends a little ground of preference for the reading, which a few manuscripts evidently had, of בִּירְאַת; i.e. "in the fear of God" (Proverbs 1:7; Isaiah 11:3); either reading in either of these sub-clauses leaves an undisturbed good meaning to the description of Zechariah.

2 Chronicles 26:6

The Philistines. It has been seen how the Philistines, humbled to tribute under Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:10-13), had lifted up their heads repeatedly since, as on one occasion in alliance with Arabians (2 Chronicles 21:16, 2 Chronicles 21:17) against Jehoram. Brake down the wall (see 2 Chronicles 25:23, the first occasion of this exact expression). Gath (see the parallel to our 2 Chronicles 24:23, 2 Chronicles 24:24 in 2 Kings 12:17). Jabneh. A city on the coast, northwest of Judah, now Jebna (see Joshua 15:10-12). Ashdod. Also on the coast, about eight miles south of Jabneh (Joshua 15:47). It is now a large village in Philistia, called Esdud, answering to the Azotus of Acts 8:40 (see Topographical Index to Conder's 'Handbook to the Bible;' and Dr. Smith's 'Bible Dictionary,' sub voc; 1.119). Built cities about Ashdod; Revised Version supplies in italic type" in the country of Ashdod." However, the force of the preposition בְּ before "Ashdod" in this case speaks for itself; on account of the great importance of the place, in respect of its situation, on the road to Egypt, the strength of its position and perhaps the memory of the fact that, allotted to Judah, it had never really been appropriated by her, and incorporated with her, Uzziah saw it expedient to surround it with other fortified cities, or strong forts, which should be a watch upon it.

2 Chronicles 26:7

Gur-baal. Though nothing is known of this place (the meaning of which is "abode of Baal," perhaps from some temple of Baal), yet its companion Maon, the city of the Mehunim (2 Chronicles 22:1; 10:12), shows whereabouts it was.

2 Chronicles 26:8

The Ammonites. This nation lay east of Jordan, north-east of Moab. Note the interesting references, Numbers 21:24; Deuteronomy 2:37. Gave gifts. This expression was found in our 2 Chronicles 17:11; 1 Kings 4:21; 1 Kings 10:25. The reference to tribute-payment is evident. The entering in of Egypt. This, of course, marks the breadth of the land, and describes the breadth of Uzziah's sway or influence.

2 Chronicles 26:9

Built towers in Jerusalem. The excellent map, above alluded to (2 Chronicles 25:23), in Conder's 'Handbook to the Bible' (2nd edit.), facing p. 334, furnishes a very clear idea alike of these towers and of the walls of Jerusalem, as we can make them out, for Uzziah's times. For the corner gate, see our note, 2 Chronicles 25:23. Valley gate. This is called by some the Gehenna gate. As many as three sites, reducible perhaps to two, are proposed for this gate:

And at the turning; Hebrew, הַמִקְצוֹעַ. This word occurs eleven times, viz. twice in Exodus, four times in Nehemiah, four times in Ezekiel, and in this place, and is always rendered "corner" or" turning;" the word wanted is angle. The site of this gate cannot very certainly be pronounced upon. Perhaps the angle that marks the gate is that at the south-east corner of the temple plateau. The language of Nehemiah 3:19 is our best clue: "Next to him Ezer repaired … a piece over against the going up to the armoury at the turning."

2 Chronicles 26:10

Towers in the desert; Hebrew, בַּמִּזְבָּר; the rendering should be the usual one of "wilderness." This was the cattle-pasture west and south-west of the Dead Sea. The towers were needed for forts of observation against marauding and cattle-robbing incursions, as well as for shelter in some attacks. Many wells; Hebrew, בּרֹוֹת. These were not springs, but rather, as in the margin, tanks and cisterns. Carmel. It is not probable that this is the proper name. The translation of Carmel is "fertile field." As a proper name it occurs about twenty times, from Joshua 12:22; Joshua 15:55; Joshua 19:26; on to Amos 1:2; Amos 9:3; and perhaps Micah 7:14; and as not a proper name it occurs about twenty times also; the "fruitful field," e.g; of Isaiah 29:17 and Isaiah 32:15 shows in the Hebrew text הַכַּרְמֶל. The aspect of this verse is very picturesque, and the picturesqueness very pleasant, with its low country and pasturing cattle, its plains and their herds, its hills and their vines, all quickened into life by the mention of towers and wells, husbandmen and vine-dressers, and finished off by the home-touch that this king's partiality looked to agricultural and pastoral pursuits.

2 Chronicles 26:11

That went out to war by bands; Hebrew, יוֹצְאֵי צָבָא לִגְדוּד. The last of these words occurs thirty-three times, and is rendered "troop" ten times, "company" four times, "band" fourteen times, and (too generically) "army "five times. The middle word occurs above four hundred times, is rendered "host" an immense preponderance of these times, and probably should have been so rendered without exception. The first word is the pool participle kal of the familiar verb יָצָא, and compels the translation (given literally),' the goers out of the host by hands." Meantime, if the persons here spoken of were leaders, as seems possible, the hiph. participle is required (which would postulate an initial mem for the present initial yod), and a most typical example among some thirty others essentially similar may be quoted from Isaiah 40:26. Their account by the hand of Jeiel; i.e. their muster tabulated by Jeiel, whose office is mentioned before in our 2 Chronicles 25:11. Under the hand of Hananiah. That is, Hananiah was head of the whole matter of the registering, etc.

2 Chronicles 26:12

Of the mighty men of valour. The "of" here is incorrect; the former sub-stautive is not necessarily in construct state, and this word has the prefix of the preposition לְ; nor is the rendering "valour" for our Hebrew text חָיִל so likely a rendering as that found in the foregoing verse, "host." Render, The whole number of the chief of the fathers in the mighty men of the host was, etc. So in the next verse. "with mighty power" will be better rendered "with the strength of a host."

2 Chronicles 26:13

An army; Hebrew, חֵיל צָבָא. "A force of host" would render this expression, though by an ambiguous use of the word חֵיל, construct state of חַיִל. This verse gives the number of the body of the army proper, which shows it seven thousand five hundred more than that of Amaziah in the foregoing chapter (2 Chronicles 26:5).

2 Chronicles 26:14

Habergeons … slings to cast stones. Revised Version right in rendering, coats of mail and stones for slinging. On the Israelites' employment of the sling, note 20:16; 1 Samuel 17:40; 2 Kings 3:25.

2 Chronicles 26:15

Engines; Hebrew, חִשְּׁבֹנוֹת; used only here and Ecclesiastes 7:29 (where it is rendered "inventions"), but the related word חֶשְׁבּוֹן is found three times: Ecclesiastes 7:25 (the "reason"), 27 (the "account"); Ecclesiastes 9:10 ("device"); while the verb root חָשַׁב, to "devise," occurs about a hundred and thirty times, as in next sub-clause מַחֲשֶׁבֶת חוֹשֵׁב. A strict rendering of the clause would make it read, "He made inventions, the inventing of an inventive man;" and the force of the words might be to appraise very highly the virtue of the invention or machine, while to himself may have been due the credit thereof. The balista which discharged stones is depicted on Assyrian sculptures; not so the machine for discharging darts and arrows, the catapult. Although, as just suggested, it were conceivable that to Uzziah himself was due in part the invention or the great improving of the machines in question, yet the verse may be regarded as simply saying that the introduction of them into Jerusalem was his work. He was marvellously helped (see Ecclesiastes 9:7).

2 Chronicles 26:16

To (his) destruction; Hebrew, עַד־לְחַשְׁחִית, hiph. conjugation infin, of שָׁחַת. This conjugation frequently occurs in the sense of "destroying," but also as well without an accusative as with, in the sense of "doing corruptly" (Genesis 6:12 with accusative; but without Deuteronomy 4:16; Deuteronomy 31:29; 2:19; Isaiah 1:19; and next chapter, Isaiah 1:2). He transgressed. The "transgression" of a heart that had waxed wanton through prosperity took that peculiarly aggravated form of sinning against holy things and a holy ceremonial. Although, in the daily service of the second temple, the duty of offering incense attached to one chosen by lot each morning and evening of the inferior priests, yet originally the high priest was solemnly appointed for this office. The following are among the most important references to the matter of the incense and its offering (Exodus 25:6; Exodus 30:1, Exodus 30:7, Exodus 30:8, Exodus 30:34, Exodus 30:37, Exodus 30:38; Le Exodus 16:13; Luke 1:21; Numbers 6:24-26; Numbers 16:1-35; Numbers 18:1-7; 1 Kings 4:20).

2 Chronicles 26:17

Azariah the priest. Verse 20 states what was otherwise to be supposed, that he was the chief priest ( הָראשׁ). We fail to identify his name with any in the typical list of 1 Chronicles 6:4-15, where the Azariah of verse 11 is too early, and the Azariah of verse 13 too late, for our present Azariah. With him four score priests. This passage suggests to us an idea of how many deeply interesting details are wanting, which would fill in the interstices of Old Testament history. Probably the intention of the king, ambitious to simulate the self-assumed religious ways of neighbouring Gentile kings, was no secret; and possibly the king may have given time for the chief priest to collect his auxiliaries, through some ostentatious display on his own part, in the very performance of his desecration. The number and the character of these helping priests ( בְּנֵי־חָיַל) give the idea that they had their work to do, and purposed doing it promptly, or that they would over-awe, and obviate the use of actual force, by their imposing number.

2 Chronicles 26:18

They withstood. A somewhat more forcible rendering would be justified by the Hebrew text, such e.g. as, "They confronted Uzziah to his face," or "They stood in the way of Uzziah," since our "withstood" almost always conveys the idea of argumentative confronting only. There was expostulation here, as we are immediately told, but there was something else also, as 2 Chronicles 26:20 makes very plain, "They thrust him out."

2 Chronicles 26:19

Render, Then Uzziah was wrath, and in his hand (at that moment) was a censer to burn incense, etc. From the most literal rendering of the Hebrew text, not unfrequently the most forcible Bible English results. From beside; render, at the very side of (comp. Numbers 12:10; 2 Kings 5:27).

2 Chronicles 26:20

They thrust him out. This hiph. conjugation of kal בָּהַל does not point to the force adopted, but to the trembling anxiety with which, for horror's sake of such a monstrous catastrophe, as a leper by the altar and with a censer in his hand, etc; the priests urged him out. Evidently, from the next clause, no great force in the ordinary sense was needed. Yea, himself hasted. The Hebrew verb is niph. conjugation of דָחַף. It is interesting to note that this root occurs only here and three times in Esther, viz. Esther 3:15; Esther 6:12; Esther 8:14. Uzziah can scarcely have been ignorant that he had been daring the utmost penalty of the Law (Numbers 16:31, Numbers 16:35; Numbers 18:7).

2 Chronicles 26:21

And dwelt in a several house. The Hebrew for "several house" is הַחָפְשׁוֹת: the parallel (2 Kings 15:5) showing yod instead of van in the last syllable. The verbal root is חָפַשׁ, and occurs once (Le 19:20, with the Authorized Version rendering "was free;" in the same verse is also found a feminine noun derived from it, and rendered in the Authorized Version "freedom''). The adjective חָפְשִׁי occurs sixteen times, and is always rendered in the Authorized Version "free," except once "at liberty" (Jeremiah 34:16). The "freedom" conveyed by the word is that of separation, in the use of it as found here. The leper and the house in which he lived were kept free from contact with others (Le 13:46). Gesenius appears, however, to prefer the idea of "infirmity," "sickness," as determining the cast of the meaning of the word in our text, and goes so far as to translate it an "hospital," quoting the word of Suidas, τὸ νοσοκομεῖον.

2 Chronicles 26:22

Isaiah the prophet. Isaiah the prophet asserts that his prophetic inspiration was in Uzziah's time (Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 6:1), or we should have taken for granted that, as he was alive in the time of Hezekiah, grandson to Uzziah, he wrote of Uzziah only from hearsay and previous records. It must be concluded, accordingly, that Isaiah's inspiration as a prophet was early in his own life, that the beginning of it dated not long before the end of Uzziah's career, and that his life was a prolonged one, while still the most part of the acts first and last of Uzziah, which he wrote, must have consisted of a compilation from other treatises and perhaps partly from tradition.

2 Chronicles 26:23

In the field of the burial which belonged to the kings. The parallel simply says," with his fathers in the city of David." Judging, however, both from the somewhat remarkable words in our text, "the field of the burial" (i.e. the burial-field), and from the following clause, for they said, He is a leper, we may understand that, though it was in the "city of David" that he was buried, and "with his fathers" so far forth, and also that he lay near them, yet his actual sepulchre was not one with theirs, any more than his house of late had been one with the house he had known so well.

HOMILETICS

2 Chronicles 26:1-23

The reign of fifty-two years spoiled in an hour.

Many a reign, indeed, was a spoiled reign which had begun well, promised well, and continued well for some length, of time. But the reign of Uzziah, of all the reigns of Judah and of Israel the longest with the one exception of that of Manasseh, and particularly full of prosperity, and remarkably varied prosperity within, of success in just foreign wars, and of that which led to these things, viz. the most gracious tokens of the Divine approval and help—was all to be wrecked in an hour apparently, so far as King Uzziah was concerned. His people, indeed, were not stricken for his sin. Nor were his priests, whose loyal fidelity to their high office and sacred charge and whose faithful courage shone out to great advantage; but for the king himself, whenever his defection occurred, all the harvest of many years of a well-spent and hitherto glorious reign was "blown quite away" by—surely only such it can have been—"one cunning bosom sin"! The preacher may fix close and detailed attention on—

I. THE VARIED BENEFICENCE AND SUCCESS OF MANY YEARS OF UZZIAH'S REIGN. All this left little to Uzziah to desire, and little to be desired for him. They should have paved the way for an honourable, peaceful, restful old age, with the blessings of a nation and a nation's God upon him.

II. THE PLACE IN THE KING WHERE THIS SIN LODGED. It was not a sin of the world, nor a sin of the flesh, and though undoubtedly it was a sin of the devil, it must rather be written, the sin of the devil. It was akin to the sin of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram (Numbers 16:1-35). It was akin to the turning sin of the life of the first king, Saul. It was, we may perhaps say, akin to the sin of those "angels who lost their first estate." It was a sin particularly legislated against (Numbers 18:1-7). It is one, probably in our own days, and through all Christendom's past ages of history, more largely at work and more malignant, and of more dire disaster to priests even and people, than may be generally imagined. It harbours itself, not in the flesh, and not in the heart, but in the spirit. It is ambition ecclesiastical, and unbridled! It is a snatching at spiritual function, domination, and claim of authority, unauthorized! It is a zeal of self-exaltation and self-display, where self's very vesture should be the vesture of purity and of obedience! With Uzziah it was technical sacrilege. It none the less surely covered real sacrilege, which his spirit desired, sought, and defiantly dared. The opportunity here may be well utilized by the preacher for dwelling on and explaining the scripturally described triple designation of human nature, "body, soul, and spirit."

III. THE CUNNINGNESS AND SUBTLENESS OF THIS SIN OF THE SPIRIT. We do not, indeed, know the birth of this sin in Uzziah at all—when it was, what favoured it, when or how it peeped out first to view. Though it seems, as we read it, as though it were absolutely the evil suggestion of an hour in Uzziah, yet the preparation so easily matured by Azariah, when he followed "into the temple after Uzziah, and with him fourscore priests of the Lord, valiant men," seems to indicate that those true ministers of the temple were to some degree forewarned and apprised of what was going to be attempted. The cunningness was that this particular disposition and impulse to sin had lain dormant for many a year of useful, good, and perhaps holy work. And the subtleness of it ranges with the truth that higher intellects and higher intelligences are exposed to higher, finer, and more refined forms of temptation, the highest to the highest, Let men say what they wilt in derogation and superficial disparagement of the inviolable sacredness of the offices and services and sacraments of the Church—differencing them from the older typical dispensation, when they differ not at all, except in demand of higher reverence and more spiritual unfeigned observance—it is indisputable that the most solemn warnings of apostles and Epistles point in this same direction of protest against all the offspring and widespread family of sacrilege. It is, indeed, in and of the very genius of Christianity to hallow intentions, vows, determinations, and works of religion with a sacredness all their own. The rush and rage of modern national life may overwhelm and sweep away many an old and many a sacred boundary, but the might is not the right. And the might that seems to usurp successfully, as Uzziah's was not given to do, is inflicting only the deadlier blow and more inly wound.

IV. THE CONDIGN PUNISHMENT OF UZZIAH. The disease of leprosy meant, marked, sin's last, typical chastisement for the body. And sin's last daring attempt of the spirit is stricken down with this loathsome stroke and scourge. It made the sinner hasten away to make if he could his escape; it makes the sinner loathe himself; it is the dread earnest of his shut-off, "let-alone," solitary condemnation. And one thing only—the blood of Jesus Christ—has efficacy to cleanse that leper. Though the principle cannot safely be applied either by Job's comforters or any modern successors of them, yet the nature and severity of a punishment roughly measure the significance of the sin, the steps of which it tracks. And Uzziah's sin and punishment, startling as they are in their own connection, have been also written as admonition that might be greatly needed as the wayward ages should flow onward, even to our own, and perhaps to the end.

HOMILIES BY W. CLARKSON

2 Chronicles 26:1-5

Premature responsibility, etc.

In these verses we have a picture or a suggestion of—

I. PREMATURE RESPONSIBILITY. "All the people of Judah took Uzziah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king." They all agreed to set a lad upon the throne. Events seem to have justified their course; and if Zechariah the prophet, or, what is more likely, some prominent "prince of Judah," acted as prime minister or protector, he may have succeeded even in the earlier years of his administration. But it is a very great mistake to devolve large responsibilities upon the young.

1. It is bad for the estate they have to administer, whatever that may be. "Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child," is a curse which has a wide application. The very young, with minds that must be immature, judge without knowledge, are swayed by persons rather than governed by principles, fall into serious and often into disastrous mistakes.

2. It is bad for themselves. It exposes them to several temptations which it is not right they should encounter, and it loads them with a weight of duty and difficulty they are not strong enough to carry. In most cases they break down, in some direction, under their burden. Responsibility is not for youth; it is for prime and for the ripe experience of later life.

II. THE INEQUALITIES OF CONDITION WHICH THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD ASSIGNS US. Uzziah "reigned fifty-two years in Jerusalem." To him God gave more than half a century of power and wealth and their attendant advantages. To others he denies these larger gratifications altogether, and grants very limited comforts, and these for a very brief hour. How do we account for this? All is plain if we consider:

1. That neither justice nor kindness requires that God should give to one man as large a heritage as he has given to another; it is no injury to me to whom he has given one talent that it has pleased him to bestow ten talents on my neighbour. I had no claim to that one talent which, of his pure goodness, he has conferred upon me.

2. That the chief value of human life depends neither upon its surroundings nor upon its duration, but upon its moral and spiritual characteristics.

3. That if there be any inequalities that, in the cause of righteousness, require adjustment, there remains the long future for redress.

III. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTHERHOOD ON OUR CHARACTER AND OUR COURSE. It is not without meaning that we have the record, "his mother's name was Jecoliah." To much too large a degree in the East all that the mother contributes is maternity. But "woman, beloved of God in old Jerusalem," gave much more than this. She was not a cipher in the home; she was an intelligent, active sharer in the thought and history of her country and her time. Jesus Christ owed much to her truer appreciation, and to her more faithful ministry. It is likely that Uzziah owed as much to his mother as to his father in the way of godly training and good home influence. A very considerable number of the great and good men who have rendered conspicuous services to their race became what they were because they grew up in the atmosphere of a mother's gentle and beautiful life. "No mother knows who or what she has in her cradle," or can tell how great a share she may have, by the training of the little child that is slumbering there, in the enrichment or the reformation of the world.

IV. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHRISTIAN MINISTRY ON OUR CHARACTER AND COURSE. "He sought God in the days of Zechariah" (verse 5). No doubt this seeking of the Lord was very largely due to the prophet's influence over him. The true Christian minister is, like the Hebrew prophet, "one that speaks for God" to men. And he who speaks for his Divine Master with faithfulness, with earnestness of spirit, in true and pure affection, speaking "the whole counsel of God" as he is able to learn and utter it, has a work to do and an influence to exert second to none in the hearts and lives of men. From the court to the cottage-home the gracious power of such ministry is felt in the land.

V. THE PROSPERITY OF PIETY. "As long as he sought the Lord, God made him to prosper" (verse 5). (See homily on 2 Chronicles 25:15," The folly of irreligion.")

1. There is no prosperity worthy of the name, or worthy of our ambition and pursuit, outside the fear and the favour of God. "Who hath hardened himself against him and prospered?" Many have seemed to do so, and have imagined that they did. But, in the light of Divine wisdom, they have miserably failed.

2. There can be no failure in the faithful service of the Supreme. What looks like it, there may be, there often is; but not the thing itself. For he who walks with God, and is the friend of Jesus Christ, must be what is right and good; must stand where he is secure from harm; must be witnessing for the truth of God; must be moving on towards deeper wisdom, purer joy, and a glorious estate beyond.—C.

2 Chronicles 26:5

Seeing God.

Zechariah "had understanding in the seeing of God" (marginal reading). In what way did the prophet, and in what respects may we now, have such special "understanding"?

I. THE PROPHETIC PRIVILEGE OF SEEING GOD. It might seem, at first sight, that there would be no degrees in such capacity. If God enabled a man to see him and to know his truth by granting him a vision, or by specially enlarging his natural faculty, it must be of no consequence (or of very little) what his individual capacities may be. But, thus reasoning, we should be wrong. God did not then, as he does not now, grant his Divine enlightenment independent of all human conditions. He had regard to:

1. Purity and sanctity of character.

2. Natural intellectual faculty.

3. Special training.

We cannot say that God never revealed his mind to any one who did not possess the first of these qualifications in a high degree. Remembering Balsam and Jonah, it would be impossible to maintain that view. Yet we may be quite sure that such men as Samuel and Elijah were preferred to others because of the elevation of their characters. Nor can we suppose that the second qualification was indispensable; but we may well believe that Balaam was employed as he was partly because he was a man of considerable intellectual endowment, and that Isaiah and Amos were among the "chosen" partly for the same reason. We know that there was special training for the work of prophecy, for there were "schools of the prophets" in the time of the judges. Whether Zechariah had one or all of these three advantages we do not know, but be was a man, on some such grounds, peculiarly adapted to receive communication from God, and, having received them, to deliver them.

II. THE FACULTY OF ALL SPIRITUAL MEN. We also, as those who stand among the multitude of godly men undistinguished by any office, may have "understanding in the seeing of God." What are its conditions?

1. Docility of spirit. If we would "enter the kingdom of God," i.e. if we would see God and know him as he desires to be seen and known by us as our forgiving Father, we must "become as little children" (Matthew 18:3; Matthew 19:14). Much "understanding" in the way of human learning may, as in the case of the scribes and lawyers, keep us out of that atmosphere of docility without which we shall not learn of Christ, and shall not know God as we urgently need to know him (see 1 Corinthians 1:26-29). It is the man that has come to understand his own spiritual ignorance and incapacity who will be willing to learn of God, and thus to "have understanding in the seeing of God."

2. Purity of heart. This, we know from the great Teacher himself, is an essential (Matthew 5:8). This purity of which Christ speaks includes:

3. Patient continuance in well-being and in well-doing. To those who thus "continue in the grace of God" will be granted "eternal life"' They who are faithful unto death shall wear "the crown of life" (see Romans 2:7; Revelation 2:10). And we are sure that this life which is consummated beyond includes such a vision of God as we do not now enjoy, even when it is most true that "the eyes of our understanding are opened," and even when we are "blessed with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ." Then, with purer heart than we now possess, and with a holiness (Hebrews 12:14) to which we do not now attain, we shall "have understanding [and experience] in the seeing of God." Surely every one that hath this hope in him will "purify himself, even as Christ the Lord is pure."—C.

2 Chronicles 26:6-15

A victorious career.

Perhaps it is not well understood that Uzziah was one of the strongest of the kings of Judah, and ran a remarkably successful course. Had not his sun set in some dark clouds, his name and fame would probably have stood far higher than they do. But when we have made necessary allowances, there remains before our eyes the picture of—

I. A VICTORIOUS CAREER. This, whether we have regard to:

1. The extension of his kingdom; he prevailed against the Edomites, the Philistines, the Arabians (2 Chronicles 26:2, 2 Chronicles 26:6-8). Or to:

2. The strengthening of his kingdom by military means—by building fortifications (2 Chronicles 26:9, 2 Chronicles 26:10), by ordering and equipping his army (2 Chronicles 26:11-13), by inventing or adopting the latest weapons of warfare (2 Chronicles 26:14, 2 Chronicles 26:15). Or to:

3. His attention to the national produce. It speaks very highly indeed for a monarch of that period that he dug wells, that he had much cattle, that he encouraged the vine-dressers, that he "loved husbandry. These are things which in that age of the world were too often disregarded and even despised by men in high places, especially by monarchs. But it was on such things as these that national prosperity very largely rested. Much of the power of a country comes from its wealth; and its wealth comes from the soil. No wise ruler will be indifferent to the question of the produce of the land. The king that "loves husbandry" is, other things being present, a king that loves his people, and rules for the happiness of their homes. It is probable that Judah never spent so contented and prosperous a half-century as during the long reign of Uzziah.

II. ITS EXPLANATION.

1. There goes toward it individual character and energy. Every man must "bear his own burden," and "have rejoicing in himself alone" (Galatians 6:4, Galatians 6:5). In some sense and to some degree we must all "fight the good fight" for ourselves, if we would gain the victory and win "the prize of our high calling."

2. There is included in it helpful influence from without; all kindly human help from the home and from the sanctuary, from the father and from the friend.

3. The all-decisive force is the power that works from above on our behalf. God must make us to prosper if we are to gain the victory in the great strife of life. From him must come the guidance and the guardianship, the inspiration and the control, without which we shall faint and fall. And this is to be secured by

2 Chronicles 26:16-21

A clouded close.

We could have wished that the end of Uzziah's life had answered to the beginning; that a reign which began so well, which had so commendable and even distinguished a record, bad closed in light and honour. But it was not to be. That powerful temptation which assails the strong and the victorious proved too powerful for the Hebrew king; he fell beneath its force, and he paid a heavy penalty for his fall. We have—

I. A PAINFUL SPECTACLE in the person of a leprous king. In Uzziah the leper we have one who occupied the highest place in the kingdom brought to an estate which the meanest subject in the realm, who had the hue of health in his cheeks, would not have accepted in place of his own; we have one in whose presence it was once an honour to stand, and whose face it was a high privilege to behold, reduced to such a condition that it was a kindness for any one to be with him, a pain for any eye to regard him, a sacrifice and defilement for any one to touch him; we have a man whose presence once brought highest honour to the home the threshold of which he might condescend to cross, now brought so low that no humblest householder in the land could or would permit him to pass his door; we have a man who did stand foremost in every religious privilege, debarred from entering the outer court of the sanctuary; we have one who had spent his manly energies in all forms of happy and useful activity, shut up in a separate house and secluded from affairs; we have an instance of complete humiliation, and we cannot fail to be affected by it if we dwell upon all that it meant to the unhappy subject of it.

II. AN APPARENTLY HEAVY SENTENCE FOR ONE OFFENCE. We inquire—Why this terrible visitation? And we find that it was because the king invaded the temple of God and attempted, to do that which was not permitted by law. To any one judging superficially, the sentence may seem severe and indeed excessive. It may seem unjust to visit one day's wrong-doing, one act of guilt, with a heavy penalty for life—a penalty that disabled and disqualified, as leprosy did, for all the duties and all the enjoyments of human life. But we have not to look far to find—

III. THE EXPLANATION Or THE SEVERITY. This is twofold.

1. It was of the first importance that the royal power should not presume upon ecclesiastical functions. It was not a mere question between king and priest; that would have been small enough. It was a question whether God should continue to rule, through his chosen officers, over the. nation, or whether the king should set aside the divinely given Law, and practically make himself supreme. To defy and disobey one of the clearest and one of the most emphatic precepts in the Law, and to assume a prerogative which God had strictly confined to the priestly order, was a step that was revolutionary in its character and tendency, that was calculated to overturn the most sacred traditions, and to break up the ancient usage as well as to lessen that sense of the Divine separateness and sanctity which it was the first object of the great Lawgiver to fasten on the mind of the people. It was a daring and a dangerous innovation, which nothing but overgrown presumption would have attempted, and which demanded the most striking and impressive rebuke that could be administered. The sentence was judicial, and was intended to warn all others from acts that were injurious, and from an ambition that was unholy.

2. It was the punishment, not merely of one sinful action, but also of a guilty state of heart. Uzziah would not have done this sacrilegious action if he had not fallen from the humility, which is the first condition of true piety, into a state of condemnable spiritual pride. "His heart was lifted up;" "his heart was haughty, and his eyes were lofty," and therefore he wanted to "exercise himself in things too high for him" (Psalms 131:1). Much success had spoiled him, as it spoils so many in every land and Church. It had made him arrogant, and human arrogance is a moral evil of the first magnitude, displeasing in a very high degree to the Holy One of Israel, utterly unbecoming in any one of the children of men, exposing the soul to other sins, requiring a strong and sometimes even a stern discipline that it may be uprooted from the heart and life. It may be hoped, and perhaps believed, that in the "several house" (2 Chronicles 26:21) in which Uzziah afterwards lived, he learned the lesson which God designed to teach him, humbled his heart before his Maker, and came to bless that pruning hand which dealt so severe a stroke to save the vine from fruitlessness and death.

1. Shrink from intruding where God does not call you. But, more particularly:

2. Recognize the fact that success in any sphere is a "slippery place," and calls for much self-examination and much earnest prayer for humility and simplicity of spirit.—C.

HOMILIES BY T. WHITELAW

2 Chronicles 26:1-15

Uzziah the prosperous.

I. A YOUTHFUL SOVEREIGN. (2 Chronicles 26:1-3.)

1. His names. Uzziah, "Might of Jehovah" (2 Kings 15:13, 2 Kings 15:30, 2 Kings 15:32, 2 Kings 15:34; Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 6:1; Amos 1:1; Zechariah 14:5); Azariah, "Whom Jehovah aids" (2 Kings 14:21; 2 Kings 15:1, 2 Kings 15:6, 2 Kings 15:8, 2 Kings 15:17, 2 Kings 15:23, 2 Kings 15:27; 1 Chronicles 3:12);—the former, the designation taken by or conferred upon him at or soon after his accession (Thenius, Bahr); the latter, his name before that event. But if the two appellations should not be regarded as equivalent (Keil), the likelihood is that Uzziah was his personal and Azariah his kingly title (Nagelsbach in Herzog, and Kleinert in Riehm), as the latter, Azri-jahu, is the name he ordinarily bears on the Assyrian monuments.

2. His parents. Amaziah the son of Joash, and Jecoliah of Jerusalem. Of the latter nothing is known beyond her name and residence, except that she had been the wife, and was the mother, of a king. That Uzziah was not his father's firstborn son has been inferred (Bertheau, Ewald, Bahr), though precariously, from the statement that "all the people took him and made him king" (verse 1).

3. The date of his accession. After his father's death, in the fifteenth year of Jeroboam II. of Israel (2 Kings 14:23). The theory that Uzziah's accession should be dated from his father's capture by Joash (Sumner) is not without support from certain circumstances stated in the narrative, as e.g. that Amaziah lived (not reigned) after the death of Joash fifteen years (ch. 25:25), and that Uzziah built Eloth after the death of his father (ch. 26:2), as if he had been sovereign before that event, Nevertheless, it is not adopted by Josephus ('Ant.,' 9.9. 3), and does not appear demanded by the text (consult Exposition).

4. The length of his reign. Fifty-two years—with one exception (ch. 33:1) the longest throne-occupancy of any sovereign of Judah. Its close synchronized with the accession of Pekah to the throne of Israel by means of conspiracy and assassination (2 Kings 15:23-25).

II. A PROMISING RULER. (Verses 4, 5.)

1. A worshipper of Jehovah. "He did that which was right in the eyes of Jehovah, according to all that his father Amaziah had done," i.e. until he declined into idolatry (2 Chronicles 25:14). "He was a good man, and by nature righteous and magnanimous, and very laborious in taking care of the affairs of his kingdom" (Josephus, 'Ant.,' 9.10. 3); but his devotion to religion, while sincere, was, like his father's, imperfect (2 Chronicles 25:2). "The high places were not removed: the people sacrificed and burnt incense still on the high places" (2 Kings 15:4). See the confirmation of this in the minor prophets (Hosea 8:14; Hosea 12:2; Amos 2:4).

2. A seeker after God. "And he sought God."

3. A pupil of Zechariah. "Zechariah had understanding," and perhaps gave him instruction "in the vision [or, 'seeing'] of God." That this Zechariah was neither the priest whom Joash slew (2 Chronicles 24:20), nor the prophet who lived in the second year of Darius (Zechariah 1:1), is apparent. That he possessed that special gift or capacity of beholding God in vision which pertained to the prophetic calling cannot be inferred from the Chronicler's statement, "since this beholding of God, of which the prophets were conscious only in moments of highest inspiration, cannot be thought of as a work of human activity and exercise" (Berthcau). Most probably he was one who, like Daniel (Daniel 1:17), "had understanding in all visions and dreams," and who acted as Uzziah's counsellor and teacher.

III. A BRILLIANT WARRIOR. (Verses 2, 6, 7, 8.)

1. The fortification of Eloth. (Verse 2.) His father's conquest of Edom (2 Chronicles 25:11, 2 Chronicles 25:12) had either not been pushed as far as this important harbour-town upon the Red Sea (see on 2 Chronicles 8:17), or the town, though taken, had been given up and not annexed to Judah in consequence of Joash's defeat of Amaziah (2 Chronicles 25:23). On attaining to the throne, Uzziah rectified his father's oversight by capturing the town, erecting it into a fortress, and restoring it to Judah. Without it Edom was of little consequence to Judah. This exploit, which happened in the early part of Uzziah's reign, was probably that from which he derived his name Azariah (2 Kings 14:21, 2 Kings 14:22); while its introduction at this stage in the narrative, before the chronological statement which follows it (verse 3), may have been due to a desire on the part of the Chronicler to introduce Uzziah to his readers as the well-known monarch who had conquered, recovered, and fortified Eloth (Berthcau).

2. The war against the Philistines and Arabians. (Verses 6, 7.) These had together invaded Judah upwards of eighty years previously (2 Chronicles 21:16), and Uzziah may have purposed to inflict upon them chastisement for that aggression (Keil); but the assumption is as rational that Uzziah either dreaded or experienced a combination against himself similar to that which had assailed Jehoram, and that, either (in the former case) taking time by the forelock, he fell upon his enemies ere they could strike at him, or (in the latter case), meeting the emergency with courage, he repelled the attacks they made upon him. His success in dealing with the Philistines was complete. He broke down the walls of Gath (see on 2 Chronicles 11:8), which, formerly taken from the Philistines by David (1 Chronicles 18:1), had latterly been recovered, most likely in the reign of Jehoram; the wall of Jabneh, here mentioned for the first time, but probably the town in Judah named Jabneel in the days of the conquest (Joshua 15:11), Jamnia in the period of the. Maccabees, at the present day Jabneh, eighteen miles north-west of Gath, "situated on a slight eminence on the west bank of the valley of Sorek (Wddy es Surar), about four miles from the sea coast" (Warren, in 'Picturesque Palestine,' 3:161); and the wall of Ashdod, one of the principal cities of the Philistines (1 Samuel 5:1), and now a village called Esdud, after which he erected cities in the domain of Ashdod and in other parts of Philistia. In like manner, he was entirely victorious over the Arabians in (Gur-baal—not the city Petra (LXX.), but perhaps the town of Gerar (Targum)—and the Meunims, who dwelt in Mann (1 Chronicles 4:41).

3. The submission of the Ammonites. These, whose settlements lay east of the Dead Sea, and who, in Jehoshaphat's time, had come up against Judah (2 Chronicles 20:1), were now so reduced that they rendered tribute to Judah, as the Moabites did under David (2 Samuel 8:2), and the Philistines and Arabians under Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:11).

4. The extension of his fame to Egypt. Not merely the report of his splendid victories travelled so far as the land of the Pharaohs, but the boundaries of his empire reached to its vicinity. An inscription of Tiglath-Pileser II. shows that the northern people of Hamath attempted to free themselves from the Assyrian yoke by going over to Azariah.

IV. A GREAT BUILDER. (Verses 9, 10.) In addition to the fortress at Eloth and the cities in Philistia, he erected towers.

1. In Jerusalem.

2. In the desert, or wilderness. The place was "the steppe-lands on the west side of the Dead Sea" (Keil); the object, the protection of his flocks and shepherds against attacks from robber-bands, whether of Edomites or Arabians.

V. AN ENTHUSIASTIC HUSBANDMAN. (Verse 10.)

1. An extensive cattle-breeder. He had much cattle in the re,on just mentioned, in the lowland between the mountains of Judaea and the Mediterranean, and in the fiat district on the east of the Dead Sea, from Arnon to near Heshbon in the north. For the use of these animals he hewed cisterns in each of these localities.

2. An ardent agriculturist. He kept farmers and vine-dressers upon the mountains and in the fruitful fields. "He took care to cultivate the ground. He planted it with all sorts of plants, and sowed it with all sorts of seeds" (Josephus).

VI. AN ABLE GENERAL. (Verses 11-15.)

1. He organized the army.

2. He armed the soldiers. For all the host he prepared the necessary weapons for offensive and defensive warfare—for the first, spears, bows, and slings; for the second, shields, helmets, and coats of mail; or perhaps, for the heavy-armed troops, shields, spears, and helmets; and for the light infantry, bows and sling-stones. The mention of "sling-stones," it has been thought (Bertheau), was intended to indicate the completeness of his preparations, as in the late France-German war Marshal Leboeuf declared the French army to be ready for the projected campaign down to the "shoe-buckle." Besides furnishing each soldier with a set of weapons, Uzziah collected a store of such "that he might have them in readiness to put into the hands of his subjects on any exigency" (A. Clarke)

3. He fortified the capital This, which Joash of Israel (2 Chronicles 25:23) had weakened, he strengthened by placing on the towers and battlements of its walls ingenious machines—"engines invented by cunning men"—to shoot arrows and great stones withal, like the catapultae and ballistae of the Romans.

LESSONS.

1. The beneficial influence of parental piety—it tends to reproduce itself in the children.

2. The true Source of all prosperity, whether temporal or spiritual—God.

3. The necessary condition of all permanent prosperity for individuals or communities—religion, seeking God.

4. The unspeakable advantage to kings and subjects of having as their counsellors men who have understanding in the visions of God.

5. The obvious wisdom of sovereigns and their people devoting attention to the cultivation of the soft.

6. The lawfulness, in nations as in individuals, of taking due pre- cautions for safety.—W.

2 Chronicles 26:16-23

Uzziah the leprous.

I. UZZIAH'S TRANSGRESSION.

Pride. "His heart was lifted up." This the inevitable tendency of too much material and temporal prosperity (Deuteronomy 8:13, Deuteronomy 8:14). Exemplified in Amaziah (2 Chronicles 25:18, 2 Chronicles 25:19; 2 Kings 14:9), Sennacherib (2 Chronicles 32:31; 2 Kings 18:19-35), Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 4:30-34; Daniel 5:20).

2. The nature of it. "He went into the temple of the Lord to burn incense upon the altar of incense," i.e. he took upon himself the priestly function of ministering before Jehovah in the holy place. Whether in doing so he conceived himself to be following in the steps of David and Solomon (Thenius, Ewald, Stanley) may be doubted. It is not clear that either of these sovereigns ever offered incense in the sanctuary proper, though they frequently officiated at the offering of sacrifices in the outer court on the occasion of religious festivals (Bertheau, Keil, Bahr). More likely is the view that Uzziah desired to ape the potentates of the world generally, as e.g. those of Egypt, who, as supreme priests (pontifices maximi), with other priests to aid them, conducted temple-worship in honour of the gods. In any case, what he did expressly violated the Divine Law, which reserved the privilege of entering the holy place and ministering therein exclusively for the priests (Exodus 30:7, Exodus 30:8; Le Exodus 16:2, Exodus 16:12, Exodus 16:13; Numbers 18:1-10). The statement of Josephus ('Ant.,' 9.10. 4) may well be authentic, that the occasion which tempted Uzziah to forget himself was the celebration of some high national festival.

3. The aggravations of it. He committed this offence:

II. UZZAIAH'S PUNISHMENT. (Verses 19-23.)

1. Sudden. The Lord smote him (2 Kings 15:5)where he stood, within the holy place, censer in hand, attired in a priestly robe, fuming at Azariah and his eighty assistants, ready, in defiance of one and all, to go through with the unhallowed project he had in hand. Foolish Uzziah! Jehovah, who all the while was looking on (2 Chronicles 7:16; Habakkuk 2:20), simply stretched forth his invisible finger, and the daringly sacrilegious act was arrested. According to Josephus ('Ant.,' 9.10. 4), at that moment a great earthquake shook the ground, splitting the mountain on which the city stood, and making in the temple dome a rent, through which the sun's rays, shining, fell upon the king's face, insomuch that the leprosy seized on him immediately (cf. Amos 1:1; Micah 1:4; Zechariah 14:5).

2. Severe. The leprosy brake forth (or rose as the sun) in his forehead. The same punishment inflicted on Miriam for speaking against Moses (Numbers 12:10), and on Gehazi for lying to Elisha (2 Kings 5:27). The severity of the stroke measured the greatness of the sin for which it fell.

3. Conspicuous. "The chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him, and, behold, he was leprous." The signs and tokens of this plague had been laid down in the Law of Moses (Leviticus 13:1-59.). Like the mark upon Cain's brow (Genesis 4:15), the spot upon Uzziah's forehead proclaimed him an object of Divine wrath. Many suffer on account of their transgressions whose chastisement is not visible to their fellow-men; that Uzziah's was perceptible to Azariah and his colleagues was a woof of the heinous character of his offence, while it served as a warning to others. One of Jehovah's purposes in inflicting punishment on evil-doers is to convince beholders of the horrible iniquity of sin, and deter them through "the terror of the Lord" (2 Corinthians 5:11.) from its commission.

4. Humiliating. The priests thrust the stricken king from the sacred dwelling; yea, the king himself "hasted to go out." Moreover, he was henceforth as an unclean person, out off from the congregation of Jehovah (Le 13:45, 46; Numbers 5:2), and, because of the infectious nature of his malady, lodged in "several house," i.e. a lazar-house, or infirmary. As the leprosy, in its spreading, wasting, corrupting, loathsome, contagious, incurable character, was a hideous emblem of sin, so the exclusion of the leper from the congregation, and his isolation from the society of his fellows, was an impressive picture of the fate reserved for unpardoned sinners (Psalms 1:5, Psalms 1:6). It must not, however, be assumed that Uzziah died in impenitence.

5. Fatal. It ended in death, as all sin does (Ezekiel 18:4; Romans 6:23). Yet sin is not incurable by Divine power any more than leprosy was. As Miriam, Naaman, and the man who came to Christ (Matthew 8:2) were cleansed, so may the sinful soul be renewed (1 John 1:7).

6. Posthumous. Uzziah's punishment followed him after death. His people buried him, indeed, but not in the royal mausoleum, only in its neighbourhood, in the field of burial which belonged to the kings, lest his leprous dust should defile that of his fathers.

LESSONS.

1. The danger of prosperity.

2. The sin of pride.

3. The unlawfulness of will-worship.

4. The certainty that God can punish sin.

5. The hopelessness of those who die in sin.—W.

 


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Bibliography Information
Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on 2 Chronicles 26:4". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tpc/2-chronicles-26.html. 1897.

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