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Bible Commentaries

The Pulpit Commentaries
Exodus 35

 

 

Verses 1-3

THE CONSTRUCTION AND UPREARING OF THE TABERNACLE.

EXPOSITION

ITERATION OF THE LAW CONCERNING THE SABBATH. The work commanded during the time of Moses' first stay upon Sinai (ch. 25-31.), and hindered first by the infraction (Exodus 32:1-35.), and then by the renewal (Exodus 33:1-23; Exodus 34:1-35.) of the covenant, was now about to commence under the direction of Moses, who alone knew what was to be constructed. Before giving his orders upon the matter, he assembled the people (Exodus 35:1) and once more recited to them in a solemn manner the law of the sabbath (Exodus 35:2), adding to the general law a special injunction concerning the kindling of fire (Exodus 35:3), which may have been required by some recent breach of the law in this respect. The iteration of a command, already so often enjoined upon the people (Exodus 16:2,Exodus 16:3-30; Exodus 20:8-11; Exodus 23:12; Exodus 31:13-17), is best accounted for by the consideration, that a caution was needed, lest the people, in their zeal to hurry on the work of the tabernacle, and regarding that work as a sacred one, and so exceptional, might be tempted to infractions of the law, or even to an entire neglect of it, while the work was in progress.

Exodus 35:1

All the congregation. All the Israelites were to be allowed the privilege of making offerings for the tabernacle (Exodus 25:2-7), and all who were competent might take part in the spinning and the weaving of the materials for the curtains and the holy vestments (Exodus 28:3; Exodus 35:10, Exodus 35:25; Exodus 36:4, etc.). All therefore had to be summoned, to learn what was required. These are the words, etc.—i.e; "These are the injunctions especially 'laid' upon you at this time."

Exodus 35:2

Is almost a repetition of Exodus 31:15.

Exodus 35:3

Ye shall kindle no fire. The kindling of fire in early times involved considerable labour. It was ordinarily affected by rubbing two sticks together, or twisting one round rapidly between the two palms in a depression upon a board. Fire only came after a long time. Moreover, as in the warm climate of Arabia and Palestine artificial warmth was not needed, fire could only have been kindled there for cooking purposes, which involved further unnecessary work, and had already been forbidden (Exodus 16:23). The Karaite Jews still maintain the observance of this precept to the letter, even in cold climates, as in that of the Crimea, and allow neither fire nor light in their houses on the sabbath day; but the Jews generally view the precept as having had only a temporary force, and have lights and fires, like other persons, even in Palestine. Strict Jews, however, still cook no food on the sabbath day.

HOMILETICS

Exodus 35:1, Exodus 35:2

The sabbath rest not to be broken even for sacred work.

Note here a difference. Some work is rendered necessary by the very nature of that public worship which is especially commanded on the sabbath. "On the sabbath days the priests in the temple," says our Lord, "profane the sabbath day and are blameless "(Matthew 12:5). Offering sacrifice was a heavy work—cleansing the altar and its precincts after sacrifice was perhaps a heavier one—reading aloud, teaching, preaching are works, the last-named to many a most exhausting work. Against such kinds of work there is no law. But physical toil, not needed for Divine worship, and so not necessary to be undergone on the sabbath day, stands on a different footing, and was forbidden, at any rate to the Jews. The spinning, weaving, dying, embroidering, carpentering, metallurgy, which occupied hundreds during the rest of the week, were to cease upon the sabbath. Men were not to consider that the fact of the purpose whereto the fabrics were about to be applied so sanctified the making of them as to render that a fit occupation for the "day of holy rest"—of "rest to the Lord."

Application.—Christians will do well to apply the lesson to themselves, and not allow themselves in occupations, on their "day of holy rest," which are really secular, because it may be argued that they have, in some respects, a sacred aspect. To play sacred music, for the excitation of devotional feelings in themselves and others, is a fitting Sunday occupation; but to practise Handel as an exercise, for the acquirement of skill in execution, would be no better than to practise Rossini or Auber. To write articles for the press on Sundays, if otherwise wrong, is not justified by the fact that they are written for a "religious" newspaper. To cast up accounts does not become a right act because they are the accounts of a charity. Whatever our rule of Sunday observance, let us beware of evading it under the excuse that our employment has a connection with religion when it is essentially secular in its character.

HOMILIES BY J. ORR

Exodus 35:1-4

The new start.

Moses' second absence, though, like the first, it lasted-forty days and forty nights (Exodus 34:28), was not followed by the same disastrous effects as the former one. The people had meantime had enough of "gods of gold." They were too frightened at what had happened to think of seeking out any more" inventions" (Ecclesiastes 7:29). They were penitent and well disposed. When at length the news came that God had forgiven them, no bounds could be set to their zeal for service. Learn—

1. How God brings good out of evil. The Divine physician so treated the distemper of the people that it ended, not simply in restored health, but in increased vitality and energy. The lapse into sin was made the means of imparting to the people the stimulus necessary for the erection of the tabernacle.

2. That revival of religion evinces its reality by the effects which it produces.


Verses 4-20

EXPOSITION

THE PEOPLE INVITED TO BRING GIFTS, AND ASSIST IN THE WORK OF THE TABERNACLE. Having warned the Israelites against breaches of the sabbath, Moses proceeded to enumerate the offerings which God had said that they might bring (Exodus 35:4-9), and the works which he had required to be constructed (Exodus 35:10-19). In the former enumeration, he follows exactly the order and wording of the Divine command to himself, as recorded in Exodus 25:3-7; in the latter, he changes the order, mentioning first the building, with its component parts (Exodus 25:11), then the contents of the building (Exodus 25:12-15), then the court with its contents (Exodus 25:16, Exodus 25:17) together with some details which had been omitted in the former account (Exodus 25:18), and finally the holy garments (Exodus 25:19). After hearing him, the people returned to their several tents (Exodus 25:20).

Exodus 35:5-10

Correspond to Exodus 25:2-7, the correspondence in the list of offerings being exact.

Exodus 35:11

On the tabernacle, see Exodus 26:1-6; on the tent, Exodus 26:7-13; on the covering, Exodus 26:14; the boards, Exodus 26:15-25; the bars, Exodus 26:26-29; the pillars, Exodus 26:32-37; and the sockets, Exodus 26:19, Exodus 26:21, Exodus 26:25, Exodus 26:32, and Exodus 26:37. The enumeration comprises all the main parts of which the tabernacle consisted.

Exodus 35:12

On the ark and the staves thereof, see Exodus 25:10-15; on the mercy-seat, Exodus 25:17-22; on the vail of the covering, see Exodus 26:31.

Exodus 35:13

On the table and its appurtenances, see Exodus 25:23-30.

Exodus 35:14

For the candlestick, its furniture, and its lamps, compare Exodus 25:31-39.

Exodus 35:15

The incense altar. See Exodus 30:1-10. His staves. See Exodus 30:5. The anointing oil is described in the same chapter, Exodus 30:23-25; the sweet incense in Exodus 30:34, Exodus 30:35; the hangings for the door in Exodus 26:36.

Exodus 35:16

Is a reference to Exodus 27:1-8, Exodus 30:18-21.

Exodus 35:17

Is a reference to Exodus 27:9-18.

Exodus 35:18

The pins of the tabernacle and the court had not been previously mentioned. They must be regarded as tent-pegs, whereto were attached the cords which kept taut the covering of the tent over the tabernacle, and which steadied the pillars whereto the hangings of the court were fastened.

Exodus 35:19

The cloths of service. See the comment on Exodus 31:10.

HOMILETICS

On the symbolism of the Tabernacle and its parts, see the Homiletics on Exodus 25:10-39; Exodus 26:1-37.; Exodus 27:1-8; and Exodus 30:1-10. On the symbolism of the anointing oil and the holy incense, see the Homiletics on Exodus 30:23-28.

Exodus 35:5-19

The duty and privilege of making offerings to God.

That God allows us to offer to him of his own, and accepts such offerings as free gifts, is one of his many gracious condescensions. It is the part of all ministers to give opportunity for such offerings—to encourage them, suggest them, elicit them. Moses now summoned "all the congregation of the children of Israel," that he might give to all, without partiality or favouritism, the opportunity for a good action, which would obtain its due reward. Doubtless he pointed out that the object was one for the glory of God and the edification of his people—no less an object than the substitution for that poor "tent of meeting," which he had extemporised on the morrow of his first descent from Sinai (Exodus 33:7), of a glorious structure, Of the richest materials, designed by God himself, worthy of him, and suited to intensify and spiritualise the devotions of all worshippers. It was fit that the structure should, if possible, be raised by means of the free gifts of the faithful. For this Moses now, like a faithful minister of Christ, made appeal to all. In doing so, he pointed out the two modes in which such offerings may be made.

I. OFFERINGS MAY BE MADE BY THE ASSIGNMENT TO A SACRED USE OF A PORTION OF OUR SUBSTANCE. All who had gold, silver, brass, blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goat's hair, etc; were invited to contribute out of their abundance to the erection of the new sanctuary. It was especially urged that, if they did so, it should be with "a willing heart" (Exodus 35:1)—"not grudgingly, or of necessity; for God loveth a cheerful giver" (2 Corinthians 9:7). Such a mode of offering is open to those only who have property of some kind or other, and is especially suited to the rich and well-to-do classes; and it was no doubt the wealthy who at this time chiefly contributed in this way. But, as God is "no respecter of persons," and regards the poor and needy fully as much as those who are of high estate, some further mode of making him an offering is necessary. Note, in this connection, that—

II. OFFERINGS MAY BE MADE BY THE DEVOTION TO A SACRED USE OF SOME PORTION OF OUR TIME AND LABOUR. "Every wise-hearted among you shall come, and make all that the Lord hath commanded" (Exodus 35:10). All who had sufficient skill were invited to join in the actual work of preparing and making the various fabrics. Carpenters, weavers, dyers, smiths, embroiderers, metallurgists, might contribute their time and work, and so make an offering to God as acceptable as that of the gold or jewels of the wealthy. Even poor women, whose only skill was to spin thread with their hands (Exodus 35:25), might "bring that which they had spun," and were accepted as offering worthily. In this way there were few families that might not have their part in the work, for spinning was a wide-spread accomplishment. And so, in our own day, whenever any good work is taken in hand, it will always be found that every one who wills can have some part in it—can he]p, by headwork or by handiwork, to effect the end desired. And the value of such participation is quite equal to that rendered by rich contributors, at any rate, in the sight of God. For observe, the women who spun goat's hair are placed side by side with the "rulers" who "brought onyx stones," and costly spices, and jewels to be set in the high-priest's breastplate (Exodus 35:26-28).

HOMILIES BY J. ORR

Verse 4-36:8

Gifts and workers.

Learn from this section that the Lord's work requires—

I. LIBERAL GIVERS. Almost everything needed for the sanctuary was provided by the free gifts of the people. What was required was readily forthcoming. The only exception to the voluntariness of the givings was the half-shekel of atonement money (Exodus 30:11-17; Exodus 38:25, Exodus 38:26). These givings, which may well be made the model of our own, were:

1. Willing—"Every one whose heart stirred him up, and whom his spirit made willing" (Exodus 36:21). The Lord "loveth a cheerful giver" (2 Corinthians 9:7).

2. According to ability. Each gave as he was able (Exodus 36:23-29). The princes gave costly gifts. Others brought silver and brass. Others gave wood. Those who could not give anything else gave work (Exodus 36:25, Exodus 36:26).

3. Universal. All classes gave. The princes, the people, young and old, men and women.

4. Overflowing. So zealous was the spirit of the people, and so abundant were their gifts, that they had in the end to be restrained (Exodus 36:5-7). When will a like liberality be manifested in the cause of Christ? Liberal givings are needed. There is still much land to be possessed at home. Heathen lands are opening to the Gospel.

5. It sufficed for the work (Exodus 36:7). Thus would God teach us that it is his will that his work should be supported by the voluntary contributions of his people.

6. The giving was made an act of worship—" Every man that offered, offered an offering (lit. a wave-offering) of gold unto the Lord" (Exodus 36:22). "Every one that did offer an offering of silver and brass brought the Lord's offering" (Exodus 36:24). This is the true spirit of religious giving. The humblest offering, thus presented, will not fail of acceptance. Cf. the widow with her two mites (Mark 12:41-44).

II. WILLING WORKERS (Exodus 36:1, Exodus 36:2). The work, like the giving, was hearty. Those only were asked to engage in this work whose hearts stirred them up to do it. God desires no other kind of workers.

III. DIVERSE GIFTS. These were needed for the different parts of the work. The man who made the "pin" (Exodus 36:18) was as truly a worker in God's service, as Bezaleel, who drew the plans. He had his own gift and use.

IV. THE WISDOM OF THE SPIRIT. "He hath filled him with the spirit of God" (Exodus 36:31). "Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart," etc. (Exodus 36:35).—J.O.


Verses 21-29

EXPOSITION

THE ZEAL OF THE PEOPLE IN OFFERING. Moses dismissed the people; but they soon began to return, bringing their offerings with them. There was a general, if not a universal, willingness Men and women alike "brought bracelets (brooches?), and earrings, and rings, and armlets—all articles of gold," and offered them to the Lord (Exodus 35:22). Others brought blue and purple and scalier and fine linen, and goats' hair and rams' skins dyed red, and badger (or rather, seal) skins (Exodus 35:23). Silver and bronze and shittimwood were contributed by others (Exodus 35:24). The women, who were the only spinners, brought their spun yarn of blue and purple and scarlet and fine linen, and their yarn of goats' hair (Exodus 35:25, Exodus 35:26); while the richest class of all—"the rulers"—gave, as their contribution, the onyx stones for the ephod, the jewels for the high-priest's breastplate, and the oil needed for the light, together with rare spices for the anointing ointment and the incense (Exodus 35:27, Exodus 35:28). Subsequently, we are told that what was contributed was "much more than enough" (Exodus 36:5), and that the people had to be "restrained from bringing" (Exodus 36:6).

Exodus 35:21

The Lord's offeringi.e; "their offering to Jehovah." For all his service. The use of "his" for "its" causes an unfortunate ambiguity here. The antecedent to the pronoun is not the Lord, but the tabernacle.

Exodus 35:22

They came, both men and women. That among the Hebrews gold ornaments were worn by men, as well as by women, is indicated by Exodus 3:22, and Exodus 32:2. The Egyptian men at the time of the Exodus wore armlets, bracelets, and sometimes anklets, but not often earrings Earrings, however, had been worn by the household of Jacob (Genesis 35:2). Bracelets. Rather, "buckles" or "brooches." Kalisch says, "nose-rings," and so Gesenins and Rosenmuller. Tablets. Rather, "armlets" (Furst, Cook), or perhaps "necklaces "(Gesenius Kalisch, Knobel). Every man that offered, offered an offering of gold. It is not meant that every man who offered anything gave with it an offering of gold, but simply that, besides those who brought the articles named there were others who brought gold offerings of some different kind.

Exodus 35:23

Red skins of rams. The words are the same as those translated "rams' skins dyed red" in Exodus 25:5. The earlier rendering is the better one. Badger skins. Rather, "seal skins." See the comment on Exodus 25:5.

Exodus 35:24

Every one that did offer an offering of silver. It would seem that silver was offered by some in the way of a free-will offering, in addition to the compulsory half-shekel (Exodus 30:12-16). Curiously, however, the amount obtained in this way is not given in Exodus 38:24-29.

Exodus 35:25

All the women that were wise-heartedi.e; "skilful." See the comment on Exodus 28:3. Brought that which they had spun, both of blue, etc. The flax itself was dyed, so that the thread produced was already coloured. Of fine lineni.e. "white." All the threads were flaxen.

Exodus 35:26

All the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom. This strong expression seems to imply that peculiar skill was required for spinning goats' hair.

Exodus 35:27, Exodus 35:28

The rulers are, no doubt, the "elders" of Exodus 3:16; Exodus 4:29; Exodus 24:9, etc. Moses had made them "rulers," or rather, "princes" (sarey), according to the advice of Jethro (Exodus 18:25). They brought onyx stones for the ephod (Exodus 28:9-12) and stones to be set,—i.e; gems for the breastplate (Exodus 28:17-20); oil of olive for the lamp (Exodus 27:20) and the holy ointment (Exodus 29:24), and spice for the same (Exodus 29:23, Exodus 29:24) and for the incense (Exodus 29:34).

HOMILETICS

Exodus 35:21-29

Zeal in offering.

Appeals are made to men, in all parts of the world, and in all ages, for material contributions towards the erection of structures in which God is to be worshipped. The spirit in which such appeals are met varies.

I. DEVOUT. None objected. None asked why a tabernacle was wanted, or why the tent which Moses had made a place of worship would not suffice. None scoffed at the idea of a "House of God." All seemed to see the propriety of it. All felt that what they brought was "the Lord's offering" (Exodus 35:21, Exodus 35:24)—a real gift to Jehovah. All longed to have a place of worship of a worthy character.

II. UNGRUDGING AND SPONTANEOUS. Their "hearts stirred them up," their "spirits made them willing" (Exodus 35:21). They "brought a willing offering unto the Lord" (Exodus 35:29). The rich brought jewels and precious spices; the men and women of the middle class brought their personal ornaments; the poor men gave brass, or silver, or a ram's skin, or a piece of acacia wood; the poor women gave the labour of their hands, and spun thread for the hangings. There was no murmuring, no complaining, no fabrication of excuses—so far as appears, no open refusing to give, though there was some abstention.

III. IMMEDIATE. In one verse we read "they departed" (Exodus 35:20), in the next (Exodus 35:21) "they came." There was no delay, no considering, no discussing one with another, no asking "How much do you intend to give?" Each man seemed to be well persuaded of the truth of the adage—"Bis dat qui cito dat," and brought his offering at once.

IV. UNSELFISH AND UNCONDITIONAL. NO one wanted to have a quid pro quo as the condition of his giving. No one asked to "see the plans." All were willing to leave the ordering of the work to Moses, and put their contributions absolutely in his bands. A spirit of enthusiasm was stirred up, and none thought of anything but how much he could possibly spare for the grand work which they understood Moses to contemplate. The wealth of Easterns is stored chiefly in the form of ornaments, and to denude themselves of these was a great effort of self-sacrifice.


Verses 30-35

EXPOSITION

THE APPOINTMENT OF BEZALEEL AND AHOLIAB TO SUPERINTEND THE WORK. Though, in some real sense, "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," still Moses was probably devoid of the technical knowledge requisite for a "superintendent of the works" on the present occasion. At any rate, his other duties imperatively required that he should decline to undertake, in addition to them, so onerous an office. And God had told him whom it would be best for him to set over the work (Exodus 31:1-6). Accordingly, he now made known to the people that the construction of the tabernacle and its appurtenances would be committed to two men—Bezaleel, the son of Uri, as principal, and Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, as his assist-ant—who would "teach" those under them what they were to do (Exodus 35:34).

Exodus 35:30

The Lord hath called, etc See Exodus 31:2 :—"I have called by name Bezaleel," etc. Of the tribe of Judah. The descent of Bezaleel from Judah has been already traced. (See the comment on Exodus 31:2.)

Exodus 35:31-33

Correspond almost word for word with Exodus 35:3-5 of Exodus 31:1-18; q. vide.

Exodus 35:34

And he hath put in his heart that he may teach. Rather, "And he hath put it into his heart to teach." He (God) has given him the gift of being able to teach others, and so has enabled him to form a body of workmen competent to carry out his conceptions. Both he and Aholiab. God has given the same gift to Aholiab. On the special talent of Aholiab, see the comment upon Exodus 31:6.

Exodus 35:35

Them hath he filled with wisdom of hearti.e; "with talent or genius." Of the engraver. Rather, "of the artificer," a general term, under which working in metal, Gem-engraving, and wood-carving are included. And of the cunning workman. Rather, "and of the skilful weaver." This clause seems to apply to Aholiab (Exodus 38:23), the preceding one to Bezaleel. And of the embroiderer. This also applies to Aholiab (1.s.c.). And of the weaveri.e; "the ordinary, weaver," who wove a cloth all of one colour. The "skilful weaver" produced a patterned fabric. (See Exodus 26:1.) The methods of working here spoken of are, all of them, such as were well known in Egypt at the time, and which, consequently, it would have been quite natural for some of the Israelites to have learnt. We are not to suppose that God supernaturally communicated to Bezaleel and Aholiab the technical knowledge required in their occupations, but only that he gave them genius and artistic skill, so that both their designs, and their execution of them, were of unusual excellence.

HOMILETICS

Exodus 35:30-35

Master-Craftsmen.

The qualities needed for a master-craftsman are fourfold. These are here enumerated (Exodus 35:31) as—

I. WISDOM (Hebrews khakam; LXX. σοφία; Vulg. sapientia), the highest gift of all—the power of original conception, which, if he combines with it the other necessary qualities, makes the true artist, the master-workman, in whatsoever branch of art his work may lie. This is appropriately placed first as the most necessary quality for those who are to direct a great construction of an artistic character.

II. UNDERSTANDING (Hebrews taban; LXX. σύνεσις; Vulg. intelligentia), a desirable, but very inferior quality, consisting in the power of appreciating the work of others, and estimating it aright. This power is needed in master-craftsmen, to qualify them for passing judgment on the work produced by those under their direction.

III. KNOWLEDGE (Hebrews yada; LXX. ἐπιστήμη; Vulg. scientia), or acquaintance with the laws and facts of science bearing on their art. In the present case, acquaintance with such things as elementary mechanics, the method of cutting hard stones, the process of dyeing, the best mode of working different metals, and the like. An inferior quality this, which the master-craftsman should not lack, but which will avail him little without the higher excellences.

IV. WORKMANSHIP (Hebrews m'lakah; LXX. ἀρχιτεκτονία; Vulg. doctrina), or power of execution, next to genius the most necessary quality of the artist, and accepted to a large extent in lieu of genius, as placing a man high in the artistic scale. This excellence does not consist in mere dexterity of hand, but in a happy way of working out designed effects, producing the feeling of complete mastery over the materials. It is by their wonderful execution that the genuine works of great masters are known from copies. Note, that all these qualities were possessed by both of the master-craftsmen in an eminent degree, and that all of them were the gift of "the Spirit of God" (Exodus 35:31), from whom comes down "every good gift and every perfect gift" (James 1:17). Artists should bear this in mind, and sanctify their art by directing it to holy, or at any rate to good ends. What a sad spectacle is genius prostituted to the service of Satan!

HOMILIES BY D. YOUNG

Exodus 35:30-35

Bezaleel and Aholiab. Note—

I. THE FACT THAT THE LORD CHOSE MEN TO DO THE WORK. It might have been otherwise. As the people were requested of their free-will to provide the materials, so they might have been requested to provide the necessary artificers. But it is easy to see what differences and jealousies might have resulted, all to end in some unsatisfactory compromise. There was no difficulty as long as each one gave of his own decision; and what further difficulty then threatened to come, God immediately removed by himself selecting the men who were to carry out his designs. It is very likely that Bezaleel and Aholiab were not the men whom the people themselves would have chosen. So far as pure artistic originality was concerned they may have been excelled; for the possession in Israel of so much material for artistic and precious work seems to show that there must have been many with the ability requisite for such work. But God had his own principles of choice, his own purposes to serve; and it would appear in due time how wise God was in indicating certain men and not others for what needed to be done.

II. THE QUALIFICATIONS WITH WHICH GOD ENDOWED THEM. God, we may be sure, to some extent took them for what they were by nature. He always looks at the natural basis on which he proposes to build up some Divine work. But he did not leave them to their natural strength to carry out his designs. He did not leave them to toil onward to impressive results through many attempts which had to be forsaken as failures. Great works of art, which only too many spectators regard with but a glance, are to the artist memorials of weary and tantalising hours. Sir Joshua Reynolds said of one of his completed paintings, "there are ten under it, some better, some worse." Bezaleel and Aholiab were spared all such disappointments, all vain hunts after the unattainable ideal. A variety of words are used with respect to them, as if to signify how eminently and abundantly God had endowed them with all that was necessary for the task. Thus it was to be made plain to the then living generation and their successors that the tabernacle and its contents were in a very important sense the work of God. These things were to be sacred in every way: they were not to be criticised and compared, as if they were the outcome of art and man's device. Perhaps criticism did come, for fault-finders are numerous in every age; but the two chosen artificers needed not to trouble themselves about any complaining. And should we not all find it better if, instead of straining to do work for God in our own strength and wisdom—which must ever be a saddening failure as to spiritual results—we sought to be as tools directed by the wisdom of God? We have no right to complain if keen eyes discover the weak points in what is fashioned by our own skill; but if we are sure that God's Spirit is ruling in all we do for him, then we may meet complaints with a meek indifference.—Y.

HOMILIES BY J. ORR

Exodus 35:30-35

Bezaleel and Aholiab.

See Homily on Exodus 31:1-12.—J.O.

 


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Bibliography Information
Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on Exodus 35:4". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tpc/exodus-35.html. 1897.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, May 28th, 2020
the Seventh Week after Easter
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