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Bible Commentaries

The Pulpit Commentaries
Psalms 34

 

 

Verses 1-22

EXPOSITION

THIS is the third of the alphabetical psalms, and appears to have a special connection with the second of them, Psalms 25:1-22. Like that psalm, it omits the vav, and has a second pe at the end, which, moreover, is furnished by the same word (podeh). According to the title, it is a psalm of David, and written on the particular occasion of his dismissal by Achish (Ahimelech), when he had foolishly feigned himself mad in consequence of what he had heard the servants of Achish say (1 Samuel 21:10-15). As there is nothing in the psalm specially suggestive of this occasion, the statement in the title must, it would seem, embody an ancient tradition. It is a composition of a mixed character, being in part didactic (Psalms 25:11-22), in part a psalm of thanksgiving (Psalms 25:1-10). Metrically, it has been divided into four strophes (Kay), the first and second of five verses each, the third and fourth each of six verses. But there is no corresponding division of the matter.

Psalms 34:1

I will Bless the Lord at all times; i.e. even in times of adversity. If the statement in the title may be relied upon, David's fortunes were now at the lowest ebb. He had fled from the court of Saul on finding that Saul was determined to put him to death (1 Samuel 20:31). He had hoped to find a safe refuge with Achish, but had been disappointed. He was on the point of becoming a fugitive and an outlaw, a dweller in dens and caves of the earth (1 Samuel 22:1). He had as yet no body of followers. We cannot but admire his piety in composing, at such a time, a song of thanksgiving to God. His praise shall continually be in my mouth (comp. Psalms 92:1, Psalms 92:2; Psalms 145:1, Psalms 145:2; Psalms 146:1, Psalms 146:2; Ephesians 5:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:18). "Continually" must be understood as meaning either "every day" or "many times every day," but must not be taken quite literally, or the business of life would be at a stand.

Psalms 34:2

My soul shall make her boast in the Lord (comp. Psalms 44:8; and for the meaning of "boasting in the Lord," see Jeremiah 9:24, "Let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am the Lord which executeth loving-kindness, judgment, and righteousness, in the earth" ). The humble shall hear thereof, and be glad. They will anticipate joy for themselves when they hear of my rejoicing.

Psalms 34:3

O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his Name together. Not content with praising God in his own person, the psalmist calls on Israel generally to praise the Lord with him. He then proceeds to assign reasons why God should be praised (Psalms 34:4-10).

Psalms 34:4

I sought the Lord, and he heard me. To "seek the Lord" is not merely to trust in him, but to fly to him, and make our requests of him in our troubles. David apparently speaks of some special occasion on which he "sought the Lord," and some special request which he made of him, but does not tell us what the occasion or request was. We may presume that it was in some way connected with his "escape to the cave Adullam" (1 Samuel 22:1). And delivered me from all my fears; literally, frown all the things which I feared (comp. Isaiah 66:4).

Psalms 34:5

They looked unto him, and were lightened; or, were brightened (Hengstenberg); i.e. had their countenances lighted up and cheered. And their faces were not ashamed. As they would have been if God had made no response to their appeal (comp. Psalms 25:2, Psalms 25:3; Psalms 74:21).

Psalms 34:6

This poor man cried, and the Lord heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles. Almost a repetition of Psalms 34:4, but in the third person instead of the first. The "poor man" intended is David him* self, not an ideal poor man. Otherwise the demonstrative "this" ( זֶה) would not have been employed.

Psalms 34:7

The angel of the Lord eneampeth round about them that fear him, and delivereth them. According to some commentators (Rosenmuller, 'Four Friends,' and others), the expression, "angel of the Lord," is here used as a collective, and means the angels generally. With this certainly agrees the statement that the angel "encampeth round about them that fear him;" and the illustration from 2 Kings 6:14-18 is thus exactly apposite. But others deny that "the angel of the Lord" has ever a collective sense, and think a single personality must necessarily be intended, which they regard as identical with "the captain of the Lord's host," who appeared to Joshua (Joshua 5:14, Joshua 5:15), and "the angel of the Lord's presence" spoken of by Isaiah (Isaiah 63:9); so Kay, Hengstenberg, Bishop Horsley, Professor Alexander, and the 'Speaker's Commentary.' When pressed to say how this one angel can "encamp round" a number of persons, they reply that, of course, he has his subordinates with him—a "spangled host," that "keep watch in squadrons bright;" and that he is said to do what they do, which is no doubt quite in accordance with ordinary modes of speech. Thus, however, the two expositions become nearly identical, since, according to both, it is the angelic host which "encamps around" the faithful.

Psalms 34:8

O taste and see that the Lord is good; i.e. put the matter to the test of experience. There is no other way of really knowing how good God is. Blessed is the man that trusteth in him (comp. Psalms 2:12; Psalms 84:12; Proverbs 16:20; Isaiah 30:18; Jeremiah 17:7). Trust in God is a feeling which is blessed in itself. God also showers blessings on such as trust in him.

Psalms 34:9

O fear the Lord, ye his saints. Fear of God, a reverent and godly fear, will always accompany trust in God, such as God approves. The saints of God both love and fear him (comp. Psalms 31:23). There is no want to them that fear 'him since God supplies all their wants.

Psalms 34:10

The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger. Some suppose the "young lions" here to represent the proud and violent, as in Job 4:10. But it is simpler to take the present passage literally. In God's animal creation even the strongest suffer want for a time, and have no remedy; his human creatures need never be in want, since they that seek the Lord shall not want any good thing. It is open to them to "seek the Lord" at any time.

Psalms 34:11-22

The second, didactic, part of the psalm here begins. The writer assumes the role of the teacher, and, addressing his readers as "sons," undertakes to "teach them the fear of the Lord" (Psalms 34:11), or, in other words, to point out to them in what true religion consists. This he does in two remarkable verses (Psalms 34:13, Psalms 34:14); after which he proceeds, in the remainder of the psalm, to give reasons which may incline them to the practice of it (Psalms 34:15-22). The reasons resolve themselves into two main grounds—the tender love and care of God for the righteous (Psalms 34:15, Psalms 34:17-20, Psalms 34:22), and his hostility to and punish-meat of the wicked (Psalms 34:16, Psalms 34:21).

Psalms 34:11

Come, ye children, hearken unto me (comp. Proverbs 4:1; Proverbs 8:32; 1 John 2:1, 1 John 2:18; 1 John 3:18; 1 John 4:4, etc.). I will teach you the fear of the Lord; i.e. I will teach you the nature of true religion. Note the absence from what follows of any merely legal requirements, and the simple insist-ance on right moral conduct (Psalms 34:13, Psalms 34:14).

Psalms 34:12

What man is he that desireth life? Like most moralists, David begins with asking men—Do they wish for happiness? If so, and he assumes that it is so (comp. Arist; 'Eth. Nic.,' I. 1.-7.), then he will point them out the way to it. And loveth many days, that he may see good? Mere life, mere length of days, would not suffice for men, would be no object of desire, unless it were assumed that the days would bring them "good"—in other words, that they would be happy days.

Psalms 34:13

Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. If the end be happiness, the means will be right moral conduct; and, first of all, right government of the tongue. Sins of the tongue are numerous, and abundantly noted in the Psalms (Psalms 5:9; Psalms 10:7; Psalms 12:3; Psalms 15:3; Psalms 50:19; Psalms 57:4; Psalms 73:8, Psalms 73:9, etc.). They are more difficult to avoid than any others; they cling closer to us; they are scarcely ever wholly laid aside. "If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, and able also to bridle the whole body" (James 3:2). The meek Moses "spake unadvisedly with his lips" (Psalms 106:33). Job "darkened counsel by words without knowledge "(Job 38:2). St. Peter's words on one occasion drew upon him the rebuke, "Get thee behind me, Satan" (Matthew 16:23).

Psalms 34:14

Depart from evil, and do good. From words the psalmist proceeds to acts, and, in the briefest possible way, says all that can be said. First, he enjoins negative goodness—"depart from evil," i.e. do nothing that is wrong; break no laws of God, no command of conscience; have a conscience void of offence, both towards God and towards man. Secondly, he requires positive goodness—"Do good;" i.e. actively perform the will of God from the heart; discharge every duty; practise every virtue; carry out the precepts of the moral law in every particular. Seek peace, and pursue it. It is not clear why this virtue—one of many—is specially enjoined; but probably some circumstances of the time made the recommendation advisable.

Psalms 34:15

The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous (comp. Job 36:7; Psalms 33:18; 1 Peter 3:12; and see the comment on Psalms 33:18). And his ears are open unto their cry. The specific statement of Psalms 34:6 is now generalized. What God had done in the case of the psalmist, he will do in all other similar cases. His eyes will be open to his people's needs, and his ears attent unto their prayers (2 Chronicles 6:40).

Psalms 34:16

The face of the Lord is against them that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth. Conversely, God turns away his face from the wicked, anti punishes them by causing their very memory to perish from among men (comp. Job 18:17; Psalms 109:13; Proverbs 10:7). The natural wish for continuance, which causes men to build themselves monuments, and erect other great works, and delight in offspring, and seek to establish their families, and create entails, and have their portraits taken, and "call the lands after their own names" (Psalms 49:11), was especially strong in the Hebrew race, and made the threat that their remembrance should be cut off peculiarly terrible to them.

Psalms 34:17

The righteous cry, and the Lord heareth; literally, they cry, and the Lord heareth. "Cry," which by the ordinary rules of grammar should have for its subject the "evil-doers" of the preceding verse, must, it is obvious from the context, refer to the "righteous" of Psalms 34:15, who are the predominant subject of the entire passage(Psalms 34:15-22). And delivereth them out of all their troubles (comp. Psalms 34:19 and Psalms 54:7).

Psalms 34:18

The Lord is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart; and sayeth such as be of a contrite spirit. On the value in God's sight of a broken and contrite heart, see Psalms 2:1-12 :17; and on his mercy towards the truly contrite, see Psalms 147:3; Isaiah 57:15; 69:2. He "is nigh" to such persons, he "dwells with" them, "looks to them, …. revives their heart, …. heals" them, "saves" them.

Psalms 34:19

Many are the afflictions of the righteous (comp. Job 36:8-10; Acts 14:22; 1 Corinthians 15:19; 2 Timothy 3:12; Hebrews 11:33-38; Hebrews 12:5-10, etc.). The righteous suffer afflictions because they are so imperfectly righteous. They need purging, purifying, chastening, to rid them of the dross and defilement of sin which still clings to them, and from which they are never wholly freed while they continue in the flesh. "We must through mush tribulation enter into the kingdom of God" (Acts 14:22). We must, like the Captain of our salvation, be "made perfect through suffering" (Hebrews 2:10). But the Lord delivereth him out of them all. When they have done their appointed work of purging, purifying, instructing, improving, or whatever else their work may be, God removes the afflictions with which he has visited us or allowed us to be visited, ultimately, when he takes us to himself, mercifully delivering us "out of them all."

Psalms 34:20

He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken. The "bones" are put for the entire frame, or body, of a man (comp. Psalms 6:2; Psalms 31:10; Psalms 32:3; Psalms 38:3; Psalms 42:10; Psalms 102:3). God "keepeth," i.e. watches over, keeps from harm, the entire persons of the righteous, letting no hurt touch them, but such as he permits and sees to be needful. In using the phrase, "not one of them is broken," the psalmist probably alludes to Exodus 12:46 and Numbers 9:12, taking the Paschal lamb as a type of innocence, and so of godliness.

Psalms 34:21

Evil shall slay the wicked. His own misconduct shall bring destruction upon the wicked man-destruction of the body in many eases (Psalms 7:15, Psalms 7:16), in all, if he persists in his wickedness, destruction of the soul. And they that hate the righteous shall be desolate; rather, shall be held guilty (comp. Psalms 5:10, and the comment ad loc.).

Psalms 34:22

The Lord redeemeth the soul of his servants (comp. Psalms 25:22; Psalms 130:8). Some translate, "The Lord delivers," etc. But the LXX. have λυρώσεται. And the verb used means primarily, as Dr. Kay says, "to sever," then "to set free, release, emancipate; especially to set free by paying a price; to redeem, or ransom." And none of them that trust in him shall be desolate; rather, shall be held guilty, or shall be condemnedthe same word as in the preceding verse (comp. Romans 8:33, Romans 8:34). Those whom God has redeemed he justifies, and saves from all condemnation. They are "passed from death unto life" (John 5:24).

HOMILETICS

Psalms 34:1

A duty, a privilege, a purpose.

"I will bless," etc. A Christian man, burdened and oppressed with many troubles, was seeking relief in prayer. But even prayer was difficult, Suddenly these words came into his mind, "I will bless the Lord at all times." "At all times?" he thought; "then now." He began to think of his reasons for blessing God, and as the scale in which he weighed God's mercies grew heavy, the scale in which he weighed his trials grew light by comparison. His sorrowful prayer was turned into thanksgiving; and he rose up strengthened and comforted. These words express a duty, a privilege, a purpose.

I. A DUTY—of perpetual obligation. God's mercies are "new every morning" (Lamentations 3:23), nay, every moment. Some signal instance may be the Moses' rod to make the stream of thankfulness gush forth, as, according to the title, was the case with this psalm. But as the clock is silently marking time every moment, and not only when it strikes the hour, so the silent sense of God's goodness should never die out of the Christian's heart, though there are special times for his lips to utter praise. Every breath, every heart-beat, is a new gift of life (Acts 17:28; Psalms 107:1, Psalms 107:8).

II. A PRIVILEGE—of the noblest kind. If it is true that every duty brings reward in some sense with it, this is eminently true here.

1. God accepts our praise, as glorifying him (Psalms 50:23).

2. Praise hallows our enjoyments (Deuteronomy 7:11, Deuteronomy 7:12); and brings sunshine into our darkest seasons (Acts 16:25).

3. It is the noblest employment, that in which we rise nearest to heaven. Not seeking, as in prayer, from God, but striving to render somewhat to him, we lay our hearts open for his best blessings.

II. A thoughtful, wise, and holy PURPOSE. The fulfilment of this duty and exercise of this privilege are not to be left to transient impulse or to rare occasions. "I will … at all times." There are set occasions when "praise is comely" And there are sunny seasons, when God puts "a new song" in our mouth. But the text points to the habitual culture of a thankful spirit.

CONCLUSION.

1. Forget not God's mercies. Review them.

2. Place over against them thy unworthiness.

3. Let the heart be often lifted up in thankfulness, when the lips are silent and the hands and eyes busy with the world.

"At all times;" "for his mercy endureth for ever."

Psalms 34:8

The test of experience.

"Oh, taste and seer" The glory of our age is its experimental science. The method of the old philosophers, against which Lord Bacon wrote, was to assume certain principles as true, and reason down to the facts. The new method, to which all the victories of modern science are due, is to reason back from facts to principles; first carefully observing, then testing your conclusions; first learning by experience, then verifying by experience. This method, which in human science is but some three centuries old, is the method of the Bible from the beginning. God has led his Church step by step; taught his children by experience (Galatians 3:23-26). The lessons of the Bible are the voice of experience. The aim of the Gospels, as of the entire Bible, is not merely to convey instruction, but to create a supernatural experience. And its invitation to each of us is to put Divine truth to the test, and make this experience our own. "Oh, taste and see," etc.!

I. IF YOU WOULD SEE, YOU MUST TASTE; AND IF YOU DO TASTE, YOU WILL SEE. Certainty is to be had, and this is the road to it. "Taste" is the most expressive image for personal experience. It is personal. Tastes differ. What to one is delicious, to another is insipid, to a third nauseous. To taste fully, you must not slightly touch with your tongue, but eat or drink—receiving its substance. So, in Scripture language, to taste death means to die. To taste God's goodness means to receive and enjoy it in heart-felt experience (Romans 5:5). For example:

1. God's goodness in pardoning sin can be known only by the pardoned sinner—by actual repentance and faith. Illust.: Matthew 9:2-7.

2. God's goodness in answering prayer can be known only by those who pray (Matthew 9:6). lllust.: Disobedient, spendthrift, runaway son, writing in sore extremity from a foreign land to his father. Under the sea, over the hills and plains, the wire carries the swift message, "Come home. Money sent. All forgiven." That son knows his father's heart as he never knew it before.

3. The goodness of God, revealed and stored in the Bible, can be known only by long study and diligent search (Psalms 119:97,Psalms 119:103). Psalms 119:72 would be unmeaning cant in the month of a good many Christians. They are on visiting terms with their Bible; know it as you know one whom you meet daily in the street and call on for a few minutes now and then. Spend a day with him in his home or yours, talking over your troubles, and you will learn what twenty years of morning calls would never teach.

II. EXPERIENCE HAS NO SURER LESSON THAN THIS: "THE LORD IS GOOD." The Bible is our great storehouse of experience (Psalms 116:1; 2 Timothy 1:12). Christian experience in all ages continues and confirms this testimony—the most remarkable body of practical testimony on record. Our lack of experience constitutes no reason for questioning the reality of this experience, or doubting the truth to which it bears witness. Truth is truth, believed or not. The earth went round before Copernicus was born; and still would, if all men relapsed into the old superstition that it is immovable. The world would be full of God's goodness, though all were idolaters or atheists (Acts 14:17). But personal experience begets invincible certainty (John 9:25).

III. IF THIS EXPERIENCE BE NOT YOURS, IT OUGHT TO BE; IT MAY BE. God offers it. These words are an invitation—a warrant. Beware of turning them into an upbraiding—a condemnation (John 5:40; Lamentations 4:2; Luke 19:42). Are you young, happy, prosperous? Thank God for his goodness. But he has better gifts, which will last when these fail (Matthew 6:19). Are you poor, friendless, sorrowful (Isaiah 55:1; Matthew 11:28)? Are you lost, helpless against temptation, burdened with sin? Oh, taste and see the goodness God waits to pour out upon you (Revelation 20:1-15 :17; Romans 10:11-13)!

HOMILIES BY C. CLEMANCE

Psalms 34:1-22

Life's experiences turned to manifold uses.

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There is no sufficient reason for severing this psalm from the detail of history to which its title refers; and it is much to be wished that its writer had uniformly turned his own experience to a use as wise as that which he here urges upon others. £ But David's pen might be golden, though sometimes his spirit was leaden; and we may study with great advantage the ideal of life which he sets before us, learning from his experience how we may realize that ideal, even though, in such a dimly lighted and corrupt age as his, he fell beneath it. We, who have far more than David's privileges, ought to rise to a level far beyond that to which he attained. Let us first note the experience here recorded, and then see how varied are the uses to be made thereof.

I. HERE IS A TOUCHING RECORD OF LIFE'S EXPERIENCE. In many respects it is such a one as thousands on thousands of God's people may have passed through, and may be passing through now. If we number the points of experience one by one, the preacher may expand such as may be most appropriate to any ease or cases with which he may be dealing. Here is:

1. A first line of experienceman wanting help from God.

2. A second line of experienceGod granting the help that is implored. As there are six stages along the first, so are there six features of the second.

II. THESE VARIED EXPERIENCES OF LIFE ARE HERE TURNED TO MANIFOLD USES. £

1. Towards God. (Verses 1, 2.) The psalmist vows that, having such manifold proof of what God is to him, and of his faithfulness to all his promises, his life shall be a perpetual song of praise; that he will make his boast in God's goodness and grace, so that those who have, like him, been in the depths of affliction, may also, like him, be brought forth into a wealthy place. Note: Deliverances brought about in answer to prayer should be followed by long-continued and grateful praise.

2. Towards the saints. The psalmist

3. Towards all who have life before them. (Verses 11, 12.)

(a) That the Lord does hear and answer prayer (verses 15,17-20). The experience of the faithful gives an overwhelming amount of proof of this.

(b) That in pressing on in life, they will find God's judgments abroad in the earth, making a distinction between those who serve him and those who serve him not; rewarding one and condemning the other (verse 21, Revised Version).

(c) That Divine deliverances will compass the righteous around (verse 22, Revised Version). Loyal souls will ever be receiving new proofs of the goodness of the Lord, and of the blessedness of such as put their trust in him! "The wicked flee when no man pursueth, but the righteous are bold as a lion!"

Note:

1. Amid all the changeful currents of human thought and sentiment, there are ever, ever, in all ages, climes, and lands, these two great lines of indisputable fact (verses 15, 16), to which we do well to take heed—that the Lord is on the side of good, and that "the face of the Lord is against them that do evil." No perplexity in the mazes of metaphysical or theological controversy ought ever to conceal or obscure These plain facts from view.

2. It behoves the young to profit by the experience of the old; for, though no two experiences are precisely the same in all details, and though each one must bear his own burden, yet the lives of our fathers, as rehearsed to us by them, do set forth clearly and distinctly certain great principles according to which God governed and guided them—principles which are the same in every age, and which we cannot ignore, save at imminent peril both for the life that now is, and for that which is to come.

3. It behoves us to treasure up the experiences of life, to recount and to record them for the use and help of those who have yet to set out on life's journey. We know not how our young ones may be exposed in life. Gladly would we give them the constant screen of home. But that cannot be. Out into the world they must go. With God's Spirit in their hearts, they are safe anywhere. Without God, they are safe nowhere. We need not talk at them nor try to preach religion obnoxiously to them; but we may, we can, we must, tell them of our God and Saviour, telling them how he has helped us, and will help all who follow him; that they, too, may "taste and see how good the Lord is"!—C.

HOMILIES BY W. FORSYTH

Psalms 34:1-10

Links of grace.

I. In this hymn we have first of all PRAISE. Praise is not an impulse, or an outburst of enthusiasm soon to die out, but it is the expression of the heart and the exercise of the life. It is good to have stated times for praise, but when the soul is in true fellowship with God it will find "continual" reason for praising him. "Praise" is for "all times," because God fills "all times." Thanksgiving has respect to special times, and to what God has done for us, but praise, in its highest sense, is called forth by contemplation of God, as he is in himself—infinite, eternal, and unchangeable in his Being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth. "The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him," and if we truly fear him we shall learn the "secret" of praising him "continually."

II. From praise the psalmist proceeds to CONFESSION. He does not speak of himself. When he does so it is not to exalt, but to humble himself. "Boasting is excluded." But he speaks of God, and proclaims with gratitude and joy his glorious Name. Whensoever we exalt God, there will be sure to be sympathizers. The confession of our faith will call forth like confessions from others, and "the humble shall be glad." When Paul was converted there were some who were "amazed," and others who were "afraid;" but when they knew the truth, "that he which persecuted the Churches in times past, now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed," then, says Paul, "they glorified God in me" (Galatians 1:23).

III. The psalmist next advances to FELLOWSHIP. (Psalms 34:3.) "It is not good for man to be alone." This holds true of religion. There is something inspiring and comforting in being associated with others in worship. What we have found true, others also have found true; what we have seen of the glory of God, others also have seen, and with one mind and one heart we can rejoice together. We cannot by anything we do make God greater than he is, but we can "magnify" him as we make his glory more widely known; we can "exalt his Name" as we make his character stand higher in the sight of men, and as we more fully manifest our devotion to him as the Supreme Object of our trust and love. Thus not only with God's people on earth, but "with angels and archangels, and all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify God's glorious Name."

IV. Lastly, we find here GRATEFUL COMMEMORATION OF DELIVERANCE. First the psalmist speaks for himself (Psalms 34:4). But what is true of one is true of many (Psalms 34:5). Let each of us put himself in "this poor man's" place. Recall the peril and the prayer. Give thanks for the gracious deliverance. There may have been times when we too may have been in sore straits. In our perplexity and fear we may have resorted to our own devices, and stained our souls with sin. But God is merciful. He did not cast us off. When we cried to him, he forgave us our iniquity, and delivered us from all our fears. God's deliverances bring gladness. We see in them the outshining of his love. We have looked to him in faith, and he has looked on us in mercy. His response has been quick and gracious—as when the wounded Israelites looked to the brazen serpent, and were healed (Numbers 21:9); as when Gideon looked to God, and was made strong ( 6:13, 6:14). There is not only the grateful acknowledgment of past deliverances, but the sweet sense of security for all time to come, under the loving guardianship of God (verse 27). Whether we take "the angel" here as one of the angelic host, or as the angel of Jehovah, the great Head and Lord of all, the meaning is the same. The great truth taught is the same which we find so often in the New Testament, as in the Hebrews, where it is said of the angels, "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?" (Hebrews 1:1-14.,14); and in John's Gospel, where we find our Lord saying, conceding his people, I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand" (John 10:28).—W.F.

Psalms 34:8-10

Proving what is good.

There are two things in this exhortation.

I. A CALL TO MAKE TRIAL OF RELIGION. The spirit of religion is, "The Lord is good." But how are we to know this? Not by hearing, or inquiring, or believing on the word of others, but by making trial for ourselves. This is in accordance with reason and practical experience. Experience is found on experiment. The knowledge thus acquired can be safely acted upon. So it is in human life. It is the friend we have found kind and helpful in time of need that we trust. So it is also in religion. "Taste and see:" this is the settled order. If we act in this way, the result will be sure, and we shall joyfully add our witness to that of others, "The Lord is good: blessed is the man that trusteth in him." This call, "Taste and see," is the call of Christ in the gospel. Those who hear it must make a choice. They must hear or refuse. But considering who it is that gives the call, and the manifold and powerful arguments by which it is enforced, surely it would be wise and reasonable to take Christ at his word, and to make honest trial of his religion. "If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching whether it be of God" (John vii, 17, Revised Version). Try the word, try prayer, try the Christian life, try if Christ is to be trusted; not until you have done this can you say whether God is good or not.

II. A CHARGE TO LIVE UP TO THE HIGHEST STANDARD OF RELIGION. "Oh, fear the Lord, ye his saints." This is due to God. We are not our own, to live as we like. We belong to God, and are bound to live according to his Law. God says to us, "Ye are my witnesses." This is necessary to our true welfare. The very name "saints" implies that we have been separated from the world, that we have been called unto holiness. But holiness and happiness are indissoluble. The more we "fear God" the more shall we advance in holiness, and the more we advance in holiness the more shall we enjoy of true happiness. "Want" there will be to us, but we will be content to know that God is with us, and that he will withhold no "good thing" from us (Psalms 84:11; Hebrews 4:16). This is the best way of commending religion to others. We influence others more by example than by precept. The more perfectly we live and act as God's saints, keeping truth and doing right always, serving others in love, following peace and holiness, in a word, the more perfectly we live and act in the spirit of Christ, the greater will be our influence for good in the world. What we have tried and found good, we can honestly commend. What we have proved, and are continually showing in its beneficent effect on our own character and life, to be of the highest worth and virtue, must have a powerful claim to the faith of all reasonable and right thinking men. Let men say of a Christian, "If there be a saint on earth, that is one;" and the next thing will be, "If Jesus could make such a character, is not this the Christ?"—W.F.

Psalms 34:12

Long life.

We may learn here—

I. THAT THE DESIRE FOR LONG LIFE IS NATURAL TO MAN. There may be times, when, under the pressure of trial and weariness, we are ready to say, with Job," I would not live alway." But this is a temporary feeling. Our natural desire is to live, and to live long. This desire has been implanted by God, and works in many ways for good.

II. THAT LONG LIFE, WHEN SPENT IN THE SERVICE OF GOD, IS A GREAT BLESSING. We should desire life, not from fear of death, nor from the pain of parting with dear friends, but "to see good," and that we may do the more work for God. The present world, so far as we know, is the only one in which we can serve God by overcoming evil, and by patience under trial, and by converting sinners. Besides, the longer we live, the more good we can do to others, and the more we can glorify God. To glorify God by the service of our youth is good; to glorify him by the service of youth and manhood is better; but to glorify him by faithful service from first to last, through all stages of life, is best of all (Proverbs 16:21; Philippians 1:23-26; 2 Timothy 4:6-8). How different is it with the wicked! Prolonged life is to them a curse instead of a blessing. The more time, the more sin; the more sin, the more evil; till at last it might be said, "Would that he died early!" or, as of Judas," It had been good for that man if he had not been born" (Matthew 26:24).

III. THAT LONG LIFE CAN BE BEST SECURED BY ATTENTION TO THE LAWS OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. There is an intimate connection between the body and the soul. We may disregard the laws of health as to the body, and then we must suffer. The care of the body is as needful, in its place, as the care of the soul. The tendency of vice is undoubtedly to shorten life. How often does it happen, that young men, naturally possessed of good constitutions, bring on weakness and disease by dissolute living! On the other hand, the practice of self-denial and virtue is favourable to longevity. "The fear of the Lord prolongeth days, but the years of the wicked shall be shortened" (Proverbs 10:2-7). The question of the psalmist meets a response in our hearts, "What man is he that desireth life. and his wise and fatherly counsel should find an echo in our lives, "Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it." The laws of health are largely studied in our days. We have Acts of Parliament on "Public Health," and much is done to promote the physical comfort and health of the people. This is good. It is of much advantage that the people, down to the poorest, should have pure air and wholesome food and favourable surroundings, and it is the duty of the Church, as well as the state, to look to these things. But more is needed. There must be proper education of the people. They must be taught, not only the care of the body, but the care of the soul. The only complete education is that which embraces the whole man—body and soul and spirit. We are only perfectly educated when we are taught of God, "that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world" (Titus 2:13). Longevity was not only a promise of the Old Testament (Deuteronomy 4:40; Ecclesiastes 12:13), but it is a promise of the latter-day glory (Isaiah 65:20).—W.F.

Psalms 34:13

Here are three great things.

I. A GREAT GIFT. Speech is one of our highest endowments. It enables us to utter our thoughts and to converse one with another. Man's advancement in knowledge and virtue has mainly followed from his possessing this faculty. There have been many ingenious speculations as to how speech has been obtained, but it is enough for us to say that it is from God. When we see a dumb man, we may learn the worth from the want, and should bless God for his goodness in having given us this noble gift.

II. A GREAT PERIL. The best things may be turned to bad uses. So with the tongue. If rightly used, it is a great blessing; if wrongly used, it is a great curse. "Evil" and "guile" are the common ways in which speech is abused, much to the hurt of the speaker and of the hearers. There is thus not only great waste, but manifold and great evils. "Life and death are in the power of the tongue" (Proverbs 18:21).

III. A GREAT ACHIEVEMENT. It is possible to "keep" the tongue. To do this we must go back from the tongue to the heart (Proverbs 4:23). When the heart is right, the tongue will be right also (Matthew 12:33, Matthew 12:34). Such mastery can only be acquired by earnest effort and patience and loving contemplation of Christ. St. James says he who has attained to this rare power is a "perfect man" (James 3:5, James 3:6).—W.F.

Psalms 34:16

God's face.

"The face" is the organ of expression. The thoughts, the feelings, the inward movements of the soul, show themselves by the face. Therefore "the lace" stands for the man (Genesis 48:11); and when God is spoken of after the manner of men, his face is put for himself (Exodus 33:14). The text is like the mystic pillar of the wilderness. It has two aspects. While God looks forth with love and favour towards his people, he shows himself as terrible to his enemies (Exodus 14:24). His face, wherever seen, is always against those who wilfully and wickedly persist in doing evil.

I. GOD'S FACE IN NATURE IS AGAINST THEM THAT DO EVIL. There is law in nature. To obey the law is to conquer, to disobey is to suffer. As to transgressors, there is neither exception nor immunity. We see the stern, unbending severity of law in the awful passage, Proverbs 1:24-31.

II. GOD'S FACE IN THE HOLY SCRIPTURES IS AGAINST THEM THAT DO EVIL. Take the ten commandments, and from the first to the last it is the same. The Law is holy and just and good. It demands obedience from all, and denounces condemnation and wrath against transgressors, without respect of persons. The recorded judgments of God may be held as expressing the same thing. All through, from Genesis to Malachi, whether as respects nations or individuals, God's face is against the evil-doer. In no part of Scripture is this brought out more vividly and forcibly than in the Psalms.

III. GOD'S FACE, IN THE PERSON OF HIS SON AND OUR SAVIOUR, IS AGAINST THEM THAT DO EVIL. Christ, in his doctrine, his precepts, his example, and in his redemptive work, is wholly and for ever against sin. His object is to "take away sin," and to bring them that do evil to do good and to be the loving and obedient children of God, that they may walk in the light of God's favour for ever.—W.F.

HOMILIES BY C. SHORT

Psalms 34:1-10

Deliverance and gratitude.

Occasion of the psalm uncertain. Celebrates some great deliverance which awakens praise and inspires him to teach others trust add the secret of a prosperous life.

I. A GREAT DELIVERANCE CELEBRATED. (Psalms 34:4-6.) Salvation.

1. He was in great trouble and danger. (Psalms 34:4-6.) That the nature of the danger is not explained. Sin and sorrow our greatest trouble.

2. He earnestly sought deliverance. (Psalms 34:4-6.) No salvation except to earnest seekers.

3. God answered him and saved him. His face was bright with the light of God's face. God's angel was the instrument of his deliverance. Christ our Mediator and Deliverer.

II. HE IS FILLED WITH GRATITUDE. (Psalms 34:1-3.)

1. His thankfulness was to be enduring. Not an evanescent thing, like the morning cloud and early dew, but lasting.

2. He calls upon all the afflicted (humble) to join in the praise. (Psalms 34:2, Psalms 34:3.) Because they may experience a like deliverance. God's salvation is for the whole world.

III. HE INVITES MEN TO PUT THE GOODNESS OF GOD TO THE TEST OF EXPERIENCE. (Psalms 34:8-10.)

1. They will find how blessed are they who trust in God.

2. All their true and real wants shall be satisfied. (Psalms 34:9, Psalms 34:10.)—S.

Psalms 34:9

The fear of God.

"O fear the Lord, ye his saints: for there is no want to them that fear him." The fear of God described the whole of practical religion. There are various kinds and degrees of fear caused by our relation to God, combined in various proportions with other sentiments, tie is the great and powerful, and we are the weak; and we are naturally ignorant of his nature; and till we know whether he is a malignant or a benevolent being, we naturally dread him. The fear which dreads him is the first feeling which springs up. When we have passed out of and beyond the feeling of dread, we may still be overpowered by awe. We feel that God is greater than our highest, most perfect knowledge of his nature; his vastness overcomes and prostrates us. Jacob; Job; David. But the strangest cause of fear is the sense of transgression and the fear of punishment. We dread the judgment of God upon lives and actions. He must know the realities that lie beneath all appearance—the good and the evil. We may well fear when we think of his knowledge of us. The revelations of God's impersonal nature alarm us. They are all love and no feeling. The hurricane and the tempest are pitiless. The revelations of his personal nature in man and in Christ are full of compassion. God in Christ is the -Physician; but we cannot help fearing what he may have to do upon us for our healing, before we can be made whole. But we ought to believe and know that, like a good physician, he never inflicts any but necessary pain, and how much the infliction costs him in his sympathy with us. Our theology often teaches that there are reasons for servile fear; that our relation to God is that of a courtier to an Eastern despot; or that of a Jew debtor to a Jew creditor, who has no generosity, but exacts the uttermost farthing; or that of a criminal to a Judge who tries to compound with the law by getting an innocent person to suffer for his crimes instead of himself; or who thinks God, in his providential discipline, a cruel Being, who calls upon him to suffer the loss of his children, as he called upon Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, in order to test his faith. But faith casts out the terrors of fear, not inspires them, and does not need such cruel experiments for our discipline. Then there is the fear inspired by faith and love, but which has no torment. A man who has a great undertaking before him, calling for the skill and energy of his highest functions, naturally trembles lest he should fail; like a painter, who stands at his task, but his heart trembling with the great pulses of his conception. He is fearful in proportion as he sees the perfection of the thing he is trying to embody. Turner watching the storm—that he might know how to paint it. So there is a lofty and noble fear of aspiration lest we should not fulfil the Divine purpose of love in our lives. The fear felt towards a good mother, who would sacrifice her life for her child. "How awful goodness is!"—S.

Psalms 34:11-22

The secret and blessings of a happy life.

"In this second part the psalmist turns to believers, addresses them, and says that it is his design to teach them the art of leading a happy and quiet life, and of being secure against enemies."

I. THE SECRET OF A HAPPY AND PEACEFUL LIFE.

1. The fear of God. (Psalms 34:11, Psalms 34:15, Psalms 34:18.) Childlike fear—compatible with trust and love.

2. The government of the tongue. (Psalms 34:13.) What is said on this in the New Testament by Peter and James.

3. Righteousness of life. (Verse 14.) In its departing from evil—the negative aspect; and in doing good—the positive.

4. Strenuously seeking after peace. (Verse 14.) Seek peace, and pursue it." Take care not to cause disagreement, but to promote good will and harmony.

II. THE BLESSINGS THAT ATTEND AND FOLLOW SUCH A LIFE.

1. Prayer of the righteous is heard. (Verses 15-18.) Contrast to the doom of evil-doers (verse 16).

2. Deliverance out of all dangers. (Verses 17-19.) Troubles, the dangers are called, and sufferings.

3. The presence and communion of God with his people. This implied or expressed in nearly all the verses.

4. The protection of their life and person. (Verses 20, 22.) Contrast again to the fate of the wicked (verse 21). The words of the twentieth verse fulfilled at the crucifixion of our Lord.—S.

 


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Bibliography Information
Exell, Joseph S; Spence-Jones, Henry Donald Maurice. "Commentary on Psalms 34:4". The Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tpc/psalms-34.html. 1897.

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Sunday, December 15th, 2019
the Third Week of Advent
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