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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
1 Samuel 19



1Jonathan discloses his father's purpose to kill David.
4He persuades his father to reconciliation.
8By reason of David's good success in a new war, Saul's malicious rage breaks out against him.
12Michal deceives her father with an image in David's bed.
18David comes to Samuel in Naioth.
20Saul's messengers sent to take David,
22and Saul himself, prophesy.

Verse 1

And Saul: Saul‘s enmity now burst forth, in the avowed purpose of putting David to death; and nothing less than the especial interposition of Providence could have saved David‘s life, when every officer about the king‘s person, and every soldier, had positive orders to dispatch him. 1 Samuel 18:8, 1 Samuel 18:9; Proverbs 27:4; Ecclesiastes 9:3; Jeremiah 9:3; 2Timothy href="/desk/?q=2ti+3:13&sr=1">2 Timothy 3:13

Verse 2
But Jonathan Saul's son delighted much in David: and Jonathan told David, saying, Saul my father seeketh to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself until the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself:
18:1-3; Psalms 16:3; John 15:17-19; 1 John 3:12-14
20:2; Proverbs 17:17; Acts 9:24; 23:16

Verse 3
And I will go out and stand beside my father in the field where thou art, and I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell thee.
what I see

Verse 4
And Jonathan spake good of David unto Saul his father, and said unto him, Let not the king sin against his servant, against David; because he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works have been to thee-ward very good:
spake good
20:32; 22:14; Proverbs 24:11,12; 31:8,9; Jeremiah 18:20
sin against
2:25; Genesis 9:6; 42:22; 2 Chronicles 6:22; 1 Corinthians 8:12; 1 John 3:15
because his works
Psalms 35:12; 109:4,5; Proverbs 17:13; Jeremiah 18:20

Verse 5
For he did put his life in his hand, and slew the Philistine, and the LORD wrought a great salvation for all Israel: thou sawest it, and didst rejoice: wherefore then wilt thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause?
put his life
28:21; Judges 9:17; 12:3; Psalms 119:109; Acts 20:24; Philippians 2:30
11:13; 14:45; 17:52,53; Exodus 14:13; 1 Chronicles 11:14; Hebrews 2:3
sin against innocent
20:32; Jeremiah 26:15; Matthew 27:4,24
without a cause
Psalms 25:3; 69:4; John 15:25

Verse 6
And Saul hearkened unto the voice of Jonathan: and Saul sware, As the LORD liveth, he shall not be slain.
14:39; 28:10; Psalms 15:4; Proverbs 26:24,25; Jeremiah 5:2
he shalt not

Verse 7
And Jonathan called David, and Jonathan shewed him all those things. And Jonathan brought David to Saul, and he was in his presence, as in times past.
in times past
Heb. yesterday, third day.
16:21; 18:2,10,13; Genesis 31:2; Exodus 4:10; 1 Chronicles 11:2; Isaiah 30:33; *margins

Verse 8
And there was war again: and David went out, and fought with the Philistines, and slew them with a great slaughter; and they fled from him.
Psalms 18:32-50; 27:3
Heb. his face

Verse 9
And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand.
16:14; 18:10,11

Verse 10
And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the javelin; but he slipped away out of Saul's presence, and he smote the javelin into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night.
6; Hosea 6:4; Matthew 12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26; 2 Peter 2:20-22
he slipped
20:33; Job 5:14,15; Psalms 18:17; 34:19; Proverbs 21:30; Isaiah 54:17; Luke 4:30; John 10:39
and escaped
Psalms 124:7; Matthew 10:23

Verse 11
Saul also sent messengers unto David's house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain.
sent messengers
Psalms 59:1; *title; Psalms 59:3,4,6,15,16
to watch him
Judges 16:2

Verse 12
So Michal let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped.
Psalms 34:19
let David
Joshua 2:15; Acts 9:24,25; 2 Corinthians 11:32,33

Verse 13
And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.
an image
Heb. teraphim.
Genesis 31:19; *marg:; Judges 17:5; 18:14,17; Hosea 3:4
a pillow
Rather, "the net-work of goat's hair at its (the Teraphim's) pillow;" for the kevir, (whence the Chaldee and Syriac kavreetho, a honey-comb, from its net-like form), seems to have been a kind of mosquito-net, which, says Dr. Shaw, is "a close curtain of gauze, used all over the East, by people of fashion, to keep out the flies." That they had such anciently cannot be doubted. Thus when Judith had beheaded Holofernes in his bed, (ch. 13:9, 15) "she pulled down the canopy (or the mosquito net, [ ] from [ ] a gnat, or mosquito, whence our word canopy) wherein he did lie in his drunkenness, from the pillars."

Verse 14
And when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, He is sick.
she said
Joshua 2:5; 2 Samuel 16:17-19; 17:20

Verse 15
And Saul sent the messengers again to see David, saying, Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may slay him.
Bring him
The eastern beds consist merely of two thick cotton quilts, one of which, folded double, serves as a mattress, the other as a covering. Such seems to have been the bed of David, which could easily have been carried, with himself in it, to the presence of Saul.
6; Job 31:31; Psalms 37:12; Proverbs 27:3,4; Romans 3:15

Verse 16
And when the messengers were come in, behold, there was an image in the bed, with a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster.
And when
It is highly probable that David, when supposed to be sick, was thought to be hid in the harem or chamber of Michal. "The harems," says De La Motraye, "are sanctuaries, as sacred and inviolable, for persons pursed by justice for any crime, debt, etc., as the Roman Catholic churches in Italy, Spain, Portugal, etc." Thus we find, that to effect his purpose, Saul sent messengers to Michal, but they treated her harem with too much respect to enter it at first; but being authorised by Saul, they entered even into her chamber; and during the delay occasioned by respect for the privacy of Michal, David escaped.

Verse 17
And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast thou deceived me so, and sent away mine enemy, that he is escaped? And Michal answered Saul, He said unto me, Let me go; why should I kill thee?
Why hast
22:17; 28:12; Matthew 2:16
mine enemy
1 Kings 21:20; Galatians 4:16
And Michal
2 Samuel 17:20
He said
14; Exodus 1:17-19
why should
2 Samuel 2:22

Verse 18
So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth.
to Samuel
7:17; 15:34; 28:3; Psalms 116:11; James 5:16

Verse 19
And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah.
22:9,10; 23:19; 26:1; Proverbs 29:12

Verse 20
And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied.
sent messengers
11,14; John 7:32,45
when they
10:5,6,10; Numbers 11:25,26; Joel 2:28; John 7:32,45,46-52; 1 Corinthians 14:3,24,25

Verse 21
And when it was told Saul, he sent other messengers, and they prophesied likewise. And Saul sent messengers again the third time, and they prophesied also.
sent messengers
2 Kings 1:9-13; Proverbs 27:22; Jeremiah 13:23
prophesied also
Joel 2:28

Verse 23
And he went thither to Naioth in Ramah: and the Spirit of God was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah.
the Spirit
20; 10:10; Numbers 23:5; 24:2; Matthew 7:22; John 11:51; 1 Corinthians 13:2
until he came
Proverbs 16:9; 21:1

Verse 24
And he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?
2 Samuel 6:14,20; Isaiah 20:2; Micah 1:8
Heb. fell.
Numbers 24:4
Is Saul
10:10-12; Acts 9:21


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 19:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

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Wednesday, February 19th, 2020
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