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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies
Titus 2



Verse 1

Speak thou ( λάλει )

See on Matthew 28:18; see on John 8:26.

Become ( πρέπει )

Originally, to stand out; be conspicuous. Thus Homer, Od. viii. 172: μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν heis conspicuous among those who are assembled. Eurip. Hel. 215; Ζεὺς πρέπων δἰ αἰθερος Zeus shining clearly through the aether. Hence, to become conspicuously fit; to become; beseem. In N.T. in the impersonal forms πρέπον ἐστὶν itis becoming (Matthew 3:15); πρέπει itbecometh (Ephesians 5:3); ἔπρεπεν itbecame (Hebrews 2:10). With a subject nominative, 1 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 7:26.

Verse 2

Aged men ( πρεσβύτας )

Only here, Luke 1:18; Philemon 1:9. To be understood of natural age, not of ecclesiastical position. Note that 2Chronicles href="/desk/?q=2ch+32:31&sr=1">2 Chronicles 32:31; 1 Maccabees 13:21; 14:21,22; 2 Maccabees 11:34.

Verse 3

Aged women ( πρεσβύτιδας )

N.T.oSee on πρεσβύτεραι , 1 Timothy 5:2.

Behavior ( καταστήματι )

N.T.oSee on καταστολή apparel 1 Timothy 2:9. It means, primarily, condition or state. Once in lxx, 1Timothy href="/desk/?q=1ti+5:3&sr=1">1 Timothy 5:3, and comp. 1 Timothy 2:10; Ephesians 5:3.

False accusers ( διαβόλους )

Better, slanderers. See on Matthew 4:1, and see on 1 Timothy 3:6, 1 Timothy 3:11.

Given to much wine ( οἴνῳ πολλῷ δεδουλωμένας )

More correctly, enslaved to much wine. The verb only here in Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy 3:8.

Teachers of good things ( καλοδιδασκάλους )

N.T.oolxx, oClass.

Verse 4

They may teach ( σωφρονίζωσι )

Better, school or train. N.T.oolxx. The verb means to make sane or sober -minded; to recall a person to his senses; hence, to moderate, chasten, discipline.

To love their husbands, to love their children ( φιλάνδρους εἶναι, φιλοτέκνους )

Lit. to be husband -lovers, children -lovers. Both adjectives N.T.oolxx. Φίλανδρος in Class. not in this sense, but loving men or masculine habits; lewd. In the better sense often in epitaphs. An inscription at Pergamum has the following: Ἱούλιος Βάσσος Ὁτακιλίᾳ Πώλλῃ τῇ γλυκυτάτῃ γυναικί, φιλάνδρῳ καὶ φιλοτέκνῳ συμβιωσάσῃ ἀμέμπτως ἔτη λ , Julius Bassus to Otacilia Polla my sweetest wife, who loved her husband and children and lived with me blamelessly for thirty years.

Verse 5

Keepers at home ( οἰκουργούς )

Wrong. Rend. workers at home. N.T.oolxx, oClass.

Good ( ἀγαθάς )

Not attributive of workers at home, but independent. Rend. kindly. The mistress of the house is to add to her thrift, energy, and strict discipline, benign, gracious, heartily kind demeanor. Comp. Matthew 20:15; 1 Peter 2:18; Acts 9:36. See on Acts 11:24; see on Romans 5:7.

Obedient ( ὑποτασσομένας )

Better, subject or in subjection. Frequent in Paul, but not often in the active voice. See on James 4:7; see on Romans 8:7; see on Philemon 3:21; and comp. 1 Corinthians 14:34; Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18.

Verse 7

In all things ( περὶ πάντα )

Lit. concerning all things. The exact phrase, N.T.oFor analogous use of περὶ comp. Luke 10:40, Luke 10:41; Acts 19:25; 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 6:4, 1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 3:8.

Shewing thyself ( σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος )

See on 1 Timothy 1:4. The phrase N.T.obut occurs in Class., as, to show one's self holy or righteous; wise or skillful; παρέχειν tomake himself scarce.

Incorruptness ( ἀφθορίαν )

Const. with shewing. N.T.ooClass. lxx once, Haggai 2:18. Omit sincerity.

Verse 8

Sound speech ( λόγον ὑγιῆ )

Ὑγιής sound, only here in Pastorals. The usual form is the participle, as ὑγιαινόντων λόγων , 2 Timothy 1:13; ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις , 1 Timothy 6:3.

That cannot be condemned ( ἀκατάγνωστον )

N.T.ooClass. See Mark href="/desk/?q=mr+15:39&sr=1">Mark 15:39. The heathen opposer is meant. Comp. blasphemed, Titus 2:5, and 1 Timothy 6:1. Ἑναντίος contraryin Paul only 1 Thessalonians 2:15.

May be ashamed ( ἐντραπῇ )

Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:14, note; 2 Thessalonians 3:14, note, and see on Matthew 21:37.

Evil thing ( φαῦλον )

Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Romans 9:11; 2 Corinthians 5:10. See on John 3:20.

Verse 9

To please them well in all things ( ἐν πᾶσιν εὐαρέστους εἶναι )

Wrong. Const. in all things with to be in subjection. Note the position of ἐν πᾶσιν in 1 Timothy 3:11; 1 Timothy 4:15; 2 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 4:5, and comp. ὑπακούειν κατὰ πάντα obey in all things, Colossians 3:20, Colossians 3:22; and ὑποτάσσεται - ἐν παντί issubject in everything, Ephesians 5:24. Ἑυάρεστος wellpleasing, only here in Pastorals. Almost exclusively in Paul. See also Hebrews 13:21. Ευαρέστως acceptably Hebrews 12:28.

Verse 10

Purloining ( νοσφιζομένους )

Only here and Acts 5:2, Acts 5:3. lxx, Joshua 7:1; 1Timothy href="/desk/?q=1ti+2:9&sr=1">1 Timothy 2:9.

Verse 11

d This teaching or doctrine which is to be adorned by the lives of God's servants - the teaching of the gospel - is now stated in Titus 2:11-15.

The grace of God ( ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ )

A common Pauline phrase. The exact phrase only here in Pastorals. It is the ultimate ground of salvation. Comp. 2 Timothy 1:9; Ephesians 2:5, Ephesians 2:8; Galatians 1:15.

That bringeth salvation ( σωτήριος )

Lit. saving. N.T.oConst. with χαρις graceThe saving grace of God.

Hath appeared ( ἐπεφάνη )

Only in Pastorals, Luke, and Acts. In the active voice, to bring to light, show. See on ἐπιφάνεια appearing 1 Timothy 6:14.

To all men

Const. with that bringeth salvation, not with hath appeared.

The grace of God which is saving for all men

Comp. 1 Timothy 2:4.

Verse 12

Teaching ( παιδεύουσα )

Better, instructing or training. The saving economy of God is educative. Comp. Hebrews 12:4-11, and see on 1 Timothy 1:20.

Ungodliness ( ἀσέβειαν )

In Pastorals only here and 2 Timothy 2:16. The contrary of εὐσέβεια , for which see on 1 Timothy 2:2.

Worldly lusts ( κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας )

The phrase N.T.o Κοσμικὸς worldlyonly here and Hebrews 9:1. On the ethical sense in κόσμος theworld, see on Acts 17:24, and see on John 1:9.

Verse 13

Looking for ( προσδεχόμενοι )

In Pastorals only here. Comp. Mark 15:43; Luke 2:25; Luke 12:36. In this sense not in Paul. Primarily, to receive to one's self, admit, accept. So Luke 15:2; Romans 16:2; Philemon 2:29. That which is accepted in faith, is awaited expectantly.

That blessed hope ( τὴν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα )

The phrase N.T.o Μακάριος blessedvery often in the Gospels. See on Matthew 5:3. In Pastorals, with the exception of this passage, always of God. In Paul, only of men, and so usually in the Gospels. Ἑλπίδα hopethe object of hope. Why the hope is called blessed, appears from 2 Timothy 4:8; Philemon 3:20, etc. Comp. Judges 1:21, and 1 Peter 1:13.

And the glorious appearing ( καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης )

Καὶ is explanatory, introducing the definition of the character of the thing hoped for. Looking for the object of hope, even the appearing, etc. Glorious appearing is a specimen of the vicious hendiadys by which the force of so many passages has been impaired or destroyed in translation. Rend. appearing of the glory.

Of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ ( τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ καὶ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Χριστοῦ Ἱησοῦ )

For Jesus Christ rend. Christ Jesus. Μέγας greatwith God, N.T.obut often in lxx. According to A.V. two persons are indicated, God and Christ. Revelations with others rend. of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus, thus indicating one person, and asserting the deity of Christ. I adopt the latter, although the arguments and authorities in favor of the two renderings are very evenly balanced.

Verse 14

Gave himself for us ( ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν )

See on 1 Timothy 2:6, and comp. Galatians 1:4. Ὑπὲρ onbehalf of; not instead of.

Might redeem ( λυτρώσηται )

Only here, Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18. See on 1 Timothy 2:6. Neither λύτρον ransom, λύτρωσις redemption, nor λυτρωτής redeemer occur in Paul. He has the figure of purchase ( ἀγοράζεσθαι, ἐξαγοράζεσθαι ), 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Galatians 3:13; Galatians 4:5. Comp. Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3, Revelation 14:4; 2 Peter 2:1.

Iniquity ( ἀνομίας )

Only here in Pastorals. Lit. lawlessness. See on 1 John 3:4.

Might purify ( καθαρίσῃ )

In Pastorals only here. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels and Hebrews. In Paul, 2 Corinthians 7:1; Ephesians 5:26. oClass. Often in lxx.

A peculiar people ( λαὸν περιούσιον )

Λαός peopleonly here in Pastorals. In Paul ten times, always in citations. Most frequently in Luke and Acts; often in Hebrews and Revelation. Περιούσιος N.T.oA few times in lxx, always with λαός . See Exodus 19:5; Exodus 23:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18. The phrase was originally applied to the people of Israel, but is transferred here to believers in the Messiah - Jews and Gentiles. Comp. 1 Peter 2:10. Περιούσιος is from the participle of περιεῖναι tobe over and above: hence περιουσία abundanceplenty. Περιούσιος also means possessed over and above, that is, specially selected for one's own; exempt from ordinary laws of distribution. Hence correctly represented by peculiar, derived from peculium, a private purse, a special acquisition of a member of a family distinct from the property administered for the good of the whole family. Accordingly the sense is given in Ephesians 1:14, where believers are said to have been sealed εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως witha view to redemption of possession, or redemption which will give possession, thus = acquisition. So 1 Peter 2:9, where Christians are styled λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν apeople for acquisition, to be acquired by God as his peculiar possession. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:14, and περιποιεῖσθαι toacquire, Acts 20:28. The phrase καθαρίζειν λαὸν topurify the people, in lxx, Nehemiah 12:30; Acts href="/desk/?q=ac+21:20&sr=1">Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3; 1 Peter 3:13. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. For the word as a title, see on the Canaanite, Matthew 10:4, and see on Mark 3:18.

Authority ( ἐπιταγῆς )

See on 1 Timothy 1:1.

Despise ( περιφρονείτω )

N.T.oOccasionally in Class. From περὶ beyond φρονεῖν tobe minded. To set one's self in thought beyond; hence; contemn, despise. Comp. 1 Timothy 4:12. The exhortation is connected with authority. Titus is to claim respect for his office and for himself as bearing it.


Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.

Bibliography Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Titus 2:4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

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Thursday, December 3rd, 2020
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