Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 10:11

Also the ships of Hiram, which brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir a very great number of almug trees and precious stones.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Algum;   Commerce;   Diplomacy;   Exports;   Gold;   Hiram;   Navy;   Ophir;   Queen;   Ship;   Solomon;   Stones;   Tyre;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Hiram;   Huram;   Ophir;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Gold;   Precious Stones;   Trees;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Almug;   Ophir;   Sabeans;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Arabia;   Phoenicia;   Ship;   Solomon;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Israel;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Algum;   Almug;   Harp;   Hiram;   House;   Merchant;   Ophir;   Sheba;   Solomon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Algum;   Commerce;   Kings, the Books of;   Ophir;   Phoenice;   Solomon;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Algum;   Book(s);   Economic Life;   Ezion-Geber;   Jewels, Jewelry;   Ophir;   Plants in the Bible;   Queen;   Riddle;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Almug;   Government;   Israel;   Mining and Metals;   Nations;   Sheba, Queen of;   Solomon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Queen (2);   King James Dictionary - Algum;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Algum Trees, Almug Trees;   Hiram ;   Ophir ;   Sheba ;   Ship;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Almug;   Hiram;   Sheba;   Tyre;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Algum;   O'phir;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Scorpion;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Algum;   Almug Tree;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Algum;   Gold;   Government;   India;   Metals;   Music;   Ophir;   Queen;   Queen of Sheba;   Solomon;   Trade;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Algum;   Arabia;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Algum;   Gems;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Great plenty of almug trees - In the parallel place, 2 Chronicles 9:10, 2 Chronicles 9:11, these are called algum trees, the ם mem and the ג gimel being transposed; probably the latter is the more correct orthography. What the algum trees were we do not exactly know. The Vulgate calls it ligna thyina, the thya or lignum vitae wood; and Mr. Parkhurst thinks that the original אלגומים algumim, comes from אל al, not, and גם gem, to fill; because the lignum vitae is of so close a texture that it can imbibe no water, and cannot be affected by wet weather. The Septuagint translate it ξυλα πυκινα, pine timber; the Syriac kaise dakisotho, probably cypress wood, or what the translators render ligna brasilica; the Arabic translates coloured wood, and subjoins a paraphrase, for that wood was by nature painted with various colors. Perhaps the Arabic comes nearest the truth; wood shaded of different colors, such as the rose wood and such like, which are brought to us from various parts of the East Indies. The whole passage as it stands in the Arabic is this: "And the ships of Hiram brought gold from the land of Hind, (India), and they carried also much coloured wood, (but this wood is naturally painted of various colors), and very precious jewels. And Solomon put some of that same painted wood which was brought to him in the house of the Lord, and in his own house; and with it he adorned them." And for inlaying and veneering nothing can be finer than this wood.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The navy of Hiram - i. e., Solomon‘s navy in the Red Sea, which was chiefly manned by subjects of Hiram. (see the marginal reference).

Almug-trees - Probably the sandal-wood tree (pterocarpus santalinus). The wood is very heavy, hard, and fine grained, and of a beautiful garnet color, which, according to the rabbinical writers, was the color of the algum. One of the names of the red sandal-wood, in its own native country (India) is “valguka,” a word of which “algum” is a natural corruption.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-10.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

SOLOMON'S NAVY BRINGS SUPPLIES FROM OPHIR

"And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug-trees and precious stones. And the king made of the almug-trees pillars for the house of Jehovah, and for the king's house, harps also, and psalteries for the singers: there came no such almug-trees, nor were seen, unto this day."

"Almug-trees" (1 Kings 10:11). "These remain a mystery both as to their origin and their use."[10]

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/1-kings-10.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the navy also of Hiram that brought gold from Ophir,.... This perhaps was before Solomon was concerned with Hiram in navigation and merchandise; though in 2 Chronicles 9:10 both their servants are said to bring it; and it is here inserted perhaps to show that Solomon had not his gold, at least all of it, from the queen of Sheba; but much from Hiram, who fetched it from Ophir; and as this was in India, as observed on 1 Kings 9:28, many writers make mention of gold in that part of the world, as Diodorus SiculusF23Bibliothec. l. 1. p. 121. , StraboF24Geograph l. 15. p. 481. , DionysiusF25Perieg. v. 1144. , CurtiusF26Hist. l. 8. sect. 9. , PlinyF1Nat. Hist. 1. 6. c. 19, 20. , and others: and this navy also

brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees: or algum trees, by transposition of letters, 2 Chronicles 9:10, which some of the Jewish writersF2Daved de Pomis, Lexic. fol. 70. 3. take to be coral, which is not likely; others Brasil, rather ebony, which was peculiar to India, as both SolinusF3Polyhistor. c. 64. and VirgilF4"Sola India nigrum fert ebenum." Georgie. l. 2. ver. 116, 117. say; StraboF5Geograph. l. 15. p. 477. makes mention of strange trees in India:

and precious stones; of which there is great variety and plenty in that country, as related by DionysiusF6Perieget, ver. 1119, &c. , as diamonds, beryls, jaspers, topazes, and amethysts, and by CurtiusF7Hist. l. 8. c. 9. , SolinusF8Polyhistor. c. 65. , and others.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-10.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

almug trees — Parenthetically, along with the valuable presents of the queen of Sheba, is mentioned a foreign wood, which was brought in the Ophir ships. It is thought by some to be the sandalwood; by others, to be the deodar - a species of fragrant fir, much used in India for sacred and important works. Solomon used it for stairs in his temple and palace (2 Chronicles 9:11), but chiefly for musical instruments.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-kings-10.html. 1871-8.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 10:11 And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones.

Ver. 11. And the navy also of Hiram,] i.e., Built with the timber sent by Hiram, and manned by his mariners. [2 Chronicles 8:18]

Brought gold from Ophir.] Called there hence aurum obryzum, as it is likely.

Brought in from Ophir,] i.e., From Africa; Fez in Africa, some say; others, from Sumatra or Taprobane in India; others, from Peru in America. All are but conjectures.

Great plenty of almug trees.] Such as are mentioned in Revelation 18:12, called there thyine wood. (a) The Rabbis render it coral; but that is not likely.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-10.html. 1865-1868.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

11.Of almug trees — Josephus describes them as a sort of pine; Shaw understands the cypress to be meant; but most moderns identify this tree with the sandal-wood, which was celebrated in the East from very early times as a fine-grained and fragrant tree. The reference to the navy of Hiram, and the mention of Ophir, seem to have been because the navy brought therefrom so many products similar to those which the queen of Sheba presented to him.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-10.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Thyine. Pliny ([Natural History?] iii. 16.) mentions a species of tall and incorruptible trees, called thya. The wood was odoriferous, and very costly. Citri et mensarum insania, quas feminæ viris contra margaritas regerunt. (B. xiii., and xv. 16.) Calypso burnt it, to perfume her whole island. (Homer) --- It ws used as a sort of incense in sacrifices, and thence received its name. (Haydock) --- Septuagint translate, "plained;" and elsewhere, pine-trees, which is adopted by St. Jerome, 2 Paralipomenon ii. 8. (Calmet) --- Hebrew reads almuggim in one place, and algumin in the other, the letters being transposed; "for I suppose, says Kennicott, it will hardly be said that these trees were both almug and algum." (Haydock) --- One word might be the Ethiopian pronunciation. (Huet) --- Yet Kimchi observes, that such transpositions of letter are very common among the Hebrews. (Du Hamel) --- Solomon had desired Hiram to send him some algum, or "gum bearing" wood: but as there was not sufficient, or so fine, in Libanus as in Ophir, or in foreign parts, he procured more from those countries. The wood might probably resemble that of settim, or of black acacia, (Exodus xxv. 5.) whence the gum of Arabia is extracted. Acanthos, in Thebais, was celebrated for its fine thorn-trees, and for its gum. (Strabo xvii.) (Calmet) --- It is placed near Memphis. (Pliny, [Natural History?] iv 10.) --- The Rabbins commonly understand the Hebrew to mean, "coral," which is not fit for instruments, much less for architecture. Others translate ebony, or Brazil wood, but without reason. (Calmet) (Tirinus)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-10.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

navy also of Hiram. Joined with Solomon (1 Kings 10:22; 1 Kings 9:27, 1 Kings 9:28).

Ophir. See note on 2 Chronicles 8:18.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones.

Almug trees - or algum. Parenthetically, along with the valuable presents of the queen of Sheba, is mentioned a foreign wood, which was brought in the Ophir ships. It is thought by some to be the sandal-wood, the produce of a low shrub, resembling the privet, remarkable for the fragrance of the central parts of the stem near the root, and brought from some district of India, where it is still very abundant; by others, supposed to be the Deodar (Cedrus deodara), a species of fragrant fir, much used in India for sacred and important works. Solomon used it as well-fitted by its red colour to be ornamental for stairs in his temple and palace (2 Chronicles 9:11), but chiefly for musical instruments, 'Sandal-wood is found indigenous on the coast of Malabar only; and one of its numerous names there and in Sanskrit is Valgulka-clearly the name which Jewish and Phoenician merchants corrupted into algum, and which in Hebrew was still further changed in almug' (Max Muller, 'Lectures on the Science of Language,' pp. 189-191).

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-10.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones.
from Ophir
9:27,28; 2 Chronicles 8:18; Psalms 45:9
almug
2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10,11
algum trees
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 1:23 - Ophir;  Revelation 18:12 - merchandise

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:11". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-10.html.