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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kwēn : The Bible applies this term: (1) To the wife of a king ("queen consort") ( מלכּה , malkāh ). In the Book of Esther it is the title given to Vashti ( Esther 1:9 ) and Esther (Esther 2:22 ); compare Song of Solomon 6:8 f. Another Hebrew word for queen consort is גּבירה , gebhı̄rāh , literally "mistress" (compare 1 Kings 11:19 , the wife of Pharaoh; 2 Kings 10:13 , "the children of the king and the children of the queen"). In Nehemiah 2:6 and Psalm 45:9 we find the expression שׁגּל , shēghāl , which some trace back to שׁגל , shāghal , "to ravish," a rather doubtful derivation. Still another term is שׂרה , sārāh , literally, "princess" (Isaiah 49:23 ). The Septuagint sometimes uses the word βασίκισσα , bası́lissa ; compare Psalm 45:9 . (2) To a female ruler or sovereign ("queen regnant"). The only instances are those of the queen (malkāh ) of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1-13; compare 2 Chronicles 9:1-12 ) and of Candace, the queen (basilissa ) of the Ethiopians (Acts 8:27 ). In Matthew 12:42 (compare Luke 11:31 ) Christ refers to the queen of the south (βασίλισσα νότου , bası́lissa nótou ), meaning, of course, the queen of Sheba. (3) To a heathen deity, השּׁמים מלכת , melekheth ha -shāmayim , "the queen of heaven" (Jeremiah 7:18; Jeremiah 44:17 ff). See QUEEN OF HEAVEN .
(4) Metaphorically , to the city of Babylon (Rome) ( Revelation 18:7 ): an expression denoting sovereign contempt and imaginary dignity and power.
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Queen'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/q/queen.html. 1915.