Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 10:28

Also Solomon's import of horses was from Egypt and Kue, and the king's merchants procured them from Kue for a price.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Chariot;   Commerce;   Egypt;   Exports;   Horse;   Imports;   King;   Linen;   Merchant;   Solomon;   Yarn;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Chariots;   Commerce;   Egypt;   Holy Land;   Horse, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Sabeans;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Animals;   Egypt;   Solomon;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Egypt;   Government;   Israel;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Alliance;   Army;   Hittites;   Merchant;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Army;   Commerce;   Flax;   Horse;   Linen;   Solomon;   Taxes;   Yarn;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Archaeology and Biblical Study;   Chariots;   Cilicia;   King, Kingship;   Kue;   Mizraim;   Solomon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Assyria and Babylonia;   Chariot;   Geba;   Government;   Horse;   Israel;   Linen;   Sheba, Queen of;   Ships and Boats;   Solomon;   Wisdom;   Yarn;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Army;   Yarn, Linen;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Egypt;   Hiram;   Linen;   Tax taxing taxation;   Yarn;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Alliances;   Law of Moses;   Sol'omon;   Taxes;   Yarn;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Arabia;   Army;   Chariot;   Commerce;   Government;   Judah, Kingdom of;   Solomon;   Tax;   Trade;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Hazar-Susah;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Horses brought out of Egypt - It is thought that the first people who used horses in war were the Egyptians; and it is well known that the nations who knew the use of this creature in battle had greatly the advantage of those who did not. God had absolutely prohibited horses to be imported or used; but in many things Solomon paid little attention to the Divine command.

And linen yarn - The original word, מקוה mikveh, is hard to be understood, if it be not indeed a corruption.

The versions are all puzzled with it: the Vulgate and Septuagint make it a proper name: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and from Coa, or Tekoa." Some think it signifies a tribute, thus Bochart: "They brought horses to Solomon out of Egypt; and as to the tribute, the farmers of this prince received it at a price." They farmed the tribute, gave so much annually for it, taking the different kinds to themselves, and giving a round sum for the whole.

Some suppose that Mikveh signifies the string or cord by which one horse's head is tied to the tail of another; and that the meaning is, Solomon brought droves of horses, thus tied, out of Egypt.

Rabbi Solomon Jarchi, in his comment on the parallel place, 2 Chronicles 1:14, says that מקוה mikveh signifies a collection or drove of horses, or what the Germans call stutte, a stud. He observes on that place, "That he has heard that there was a company of merchants in Egypt, who bought horses from the Egyptians at a certain price, on condition that no person should be permitted to bring a horse out of Egypt but through them." Houbigant supposes the place to be corrupt, and that for מקוה mikveh we should read מרכבה mercabah, chariots: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and chariots; and the king's merchants received the chariots at a price: and a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver," etc. This makes a very good and consistent sense; but none of the versions acknowledged it, nor is there any various reading here in any of the MSS. yet collated.

If we understand it of thread, it may refer to the byssus or fine flax for which Egypt was famous; but I do not see on what authority we translate it linen thread. Bochart's opinion appears to me the most probable, as the text now stands; but the charge contended for by Houbigant makes the text far more simple and intelligible.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The word translated “linen yarn” is thought now by Hebraists to mean “a troop” or “company.” If the present reading is retained, they would translate the passage - “As for the bringing up of Solomon‘s horses out of Egypt, a band of the king‘s merchants fetched a band (or troop) of horses at a price.” But the reading is very uncertain. The Septuagint had before them a different one, which they render “and from Tekoa.” Tekoa, the home of Amos Amos 1:1, was a small town on the route from Egypt to Jerusalem, through which the horses would have naturally passed. The monuments of the 18th and of later dynasties make it clear that the horse, though introduced from abroad, became very abundant in Egypt. During the whole period of Egyptian prosperity the corps of chariots constituted a large and effective portion of the army. That horses were abundant in Egypt at the time of the Exodus is evident from Exodus 9:3; Exodus 14:9, Exodus 14:23, Exodus 14:28; Deuteronomy 17:16. That they continued numerous in later times appears from frequent allusions, both in the Historical Books of Scripture and in the prophets, as 2 Kings 7:6; 2 Kings 18:24; Isaiah 36:9; Ezekiel 17:15, etc. The monuments show that the horse was employed by the Egyptians in peace no less than in war, private persons being often represented as paying visits to their friends in chariots.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-10.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt,.... To mount his horsemen with, and draw his chariots; which seems contrary to the command in Deuteronomy 17:16.

and linen yarn; the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price; or rather linen itself; or linen garments, as Ben Gersom; linen being the staple commodity of Egypt, see Isaiah 19:9, but no mention is made of yarn in 2 Chronicles 9:28, and the word rendered "linen yarn" signifies a confluence or collection of waters and other things; and the words may be rendered, "as for the collection, the king's merchants received the collection at a price"; that is, the collection of horses, a large number of them got together for sale; these they took at a price set upon themF8Vid. Braunium de Vest. Sacerdot. Heb. l. 1. c. 8. sect. 9, 10, 11. , which is as follows.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-10.html. 1999.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price.

Horses, … — The two chief commodities of Egypt.

Price — Solomon received them from Pharaoh at a price agreed between them, and gave this privilege to his merchants, for a tribute to be paid out of it.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-10.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 10:28 And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king’s merchants received the linen yarn at a price.

Ver. 28. And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt.] Which abounded with these commodities. [Proverbs 7:16 Isaiah 31:1; Isaiah 31:3 Ezekiel 27:7]

Received the linen yarn at a price.] And so got the trade and monopoly thereof, and of horses, into their own hand, for the king’s behoof and benefit.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-10.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Horses and linen yarn; the two chief commodities of Egypt. See Proverbs 7:16 Song of Solomon 1:9 Isaiah 3:23 Ezekiel 27:7.

The king’s merchants received the linen yarn for a price; Solomon received them from Pharaoh at a certain price agreed between them, and gave this privilege to his merchants, for a tribute to be paid to him out of it.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-10.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

28.Solomon had horses brought — More literally, As to the bringing of the horses of Solomon out of Egypt. In importing horses from Egypt Solomon further broke the Divine commandment. Deuteronomy 17:16.

And linen yarn — This translation of מקוה must be given up as unsupported by any sufficient reason or authority. Gesenius renders the word a troop or company: And a company of the king’s merchants brought (from Egypt) a company (of horses) at a price. But the old versions and many critics take the word as the name of a place, Koa, or Coa, somewhere “in the neighbourhood of Egypt, where Israelite traders abode for the sake of the traffic in horses.” — Furst. The whole verse would then read: As to the bringing of the horses of Solomon from Egypt, and from Coa, the traders of the king received them from Coa at a price. This, on the whole, seems to be the best explanation of this passage.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-10.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

CHAPTER X.

Egypt was once very famous for horses, and the breed is much admired by travellers. The Turks will not suffer strangers to have them. The canals made by Sesostris and other kings, caused their numbers to be diminished. (Herodotus ii. 108.) --- Yet there were many used in the time of Ezechias, 4 Kings xviii. 24. --- And Coa. Some take this to be the name of some unknown place, (Du Hamel) or of a town in Arabia Felix, (Ptol. vi. 17.) or "of a fair." (Tirinus) --- Hebrew, "and from Michoe," which was the ancient name of Troglodytis, near Egypt. (Pliny, [Natural History?] vi. 29.) (Calmet) --- Protestants, "and linen yarn; the king's merchants received the linen yarn at the price." Mokue signifies "a thread;" (Haydock) and the linen cloth of Egypt was in high estimation, Isaias xix. 9., and Ezechiel xxvii. 7. (Pliny, [Natural History?] xix. 1.) --- Jarchi and others understand, "a string" of horses, tied together by the tails. But Bochart translates, "They brought horses for Solomon out of Egypt; and, as for the tribute, the custom-house officers of the king received it, at a certain rate," agreed upon between Solomon and the king of Egypt.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-10.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

horses. Compare Isaiah 31:1; Isaiah 36:9. Also Ezekiel 17:15.

linen yarn. Probably = by strings, or droves (i.e. the horses).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-10.html. 1909-1922.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(28) Linen yarn.—The introduction of this seems to be an error. If the reading of the Hebrew text is to stand, the sense appears to be, “And Solomon’s horses were brought from Egypt; a troop of the king’s merchants obtained a troop (of horses) at a fixed price.” The horses were brought up (that is) in caravans from the plains of Egypt, where they abounded (see Genesis 47:17; Exodus 9:3; Exodus 14:9; Deuteronomy 17:17; Isaiah 31:1; Isaiah 36:9), although from their not being represented on the monuments before the eighteenth dynasty it is thought they were introduced from abroad, perhaps by the Hyksos, or shepherd kings. But the LXX. has a remarkable various reading “and from Tekoa” (from which the Vulg. et de Coa, probably comes), according to which the passage runs very simply: “And Solomon’s horses were brought from Egypt; and from Tekoa the king’s merchants,” &c. Tekoa lay on the hills to the east of Hebron, not far from Bethlehem, and might well be an emporium for caravans from Egypt. The parallel passages of 2 Chronicles 1:16-17; 2 Chronicles 9:28, give us no help, for the former is exactly the same as this, and the latter runs thus: “And they brought unto Solomon horses out of Egypt and out of all lands.”

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price.
Solomon, etc
Heb. the going forth of the horses which was Solomon's. horse brought.
Deuteronomy 17:16; 2 Chronicles 1:16,17; 9:28; Isaiah 31:1-3; 36:9
and linen yarn
Genesis 41:42; Proverbs 7:16; Isaiah 19:9; Ezekiel 27:7
Reciprocal: Genesis 47:17 - for horses;  Proverbs 31:24 - GeneralSong of Solomon 1:9 - to a

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:28". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-10.html.